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1.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233153, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492037

RESUMO

Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), together with its subtype muscle dysmorphia (MD), has been relocated from the Somatoform Disorders category in the DSM-IV to the newly created Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders category in the DSM-5. Both categorizations have been criticized, and an empirically derived classification of BDD is lacking. A community sample of N = 736 participants completed an online survey assessing different psychopathologies. Using a structural equation modeling approach, six theoretically derived models, which differed in their allocation of BDD symptoms to various factors (i.e. general psychopathology, somatoform, obsessive-compulsive and related disorders, affective, body image, and BDD model) were tested in the full sample and in a restricted sample (n = 465) which indicated primary concerns other than shape and weight. Furthermore, measurement invariance across gender was examined. Of the six models, only the body image model showed a good fit (CFI = 0.972, RMSEA = 0.049, SRMR = 0.027, TLI = 0.959), and yielded better AIC and BIC indices than the competing models. Analyses in the restricted sample replicated these findings. Analyses of measurement invariance of the body image model showed partial metric invariance across gender. The findings suggest that a body image model provides the best fit for the classification of BDD and MD. This is in line with previous studies showing strong similarities between eating disorders and BDD, including MD. Measurement invariance across gender indicates a comparable presentation and comorbid structure of BDD in males and females, which also corresponds to the equal prevalence rates of BDD across gender.


Assuntos
Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/classificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/psicologia , Imagem Corporal , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos , Transtornos do Humor/psicologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Prevalência , Psicopatologia , Transtornos Somatoformes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
2.
Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol ; 70(9-10): 386-395, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32162296

RESUMO

Individuals suffering from Body Integrity Dysphoria (BID) have the longstanding desire for amputation (BID-A) or palsy (BID-P). Most findings on mental aspects of BID are based on self-reports from sufferers. The aim of this pilot study is to examine cognitive and affective processes beyond what is accessible by self-reports. Therefore, n=5 BID-A, n=3 BID-P-sufferers, n=22 healthy controls and n=8 patients with body dysmorphic disorder (a further group with a strong desire for body modification) were tested. Selective attention bias (eye-tracking), tendency towards false memory (DRM-paradigm) and lack of affective involvement in the unwanted body part (induction and destruction of a rubber-hand/foot-illusion) were examined. Descriptive comparison of the groups showed that BID-A-sufferers fixated amputation stumps faster and longer than any other group and showed a reduced fear response when the body illusion was destroyed. There was no indication of a higher tendency towards false memory in either BID-group. Due to the small sample size, these results cannot be generalized. However, findings showed that BID-symptoms and underlying processes can be accessed in more ways than through self-reports. Moreover, results indicate that BID-A-sufferers selective attention and affective involvement differ from people not desiring an amputation. Understanding these processes may help developing an etiological model, identifying subtypes, and deriving treatment approaches.

3.
BMC Psychiatry ; 19(1): 418, 2019 12 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood adversities, especially emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and peer victimization are considered to be crucial risk factors for social anxiety disorder (SAD). We investigated whether particular forms of retrospectively recalled childhood adversities are specifically associated with SAD in adulthood or whether we find similar links in other anxiety or depressive disorders. METHODS: Prevalences of adversities assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and a questionnaire of stressful social experiences (FBS) were determined in N = 1091 outpatients. Adversity severities among patients with SAD only (n = 25), specific phobia only (n = 18), and generalized anxiety disorder only (n = 19) were compared. Differences between patients with anxiety disorders only (n = 62) and depressive disorders only (n = 239) as well as between SAD with comorbid depressive disorders (n = 143) and SAD only were tested. RESULTS: None of the adversity types were found to be specifically associated with SAD and severities did not differ among anxiety disorders but patients with depressive disorders reported more severe emotional abuse, physical abuse, and sexual abuse than patients with anxiety disorders. SAD patients with a comorbid depressive disorder also reported more severe adversities across all types compared to SAD only. CONCLUSION: Findings indicate that particular forms of recalled childhood adversities are not specifically associated with SAD in adulthood. Previously established links with SAD may be better explained by comorbid depressive symptoms.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Bullying/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Fobia Social/epidemiologia , Fobia Social/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 150, 2019 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123309

RESUMO

Major depressive disorder and the anxiety disorders are highly prevalent, disabling and moderately heritable. Depression and anxiety are also highly comorbid and have a strong genetic correlation (rg ≈ 1). Cognitive behavioural therapy is a leading evidence-based treatment but has variable outcomes. Currently, there are no strong predictors of outcome. Therapygenetics research aims to identify genetic predictors of prognosis following therapy. We performed genome-wide association meta-analyses of symptoms following cognitive behavioural therapy in adults with anxiety disorders (n = 972), adults with major depressive disorder (n = 832) and children with anxiety disorders (n = 920; meta-analysis n = 2724). We estimated the variance in therapy outcomes that could be explained by common genetic variants (h2SNP) and polygenic scoring was used to examine genetic associations between therapy outcomes and psychopathology, personality and learning. No single nucleotide polymorphisms were strongly associated with treatment outcomes. No significant estimate of h2SNP could be obtained, suggesting the heritability of therapy outcome is smaller than our analysis was powered to detect. Polygenic scoring failed to detect genetic overlap between therapy outcome and psychopathology, personality or learning. This study is the largest therapygenetics study to date. Results are consistent with previous, similarly powered genome-wide association studies of complex traits.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/genética , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Criança , Humanos
5.
Laryngorhinootologie ; 98(3): 157-166, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30847885

RESUMO

Olfactory Reference Disorder is a little explored and widely unknown phenomenon, even research has shown more interest in it during the last years. This review summarizes the existing literature and illustrates its findings with a case history. The databases PubMed, PsychNet, PsychPub, Hogrefe EContent and the Cochrane Library (CENTRAL) were searched for keywords. The identified literature shows that there is a big lack of well-designed studies concerning ORS, in all areas of its nosology. The suffering of persons with ORS, however, is really incriminating.


Assuntos
Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo , Olfato , Humanos
6.
Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol ; 67(2): 57-65, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28288495

RESUMO

Olfactory Reference Disorder is a little explored and widely unknown phenomenon, even research has shown more interest in it during the last years. This review summarizes the existing literature and illustrates its findings with a case history. The databases PubMed, PsychNet, PsychPub, Hogrefe EContent and the Cochrane Library (CENTRAL) were searched for keywords. The identified literature shows that there is a big lack of well-designed studies concerning ORS, in all areas of its nosology. The suffering of persons with ORS, however, is really incriminating.


Assuntos
Delusões/psicologia , Odorantes , Fobia Social/psicologia , Autoimagem , Olfato , Desejabilidade Social , Comorbidade , Delusões/diagnóstico , Delusões/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinação da Personalidade , Fobia Social/diagnóstico , Fobia Social/terapia , Psicoterapia , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Vergonha
7.
J Occup Health Psychol ; 20(2): 248-58, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25402222

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of work-related cognitive-behavioral treatment (W-CBT) with that of cognitive-behavioral treatment as usual (CBT-AU) for employees on sick leave as a result of a major depressive disorder (MDD). We collected data for 26 matched outpatients at pre- and posttreatment, as well as at 1-year follow-up. Outcome measures were the days of incapacity to work (DIW) as well as self-report measures (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI], Symptom Checklist 90-R [GSI], Life Satisfaction Questionnaire [FLZ]). We analyzed data with hierarchical linear modeling in a 2-level model. Therapy effects were defined in 3 ways: effect size (ES), response (based on the reliable change index), and remission compared with the general population's symptom level. The DIW were reduced significantly after both types of treatment, but employees showed even fewer DIW after W-CBT. At follow-up, significantly more employees were working as a result of W-CBT than with CBT-AU. Significant improvements on scores of self-rating measures corresponded with moderate-to-large effect sizes for both treatment types. Approximately 2 thirds of the treated employees were categorized as unimpaired on BDI scores at posttreatment and at follow-up. At least 1 half of the employees were classified as unimpaired on GSI scores at both assessment points. In future research, a randomized controlled trial should be conducted using a larger sample size to investigate the impact of moderators (e.g., employees at different branches of the company). Findings provided support for using common CBT techniques to enhance return to work without losing expected improvements at the symptom level.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Saúde do Trabalhador , Adulto , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Body Image ; 9(2): 261-9, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22325851

RESUMO

Cognitive-behavioral models postulate that biases in selective attention are key factors contributing to susceptibility to and maintenance of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). Visual attention in particular toward the imagined defect in appearance may be a crucial element. The present study therefore examined whether individuals with BDD showed increased visual attention to flaws in their own and in unfamiliar faces. Twenty individuals with BDD, 20 individuals with social phobia, and 20 mentally healthy individuals participated in an eye-tracking experiment. Participants were instructed to gaze at the photographs of 15 pictures of themselves and several unfamiliar faces. Only patients with BDD showed heightened selective visual attention to the imagined defect in their own face, as well to corresponding regions in other, unfamiliar faces. The results support the assumption that there is a specific attentional bias in BDD.


Assuntos
Atenção , Beleza , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/psicologia , Imagem Corporal , Face , Imaginação , Adulto , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/diagnóstico , Feminino , Fixação Ocular , Humanos , Entrevista Psicológica , Masculino , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Percepção Visual
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