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1.
Female Pelvic Med Reconstr Surg ; Publish Ahead of Print2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411454

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated patterns of outpatient visits seen for urinary incontinence (UI) among women 65 years or older in the Nurses' Health Study and the general Medicare population. We were interested in understanding whether nurses, with high health literacy, may receive more care for UI than the general population. METHODS: Medicare Fee for Service claims data for women aged 66-91 years were compared for Nurses' Health Study participants (n = 3,213) and a propensity-matched sample from general Medicare Fee for Service beneficiaries (n = 3,213) with 1 or more outpatient evaluation and management visits for UI in 2012. We examined the mean number of outpatient visits for UI and the type of provider seen, using t tests and χ2 tests. Providers were categorized as specialist and nonspecialist providers using taxonomy codes. RESULTS: The percentage of women 65 years or older who had an outpatient visits for UI over 12 months was 6.4% in the Nurses' Health Study cohort and 5.4% in the general population. The mean number of office visits for UI in 2012 was similar between nurses and the matched general population (mean = 1.8 vs 1.8; P = 0.3). A small percentage of women saw both nonspecialists and specialists for UI (9.3% in the Nurses' Health Study and 10.0% in the Center for Medicare Services cohorts). CONCLUSIONS: We found that less than 7% of older women had outpatient evaluation of UI symptoms during a 12-month period, despite UI being very common in this age group. This was similar in nurses and the general population, suggesting that even high health care literacy does not increase UI care seeking.

2.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 125: 105124, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434830

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Optimism is linked with greater longevity in both White and African American populations. Optimism may enhance longevity by slowing cellular aging, for which leukocyte telomere shortening is a biomarker. However, limited studies have examined the association of optimism with leukocyte telomere length among African Americans. METHODS: Data are from 723 men and 1244 women participating in the Jackson Heart Study (age = 21-93 years). We used multivariable linear regression models to conduct cross-sectional analyses examining whether higher optimism was associated with longer mean absolute leukocyte telomere length (assayed with Southern blot analysis). Models adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, depressive symptomatology, health conditions, and health behavior-related factors. We also considered potential effect modification by key factors. RESULTS: In the age-adjusted model, optimism, measured as a continuous variable, was not associated with leukocyte telomere length (ß = 0.01, 95%CI: -0.02, 0.04). This association remained null in the fully-adjusted model (ß = 0.02, 95%CI: -0.02, 0.05) and was also null when considering optimism as a binary measure (higher vs. lower optimism). We found no evidence of effect modification by sex, age, body mass index, income, or chronic conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Optimism was not associated with leukocyte telomere length among African American adults. Future studies should investigate alternate biological and behavioral mechanisms that may explain the optimism-health association.

3.
Child Maltreat ; : 1077559520970647, 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161764

RESUMO

Cognitive function at middle age is of particular public health interest, as it strongly predicts later dementia. Children who have experienced abuse subsequently have worse cognitive function than those who have not. However, it remains unclear whether the association of abuse with cognitive function persists into middle age. In 2014-2016, 14,151 women ages 49-69 years who had previously responded to a childhood abuse questionnaire completed a cognitive battery. In models adjusted for childhood socioeconomic status and head trauma, combined physical, emotional, and sexual abuse was associated with lower scores on both Learning/Working Memory (severe abuse, lower scores similar to that observed in women 4.8 years older in our data) and Psychomotor Speed/Attention (severe abuse, lower scores similar to that observed in women to 2.9 years older in our data). Adjustment for adulthood socioeconomic status and health factors (e.g., smoking, hypertension) slightly attenuated associations. In exploratory analyses further adjusted for psychological distress, associations were attenuated. Women exposed versus unexposed to childhood abuse had poorer cognitive function at mid-life. Associations were particularly strong for learning and working memory and were not accounted for by adulthood health factors. Childhood abuse should be investigated as a potential risk factor for cognitive decline and dementia in old age.

4.
Anesthesiology ; 133(6): 1184-1191, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898243

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frailty and cognitive impairment are associated with postoperative delirium, but are rarely assessed preoperatively. The study was designed to test the hypothesis that preoperative screening for frailty or cognitive impairment identifies patients at risk for postoperative delirium (primary outcome). METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, the authors administered frailty and cognitive screening instruments to 229 patients greater than or equal to 70 yr old presenting for elective spine surgery. Screening for frailty (five-item FRAIL scale [measuring fatigue, resistance, ambulation, illness, and weight loss]) and cognition (Mini-Cog, Animal Verbal Fluency) were performed at the time of the preoperative evaluation. Demographic data, perioperative variables, and postoperative outcomes were gathered. Delirium was the primary outcome detected by either the Confusion Assessment Method, assessed daily from postoperative day 1 to 3 or until discharge, if patient was discharged sooner, or comprehensive chart review. Secondary outcomes were all other-cause complications, discharge not to home, and hospital length of stay. RESULTS: The cohort was 75 [73 to 79 yr] years of age, 124 of 219 (57%) were male. Many scored positive for prefrailty (117 of 218; 54%), frailty (53 of 218; 24%), and cognitive impairment (50 to 82 of 219; 23 to 37%). Fifty-five patients (25%) developed delirium postoperatively. On multivariable analysis, frailty (scores 3 to 5 [odds ratio, 6.6; 95% CI, 1.96 to 21.9; P = 0.002]) versus robust (score 0) on the FRAIL scale, lower animal fluency scores (odds ratio, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.51; P = 0.036) for each point decrease in the number of animals named, and more invasive surgical procedures (odds ratio, 2.69; 95% CI, 1.31 to 5.50; P = 0.007) versus less invasive procedures were associated with postoperative delirium. CONCLUSIONS: Screening for frailty and cognitive impairment preoperatively using the FRAIL scale and the Animal Verbal Fluency test in older elective spine surgery patients identifies those at high risk for the development of postoperative delirium.

5.
J Hepatol ; 73(4): 863-872, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is known to have a female predominance while other biliary tract cancers (BTCs) have a male predominance. However, the role of female reproductive factors in BTC etiology remains unclear. METHODS: We pooled data from 19 studies of >1.5 million women participating in the Biliary Tract Cancers Pooling Project to examine the associations of parity, age at menarche, reproductive years, and age at menopause with BTC. Associations for age at menarche and reproductive years with BTC were analyzed separately for Asian and non-Asian women. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models, stratified by study. RESULTS: During 21,681,798 person-years of follow-up, 875 cases of GBC, 379 of intrahepatic bile duct cancer (IHBDC), 450 of extrahepatic bile duct cancer (EHBDC), and 261 of ampulla of Vater cancer (AVC) occurred. High parity was associated with risk of GBC (HR ≥5 vs. 0 births 1.72; 95% CI 1.25-2.38). Age at menarche (HR per year increase 1.15; 95% CI 1.06-1.24) was associated with GBC risk in Asian women while reproductive years were associated with GBC risk (HR per 5 years 1.13; 95% CI 1.04-1.22) in non-Asian women. Later age at menarche was associated with IHBDC (HR 1.19; 95% CI 1.09-1.31) and EHBDC (HR 1.11; 95% CI 1.01-1.22) in Asian women only. CONCLUSION: We observed an increased risk of GBC with increasing parity. Among Asian women, older age at menarche was associated with increased risk for GBC, IHBDC, and EHBDC, while increasing reproductive years was associated with GBC in non-Asian women. These results suggest that sex hormones have distinct effects on cancers across the biliary tract that vary by geography. LAY SUMMARY: Our findings show that the risk of gallbladder cancer is increased among women who have given birth (especially women with 5 or more children). In women from Asian countries, later age at menarche increases the risk of gallbladder cancer, intrahepatic bile duct cancer and extrahepatic bile duct cancer. We did not see this same association in women from Western countries. Age at menopause was not associated with the risk of any biliary tract cancers.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urinary incontinence (UI) is prevalent in women and has been associated with decreased quality of life and institutionalization. Despite this, and the fact that several treatment options exist, few women discuss UI with clinicians. The aim of this study is to examine the proportion of middle aged and older women with urinary incontinence who have discussed UI with clinicians, focusing on female health professionals as a way to examine this question outside of issues of healthcare access. METHODS: Data are from the Nurses Health Studies (NHS), two ongoing observational, prospective, cohort studies. The surveys collected detailed information about UI, including frequency, amount and type. Women were also asked if they had discussed UI with a clinician. We used multivariable-adjusted logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) of participants reporting discussion about UI. RESULTS: 94,692 women with UI aged 49 to 91 years old were included in this study. Of these, thirty-four percent reported that they had discussed their incontinence with a clinician. Women with daily UI had 4.4 times greater odds of discussing it with clinicians when compared to those with monthly UI (OR = 4.36, 95% CI 4.06-4.69). When controlling for severity of symptoms, the oldest women, greater than eighty years, were 20% less likely to have discussed UI with their clinician, compared to the youngest women (OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.73-0.89). CONCLUSIONS: A minority of women with UI, even among health professionals, discuss their symptoms with clinicians. Oldest women were the least likely to discuss their UI with a provider.

7.
J Nutr ; 150(7): 1871-1879, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386230

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A protective association of dietary carotenoids with cognitive function has been suggested, but most studies have been relatively small with limited periods of follow-up. OBJECTIVES: We examined prospectively long-term intakes of carotenoids in relation to subjective cognitive function (SCF), a self-reported, validated indicator of cognitive dysfunction. METHODS: Among 49,493 female registered nurses with a mean age of 48 y in 1984, we used multinomial logistic regression to estimate the ORs and 95% CIs relating intakes of carotenoids to self-reported SCF in 2012 and 2014. Mean intakes of carotenoids were calculated from 7 repeated FFQs collected in 1984, 1986, and every 4 y afterwards until 2006. Self-reported SCF was assessed by a 7-item questionnaire on changes in memory and cognition; validity was supported by strong associations with Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 genotype and concurrent cognitive function and cognitive decline measured by telephone-based neuropsychological tests. The mean values of scores assessed in 2012 and 2014 were categorized as "good" (0 points, 40.8%), "moderate" (0.5-2.5 points, 46.9%), and "poor" (3-7 points, 12.3%). RESULTS: Higher intake of total carotenoids was associated with substantially lower odds of moderate or poor cognitive function after controlling for other dietary and nondietary risk factors and total energy intake. Comparing the top with the bottom quintile of total carotenoids, the multivariable ORs were 0.86 (95% CI: 0.80, 0.93; P-trend < 0.001) for moderate SCF and 0.67 (95% CI: 0.60, 0.75; P-trend < 0.001) for poor SCF. This lower OR was also seen for carotenoids consumed 28 y before SCF assessment. Similar associations were found for total ß-carotene, dietary ß-carotene, α-carotene, lycopene, lutein + zeaxanthin, and ß-cryptoxanthin. The significant associations for ß-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, and lutein + zeaxanthin persisted after mutual adjustment for each other. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support a long-term beneficial role of carotenoid consumption on cognitive function in women.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/administração & dosagem , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
J Aging Res ; 2020: 5651737, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32399296

RESUMO

Background: Nut consumption may reduce age-related diseases and lead to better health and well-being in aging. Many conditions of aging develop over decades, and thus earlier lifestyle factors may particularly influence later health. Methods: In 1998 and 2002, we administered food frequency questionnaires to assess nut consumption (peanuts, walnuts, and other nuts and peanut butter) in women in the Nurses' Health Study in their 50 s/early 60 s. In 2012, those who survived beyond 65 years with no chronic diseases, no reported memory impairment, no physical disabilities, and intact mental health were considered "healthy agers." We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate odds ratios for healthy versus usual aging, controlled for sociodemographic, behavioral, dietary, and other potential confounding factors. Results: Of 33,931 participants at midlife, 16% became "healthy agers." After age adjustment, we observed a significant association between total nut consumption at midlife and higher odds of healthy aging, with strongest associations observed excluding peanut butter (odds ratio (OR) = 1.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32-1.62, ≥3 servings/week versus none). Findings were attenuated after further control for covariates, including overall diet quality (OR = 1.14, 95% CI 1.02-1.28, P trend = 0.05). For nut types, we found statistically significantly higher odds of healthy aging across peanuts, walnuts, and other nuts after age adjustment. After full control for confounders, only walnut consumption remained associated with healthy aging (P trend = 0.0001); for example, the OR was 1.20 (95% CI 1.00-1.44) for ≥2 servings/week versus none. Conclusions: Women consuming nuts at midlife have a greater likelihood of overall health and well-being at older ages. Nut consumption may represent a simple intervention to explore and promote healthy aging.

9.
Urology ; 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32387293

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine if vitamin D intake is associated with reduced progression of urgency urinary incontinence (UI) in women. METHODS: We used the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) I and NHSII cohorts to evaluate the association of vitamin D intake with progression of urgency UI and mixed UI, from mild-moderate to severe symptoms, from 2004 to 2012 (NHS) and 2005-2013 (NHSII). Intake of vitamin D at study baseline was categorized and updated at the start of each 2-4 year follow-up period. Multivariable-adjusted relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of progression to severe UI were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: At baseline, of the 20,560 older women (age range 58-73 years) in NHS I with mild/moderate urgency or mixed UI, 21% reported oral vitamin D intake of at least 800 IU per day. Among 12,573 middle-aged women (age range 42-59) in NHS II with mild/moderate urgency or mixed UI, 17% reported oral vitamin D intake of at least 800 IU daily. From 2004 to 2012, 4853 incident cases of urgency/mixed UI progression were identified among older women. From 2005 to 2013, 1378 incident cases of urgency/mixed UI progression were identified among middle-aged women. After multivariable adjustment, no significant associations between vitamin D intake and incidence of urgency/mixed UI progression were observed in either cohort (RR = 1.10, 95% CI 0.99-1.23 in older women, RR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.71, 1.10 in middle-aged women). CONCLUSION: Despite interest in vitamin D as a low-cost strategy to prevent or reduce UI, our findings indicate oral vitamin D may not reduce urgency/mixed UI progression.

10.
Neurology ; 94(19): e2014-e2025, 2020 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321763

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To use network science to model complex diet relationships a decade before onset of dementia in a large French cohort, the 3-City Bordeaux study. METHODS: We identified cases of dementia incident to the baseline food frequency questionnaire over 12 years of follow-up. For each case, we randomly selected 2 controls among individuals at risk at the age at case diagnosis and matched for age at diet assessment, sex, education, and season of the survey. We inferred food networks in both cases and controls using mutual information, a measure to detect nonlinear associations, and compared food consumption patterns between groups. RESULTS: In the nested case-control study, the mean (SD) duration of follow-up and number of visits were 5.0 (2.5) vs 4.9 (2.6) years and 4.1 (1.0) vs 4.4 (0.9) for cases (n = 209) vs controls (n = 418), respectively. While there were few differences in simple, average food intakes, food networks differed substantially between cases and controls. The network in cases was focused and characterized by charcuterie as the main hub, with connections to foods typical of French southwestern diet and snack foods. In contrast, the network of controls included several disconnected subnetworks reflecting diverse and healthier food choices. CONCLUSION: How foods are consumed (and not only the quantity consumed) may be important for dementia prevention. Differences in predementia diet networks, suggesting worse eating habits toward charcuterie and snacking, were evident years before diagnosis in this cohort. Network methods, which are designed to model complex systems, may advance our understanding of risk factors for dementia.


Assuntos
Demência/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Dinâmica não Linear , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sintomas Prodrômicos
11.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 199: 105601, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001360

RESUMO

Evidence indicates that higher serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels may be associated with decreased prevalence of urgency urinary incontinence (UI), but the impact of vitamin D consumption on development of urgency and mixed UI is unclear. The objective was to assess whether greater vitamin D intake was associated with decreased risk of incident urgency and mixed UI over 10 years using 2 large prospective cohorts of middle-aged and older women. We analyzed 38,101 women from the Nurses' Health Study I (NHS I) and 35,190 women from NHS II who were free of UI at baseline. We followed incident UI, defined as new UI occurring at least monthly, separately by subtype (urgency, mixed, stress UI), from 2002-2012. We categorized vitamin D intake from supplements and diet. We estimated relative risk for developing UI according to vitamin D intake using Cox-proportional hazard models with adjustment for covariates. Median vitamin D intake was 580IU in the older women in NHS I (age range 56-71 at baseline) and 487IU in middle-aged women in NHS II (age range 40-57). Among women taking ≥1000IU of vitamin D, median intake in the older women was 1252IU and 1202IU in the middle-aged women. Among the older women, we found no relation of vitamin D intake to risk of developing UI, across all UI subtypes. In multivariable-adjusted analysis for middle-aged women, the relative risk of developing mixed UI among women taking >1000IU was 0.79 (0.63, 0.99) and for urgency UI was 0.88 (0.71, 1.07), versus <200IU. Risks of developing stress UI were not related to vitamin D intake categories. Overall, we did not find a relationship between vitamin D intake and UI incidence in middle-aged and older women; however, the reported intake was moderate.


Assuntos
Incontinência Urinária de Urgência/metabolismo , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Incontinência Urinária de Urgência/epidemiologia , Incontinência Urinária de Urgência/patologia , Vitamina D/metabolismo
12.
Am J Epidemiol ; 189(4): 305-313, 2020 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31781745

RESUMO

Healthy lifestyles are promising targets for prevention of cognitive aging, yet the optimal time windows for interventions remain unclear. We selected a case-control sample nested within the Nurses' Health Study (starting year 1976, mean age = 51 years), including 14,956 women aged ≥70 years who were free of both stroke and cognitive impairment at enrollment in a cognitive substudy (1995-2001). Cases (n = 1,496) were women with the 10% worst slopes of cognitive decline, and controls (n = 7,478) were those with slopes better than the median. We compared the trajectories of body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)2), alternate Mediterranean diet (A-MeDi) score, and physical activity between groups, from midlife through 1 year preceding the cognitive substudy. In midlife, cases had higher body mass index than controls (mean difference (MD) = 0.59 units, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.39, 0.80), lower physical activity (MD = -1.41 metabolic equivalent of task-hours/week, 95% CI: -2.07, -0.71), and worse A-MeDi scores (MD = -0.16 points, 95% CI: -0.26, -0.06). From midlife through later life, compared with controls, cases had consistently lower A-MeDi scores but a deceleration of weight gain and a faster decrease in physical activity. In conclusion, maintaining a healthy lifestyle since midlife may help reduce cognitive decline in aging. At older ages, both deceleration of weight gain and a decrease in physical activity may reflect early signs of cognitive impairment.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Dieta Saudável , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Idoso , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
J Urol ; 203(5): 978-983, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729902

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Urinary incontinence and fecal incontinence are common disorders in women that negatively impact quality of life. In addition to known health and lifestyle risk factors, genetics may have a role in continence. Identification of genetic variants associated with urinary incontinence and fecal incontinence could result in a better understanding of etiologic pathways, and new interventions and treatments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We previously generated genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism data from Nurses' Health Studies participants. The participants provided longitudinal urinary incontinence and fecal incontinence information via questionnaires. Cases of urinary incontinence (6,120) had at least weekly urinary incontinence reported on a majority of questionnaires (3 or 4 across 12 to 16 years) while controls (4,811) consistently had little to no urinary incontinence reported. We classified cases of urinary incontinence in women into stress (1,809), urgency (1,942) and mixed (2,036) subtypes. Cases of fecal incontinence (4,247) had at least monthly fecal incontinence reported on a majority of questionnaires while controls (11,634) consistently had no fecal incontinence reported. We performed a genome-wide association study for each incontinence outcome. RESULTS: We identified 8 single nucleotide polymorphisms significantly associated (p <5×10-8) with urinary incontinence located in 2 loci, chromosomes 8q23.3 and 1p32.2. There were no genome-wide significant findings for the urinary incontinence subtype analyses. However, the significant associations for overall urinary incontinence were stronger for the urgency and mixed subtypes than for stress. While no single nucleotide polymorphism reached genome-wide significance for fecal incontinence, 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms had p <10-6. CONCLUSIONS: Few studies have collected genetic data and detailed urinary incontinence and fecal incontinence information. This genome-wide association study provides initial evidence of genetic associations for urinary incontinence and merits further research to replicate our findings and identify additional risk variants.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Incontinência Fecal/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Qualidade de Vida , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Incontinência Urinária/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , DNA/genética , Incontinência Fecal/metabolismo , Feminino , Seguimentos , Genótipo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Incontinência Urinária/metabolismo
14.
Child Abuse Negl ; 99: 104175, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710961

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood adversities are prevalent worldwide and might affect adult cardiovascular health. However, in middle-income countries such as Mexico, research on the impact of childhood adversities on cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adulthood is lacking. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and their association with risk factors for CVD in adult Mexican women. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: The study population comprised 9853 women from the Mexican Teachers´ Cohort. METHODS: Participants responded to an online questionnaire including a 10-item instrument on ACEs and questions on CVD risk factors, between 2014 and 2017. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between ACEs and adult behavioral and medical CVD risk factors. RESULTS: About 61% of participants reported at least one ACE and 14% reported four or more. After multivariable adjustment, women who reported ≥4 ACEs had 58% (95%CI 1.37, 1.81) higher odds of having ever smoked and 17% (95%CI 0.69, 0.99) lower odds of being physically active, compared with women who reported no ACEs. Women who reported ≥4 ACEs also had higher odds of hypertension (OR = 1.19; 95%CI 1.00, 1.43), diabetes (OR = 1.49; 95%CI 1.13, 1.96), high cholesterol (OR = 1.49; 95%CI 1.26, 1.75), and obesity (OR = 1.37; 95%CI 1.19, 1.57). In addition, individual ACE components were independently associated with several CVD risk factors. CONCLUSION: ACEs are common and associated with CVD risk factors in adult Mexican women.

15.
Am J Epidemiol ; 189(2): 156-161, 2020 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595957

RESUMO

With advances in natural language processing and machine learning, researchers are leveraging social media as a low-cost, low-burden method for measuring various psychosocial factors. However, it is unclear whether information derived from social media is generalizable to broader populations, especially middle-aged and older adults. Using data on women aged 53-70 years from Nurses' Health Study II (2017-2018; n = 49,045), we assessed differences in sociodemographic characteristics, health conditions, behaviors, and psychosocial factors between regular and nonregular users of Facebook (Facebook, Inc., Menlo Park, California). We evaluated effect sizes with phi (φ) coefficients (categorical data) or Cohen's d (continuous data) and calculated odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. While most comparisons between regular and nonregular users achieved statistical significance in this large sample, effect sizes were mostly "very small" (conventionally defined as φ or d <0.01) (e.g., optimism score: meanregular users = 19 vs. meannonregular users = 19 (d = -0.03); physical activity: meanregular users = 24 metabolic equivalent of task (MET)-hours/week vs. meannonregular users = 24 MET-hours/week (d = 0.01)). Some factors had slightly larger differences for regular users versus nonregular users (e.g., depression: 28% vs. 23% (φ = 0.05); odds ratio = 1.27 (95% confidence interval: 1.22, 1.33); obesity: 34% vs. 26% (φ = 0.07); odds ratio = 1.42 (95% confidence interval: 1.36, 1.48)). Results suggest that regular Facebook users were similar to nonregular users across sociodemographic and psychosocial factors, with modestly worse health regarding obesity and depressive symptoms. In future research, investigators should evaluate other demographic groups.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Social , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Razão de Chances , Fatores Sociológicos
16.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 75(10): 2132-2141, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495897

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Although stronger social relationships have been associated with reduced mortality risk in prior research, their associations with favorable health outcomes are understudied. We evaluated whether higher social integration levels were associated with longer life span and greater likelihood of achieving exceptional longevity. METHOD: Women from the Nurses' Health Study completed the Berkman-Syme Social Network Index in 1992 (N = 72,322; average age = 58.80 years), and were followed through 2014 with biennial questionnaires. Deaths were ascertained from participants' families, postal authorities, and death registries. Accelerated failure time models adjusting for relevant covariates estimated percent changes in life span associated with social integration levels; logistic regressions evaluated likelihood of surviving to age 85 years or older among women who could reach that age during follow-up (N = 16,818). RESULTS: After controlling for baseline demographics and chronic diseases, socially integrated versus isolated women had 10% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.80-11.42) longer life span and 41% (95% CI = 1.28-1.54) higher odds of surviving to age 85 years. All findings remained statistically significant after further adjusting for health behaviors and depression. DISCUSSION: Better social integration is related to longer life span and greater likelihood of achieving exceptional longevity among midlife women. Findings suggest social integration may be an important psychosocial asset to evaluate for promoting longer, healthier lives.

17.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 222(2): 163.e1-163.e8, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urinary incontinence subtypes often differ by symptom severity and treatment profiles; in particular, mixed urinary incontinence is generally associated with worse symptoms and less successful treatment. Yet, limited information exists on the natural history of different urinary incontinence subtypes, which could help to better identify and treat patients prior to development of more intractable disease. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the onset of urinary incontinence subtypes, and transitions between subtypes over 8 years, using 2 large cohorts of middle-aged and older women with incident urinary incontinence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified 10,349 women with incident urinary incontinence (stress, urgency, and mixed subtypes) from the Nurses' Health Study and the Nurses' Health Study II who were 41-83 years of age, using repeated mailed questionnaires. We defined stress urinary incontinence as leakage with coughing, sneezing, or activity; urgency urinary incontinence as urine loss with a sudden feeling of bladder fullness or when a toilet was inaccessible; and mixed urinary incontinence when women reported that stress and urgency symptoms occurred equally. In subsequent questionnaires 4 and 8 years later, we continued to track symptom severity and subtypes. In addition, to obtain predicted probabilities of urinary incontinence subtypes 4 years and 8 years after urinary incontinence onset, we used multivariable-adjusted generalized estimating equations with a multinomial outcome. RESULTS: At urinary incontinence onset in 2004-2005, 56% of women reported stress urinary incontinence symptoms, 23% reported urgency urinary incontinence symptoms, and 21% reported mixed urinary incontinence symptoms. Women with stress urinary incontinence or urgency urinary incontinence at onset were likely to report the same urinary incontinence type 4 and 8 years later (stress urinary incontinence at onset: 70% and 60% reported stress urinary incontinence at years 4 and 8, respectively; urgency urinary incontinence at onset: 68% and 64% reported urgency urinary incontinence at years 4 and 8, respectively). Nonetheless, for both stress and urgency urinary incontinence, women with more severe symptoms at onset were more likely to progress to mixed urinary incontinence. Women with mixed urinary incontinence at onset had more variation over time, although the largest subset continued to report mixed urinary incontinence (45% reported mixed urinary incontinence at year 4; 43% reported mixed urinary incontinence at year 8). Few women across all urinary incontinence subtypes reported resolution of symptoms over 4-8 years of follow-up (4-12%). When considering the likelihood of remaining with or progressing to mixed urinary incontinence over follow-up, according to age, body mass index, and urinary incontinence severity, we found that older and younger women had similar predicted probability of remaining with or progressing to mixed urinary incontinence (eg, women <60 years of age at onset with severe mixed urinary incontinence had a 54% (95% confidence interval, 53-55) probability of mixed urinary incontinence 8 years later, vs 57% (95% confidence interval, 56-58) of women ≥70 years of age with severe mixed urinary incontinence at onset). Obese women were somewhat more likely to progress to mixed urinary incontinence regardless of urinary incontinence type at onset (eg, women with body mass index <25 kg/m2 at onset with severe stress urinary incontinence had a 30% predicted probability of mixed urinary incontinence 8 years after onset, vs 36% of women with body mass index of 30+ kg/m2 at onset with severe stress urinary incontinence). CONCLUSION: Most women with incident stress and urgency urinary incontinence continued to experience similar subtype symptoms over 8 years. However, obese women and those with more severe symptoms were more likely to remain with or progress to mixed urinary incontinence.


Assuntos
Incontinência Urinária por Estresse/fisiopatologia , Incontinência Urinária de Urgência/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Incontinência Urinária por Estresse/complicações , Incontinência Urinária por Estresse/epidemiologia , Incontinência Urinária de Urgência/complicações , Incontinência Urinária de Urgência/epidemiologia
18.
Alzheimers Dement ; 16(4): 610-620, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628050

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We investigated the relation between self-reported hearing loss and risk of subjective cognitive function (SCF) decline among women. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal study of 20,193 women in the Nurses' Health Study aged ≥66 years who reported their hearing status and had no subjective cognitive concerns in 2012. SCF scores were assessed by a 7-item questionnaire in 2012 and 2014. SCF decline was defined as a new report of at least one cognitive concern during follow-up. RESULTS: Self-reported hearing loss was associated with higher risk of SCF decline. Compared with women with no hearing loss, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for incident SCF score ≥1 were 1.35 (1.25, 1.47), 1.39 (1.24, 1.56), and 1.40 (1.21, 1.75) among women with mild, moderate, and severe hearing loss, respectively. Recent progression of hearing loss was associated with even higher risk. DISCUSSION: Self-reported hearing loss was associated with higher risk of incident subjective cognitive function decline in women.

19.
Psychosom Med ; 82(2): 165-171, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31688458

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Mounting evidence suggests that higher optimism is associated with reduced risk of age-related morbidities and premature mortality. However, possible biological mechanisms underlying these associations remain understudied. One hypothesized mechanism is a slower rate of cellular aging, which in turn delays age-related declines in health. METHODS: We used data from two large cohort studies to test the hypothesis that higher optimism is associated with longer leukocyte telomere length. With cross-sectional data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS; n = 6417; mean age = 70 years) and the Women's Health Initiative (WHI; N = 3582; mean age = 63 years), we used linear regression models to examine the association of optimism with relative telomere length (assessed in leukocytes from saliva [HRS] or plasma [WHI]). Models adjusted for sociodemographics, depression, health status, and health behaviors. RESULTS: Considering both optimism and telomere length as continuous variables, we found consistently null associations in both cohorts, regardless of which covariates were included in the models. In models adjusting for demographics, depression, comorbidities, and health behaviors, optimism was not associated with mean relative telomere length (HRS: ß = -0.002, 95% confidence interval = -0.014 to 0.011; WHI: ß = -0.004, 95% confidence interval = -0.017 to 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Findings do not support mean telomere length as a mechanism that explains observed relations of optimism with reduced risk of chronic disease in older adults. Future research is needed to evaluate other potential biological markers and pathways.

20.
BMJ ; 367: l6058, 2019 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852664

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the associations between birth month, birth season, and overall and cardiovascular disease mortality, and to examine the role of familial and socioeconomic factors in these associations. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Nurses' Health Study, established in 1976, an ongoing prospective cohort study in the United States. PARTICIPANTS: Female registered nurses who reported information on date of birth at study enrolment (n=116 911, 1976-2014, followed for 38 years). EXPOSURE: Birth month and astronomical birth season (based on solstices and equinoxes as boundaries of the season categories). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Age and various multivariable adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between birth months (using November as the reference), astronomical birth season (using autumn as the reference), and overall and cardiovascular disease specific mortality were assessed using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Among study participants, 43 248 overall deaths were documented during 4 136 364 person years of follow-up since enrolment, including 8360 cardiovascular disease related deaths. In fully adjusted multivariable analyses, no significant association was observed between birth month, birth season, and overall mortality. Compared with women born in November, increased cardiovascular disease mortality was observed among those born from March to July (hazard ratio for March, 1.09, 95% confidence interval 0.98 to 1.21; April, 1.12, 1.00 to 1.24; May, 1.08, 0.98 to 1.20; June, 1.07, 0.96 to 1.19; and July 1.08, 0.98 to 1.20). Those born in April had the highest cardiovascular disease mortality, and those born in December had the lowest (December, 0.95, 0.85 to 1.06). The relative difference between the lowest and highest risk month was 17.89%. Women born in spring (1.10, 1.04 to 1.17) and summer (1.09, 1.03 to 1.16) had a higher cardiovascular disease mortality than women born in the autumn. Adjustment for familial and socioeconomic factors did not change these results. The relative difference between the lowest and highest risk season was 10.00%. CONCLUSION: Participants born in the spring and summer (especially those born in March-July) had a slight but significant increase in cardiovascular disease specific mortality. However, no seasonal birth month effect was observed among women for overall mortality. Familial and socioeconomic factors did not appear to alter these associations. Further studies are required to confirm these findings and reveal mechanisms of these seasonal birth month effects in cardiovascular disease mortality.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Estações do Ano , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
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