Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 26
Filtrar
1.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2020 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618421

RESUMO

Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and disabling but seem particularly tractable to investigation with translational neuroscience methodologies. Neuroimaging has informed our understanding of the neurobiology of anxiety disorders, but research has been limited by small sample sizes and low statistical power, as well as heterogenous imaging methodology. The ENIGMA-Anxiety Working Group has brought together researchers from around the world, in a harmonized and coordinated effort to address these challenges and generate more robust and reproducible findings. This paper elaborates on the concepts and methods informing the work of the working group to date, and describes the initial approach of the four subgroups studying generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobia. At present, the ENIGMA-Anxiety database contains information about more than 100 unique samples, from 16 countries and 59 institutes. Future directions include examining additional imaging modalities, integrating imaging and genetic data, and collaborating with other ENIGMA working groups. The ENIGMA consortium creates synergy at the intersection of global mental health and clinical neuroscience, and the ENIGMA-Anxiety Working Group extends the promise of this approach to neuroimaging research on anxiety disorders.

2.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32596977

RESUMO

The ENIGMA group on Generalized Anxiety Disorder (ENIGMA-Anxiety/GAD) is part of a broader effort to investigate anxiety disorders using imaging and genetic data across multiple sites worldwide. The group is actively conducting a mega-analysis of a large number of brain structural scans. In this process, the group was confronted with many methodological challenges related to study planning and implementation, between-country transfer of subject-level data, quality control of a considerable amount of imaging data, and choices related to statistical methods and efficient use of resources. This report summarizes the background information and rationale for the various methodological decisions, as well as the approach taken to implement them. The goal is to document the approach and help guide other research groups working with large brain imaging data sets as they develop their own analytic pipelines for mega-analyses.

3.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424236

RESUMO

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with an increased risk of brain atrophy, aging-related diseases, and mortality. We examined potential advanced brain aging in adult MDD patients, and whether this process is associated with clinical characteristics in a large multicenter international dataset. We performed a mega-analysis by pooling brain measures derived from T1-weighted MRI scans from 19 samples worldwide. Healthy brain aging was estimated by predicting chronological age (18-75 years) from 7 subcortical volumes, 34 cortical thickness and 34 surface area, lateral ventricles and total intracranial volume measures separately in 952 male and 1236 female controls from the ENIGMA MDD working group. The learned model coefficients were applied to 927 male controls and 986 depressed males, and 1199 female controls and 1689 depressed females to obtain independent unbiased brain-based age predictions. The difference between predicted "brain age" and chronological age was calculated to indicate brain-predicted age difference (brain-PAD). On average, MDD patients showed a higher brain-PAD of +1.08 (SE 0.22) years (Cohen's d = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.08-0.20) compared with controls. However, this difference did not seem to be driven by specific clinical characteristics (recurrent status, remission status, antidepressant medication use, age of onset, or symptom severity). This highly powered collaborative effort showed subtle patterns of age-related structural brain abnormalities in MDD. Substantial within-group variance and overlap between groups were observed. Longitudinal studies of MDD and somatic health outcomes are needed to further assess the clinical value of these brain-PAD estimates.

4.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2020 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32467648

RESUMO

Emerging evidence suggests that obesity impacts brain physiology at multiple levels. Here we aimed to clarify the relationship between obesity and brain structure using structural MRI (n = 6420) and genetic data (n = 3907) from the ENIGMA Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) working group. Obesity (BMI > 30) was significantly associated with cortical and subcortical abnormalities in both mass-univariate and multivariate pattern recognition analyses independent of MDD diagnosis. The most pronounced effects were found for associations between obesity and lower temporo-frontal cortical thickness (maximum Cohen´s d (left fusiform gyrus) = -0.33). The observed regional distribution and effect size of cortical thickness reductions in obesity revealed considerable similarities with corresponding patterns of lower cortical thickness in previously published studies of neuropsychiatric disorders. A higher polygenic risk score for obesity significantly correlated with lower occipital surface area. In addition, a significant age-by-obesity interaction on cortical thickness emerged driven by lower thickness in older participants. Our findings suggest a neurobiological interaction between obesity and brain structure under physiological and pathological brain conditions.

5.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 172, 2020 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32472038

RESUMO

A key objective in the field of translational psychiatry over the past few decades has been to identify the brain correlates of major depressive disorder (MDD). Identifying measurable indicators of brain processes associated with MDD could facilitate the detection of individuals at risk, and the development of novel treatments, the monitoring of treatment effects, and predicting who might benefit most from treatments that target specific brain mechanisms. However, despite intensive neuroimaging research towards this effort, underpowered studies and a lack of reproducible findings have hindered progress. Here, we discuss the work of the ENIGMA Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) Consortium, which was established to address issues of poor replication, unreliable results, and overestimation of effect sizes in previous studies. The ENIGMA MDD Consortium currently includes data from 45 MDD study cohorts from 14 countries across six continents. The primary aim of ENIGMA MDD is to identify structural and functional brain alterations associated with MDD that can be reliably detected and replicated across cohorts worldwide. A secondary goal is to investigate how demographic, genetic, clinical, psychological, and environmental factors affect these associations. In this review, we summarize findings of the ENIGMA MDD disease working group to date and discuss future directions. We also highlight the challenges and benefits of large-scale data sharing for mental health research.

6.
Neuroimage ; 219: 116846, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32304884

RESUMO

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an indispensable tool for investigating brain development in young children and the neurobiological mechanisms underlying developmental risk and resilience. Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest proportion of children at risk of developmental delay worldwide, yet in this region there is very limited neuroimaging research focusing on the neurobiology of such impairment. Furthermore, paediatric MRI imaging is challenging in any setting due to motion sensitivity. Although sedation and anesthesia are routinely used in clinical practice to minimise movement in young children, this may not be ethical in the context of research. Our study aimed to investigate the feasibility of paediatric multimodal MRI at age 2-3 years without sedation, and to explore the relationship between cortical structure and neurocognitive development at this understudied age in a sub-Saharan African setting. A total of 239 children from the Drakenstein Child Health Study, a large observational South African birth cohort, were recruited for neuroimaging at 2-3 years of age. Scans were conducted during natural sleep utilising locally developed techniques. T1-MEMPRAGE and T2-weighted structural imaging, resting state functional MRI, diffusion tensor imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy sequences were included. Child neurodevelopment was assessed using the Bayley-III Scales of Infant and Toddler Development. Following 23 pilot scans, 216 children underwent scanning and T1-weighted images were obtained from 167/216 (77%) of children (median age 34.8 months). Furthermore, we found cortical surface area and thickness within frontal regions were associated with cognitive development, and in temporal and frontal regions with language development (beta coefficient ≥0.20). Overall, we demonstrate the feasibility of carrying out a neuroimaging study of young children during natural sleep in sub-Saharan Africa. Our findings indicate that dynamic morphological changes in heteromodal association regions are associated with cognitive and language development at this young age. These proof-of-concept analyses suggest similar links between the brain and cognition as prior literature from high income countries, enhancing understanding of the interplay between cortical structure and function during brain maturation.

7.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2020 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198905

RESUMO

Alterations in regional subcortical brain volumes have been investigated as part of the efforts of an international consortium, ENIGMA, to identify reliable neural correlates of major depressive disorder (MDD). Given that subcortical structures are comprised of distinct subfields, we sought to build significantly from prior work by precisely mapping localized MDD-related differences in subcortical regions using shape analysis. In this meta-analysis of subcortical shape from the ENIGMA-MDD working group, we compared 1,781 patients with MDD and 2,953 healthy controls (CTL) on individual measures of shape metrics (thickness and surface area) on the surface of seven bilateral subcortical structures: nucleus accumbens, amygdala, caudate, hippocampus, pallidum, putamen, and thalamus. Harmonized data processing and statistical analyses were conducted locally at each site, and findings were aggregated by meta-analysis. Relative to CTL, patients with adolescent-onset MDD (≤ 21 years) had lower thickness and surface area of the subiculum, cornu ammonis (CA) 1 of the hippocampus and basolateral amygdala (Cohen's d = -0.164 to -0.180). Relative to first-episode MDD, recurrent MDD patients had lower thickness and surface area in the CA1 of the hippocampus and the basolateral amygdala (Cohen's d = -0.173 to -0.184). Our results suggest that previously reported MDD-associated volumetric differences may be localized to specific subfields of these structures that have been shown to be sensitive to the effects of stress, with important implications for mapping treatments to patients based on specific neural targets and key clinical features.

8.
Mol Psychiatry ; 25(3): 692-695, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30705424

RESUMO

Prior to and following the publication of this article the authors noted that the complete list of authors was not included in the main article and was only present in Supplementary Table 1. The author list in the original article has now been updated to include all authors, and Supplementary Table 1 has been removed. All other supplementary files have now been updated accordingly. Furthermore, in Table 1 of this Article, the replication cohort for the row Close relative in data set, n (%) was incorrect. All values have now been corrected to 0(0%). The publishers would like to apologise for this error and the inconvenience it may have caused.

9.
Psychol Med ; 50(6): 1020-1031, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood maltreatment (CM) plays an important role in the development of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this study was to examine whether CM severity and type are associated with MDD-related brain alterations, and how they interact with sex and age. METHODS: Within the ENIGMA-MDD network, severity and subtypes of CM using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire were assessed and structural magnetic resonance imaging data from patients with MDD and healthy controls were analyzed in a mega-analysis comprising a total of 3872 participants aged between 13 and 89 years. Cortical thickness and surface area were extracted at each site using FreeSurfer. RESULTS: CM severity was associated with reduced cortical thickness in the banks of the superior temporal sulcus and supramarginal gyrus as well as with reduced surface area of the middle temporal lobe. Participants reporting both childhood neglect and abuse had a lower cortical thickness in the inferior parietal lobe, middle temporal lobe, and precuneus compared to participants not exposed to CM. In males only, regardless of diagnosis, CM severity was associated with higher cortical thickness of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex. Finally, a significant interaction between CM and age in predicting thickness was seen across several prefrontal, temporal, and temporo-parietal regions. CONCLUSIONS: Severity and type of CM may impact cortical thickness and surface area. Importantly, CM may influence age-dependent brain maturation, particularly in regions related to the default mode network, perception, and theory of mind.

10.
Mol Psychiatry ; 25(3): 584-602, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30283035

RESUMO

Carriers of large recurrent copy number variants (CNVs) have a higher risk of developing neurodevelopmental disorders. The 16p11.2 distal CNV predisposes carriers to e.g., autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. We compared subcortical brain volumes of 12 16p11.2 distal deletion and 12 duplication carriers to 6882 non-carriers from the large-scale brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging collaboration, ENIGMA-CNV. After stringent CNV calling procedures, and standardized FreeSurfer image analysis, we found negative dose-response associations with copy number on intracranial volume and on regional caudate, pallidum and putamen volumes (ß = -0.71 to -1.37; P < 0.0005). In an independent sample, consistent results were obtained, with significant effects in the pallidum (ß = -0.95, P = 0.0042). The two data sets combined showed significant negative dose-response for the accumbens, caudate, pallidum, putamen and ICV (P = 0.0032, 8.9 × 10-6, 1.7 × 10-9, 3.5 × 10-12 and 1.0 × 10-4, respectively). Full scale IQ was lower in both deletion and duplication carriers compared to non-carriers. This is the first brain MRI study of the impact of the 16p11.2 distal CNV, and we demonstrate a specific effect on subcortical brain structures, suggesting a neuropathological pattern underlying the neurodevelopmental syndromes.

11.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 77(4): 420-430, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665216

RESUMO

Importance: Recurrent microdeletions and duplications in the genomic region 15q11.2 between breakpoints 1 (BP1) and 2 (BP2) are associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. These structural variants are present in 0.5% to 1.0% of the population, making 15q11.2 BP1-BP2 the site of the most prevalent known pathogenic copy number variation (CNV). It is unknown to what extent this CNV influences brain structure and affects cognitive abilities. Objective: To determine the association of the 15q11.2 BP1-BP2 deletion and duplication CNVs with cortical and subcortical brain morphology and cognitive task performance. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this genetic association study, T1-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging were combined with genetic data from the ENIGMA-CNV consortium and the UK Biobank, with a replication cohort from Iceland. In total, 203 deletion carriers, 45 247 noncarriers, and 306 duplication carriers were included. Data were collected from August 2015 to April 2019, and data were analyzed from September 2018 to September 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: The associations of the CNV with global and regional measures of surface area and cortical thickness as well as subcortical volumes were investigated, correcting for age, age2, sex, scanner, and intracranial volume. Additionally, measures of cognitive ability were analyzed in the full UK Biobank cohort. Results: Of 45 756 included individuals, the mean (SD) age was 55.8 (18.3) years, and 23 754 (51.9%) were female. Compared with noncarriers, deletion carriers had a lower surface area (Cohen d = -0.41; SE, 0.08; P = 4.9 × 10-8), thicker cortex (Cohen d = 0.36; SE, 0.07; P = 1.3 × 10-7), and a smaller nucleus accumbens (Cohen d = -0.27; SE, 0.07; P = 7.3 × 10-5). There was also a significant negative dose response on cortical thickness (ß = -0.24; SE, 0.05; P = 6.8 × 10-7). Regional cortical analyses showed a localization of the effects to the frontal, cingulate, and parietal lobes. Further, cognitive ability was lower for deletion carriers compared with noncarriers on 5 of 7 tasks. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings, from the largest CNV neuroimaging study to date, provide evidence that 15q11.2 BP1-BP2 structural variation is associated with brain morphology and cognition, with deletion carriers being particularly affected. The pattern of results fits with known molecular functions of genes in the 15q11.2 BP1-BP2 region and suggests involvement of these genes in neuronal plasticity. These neurobiological effects likely contribute to the association of this CNV with neurodevelopmental disorders.

12.
Mol Psychiatry ; 25(7): 1511-1525, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471575

RESUMO

Alterations in white matter (WM) microstructure have been implicated in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, previous findings have been inconsistent, partially due to low statistical power and the heterogeneity of depression. In the largest multi-site study to date, we examined WM anisotropy and diffusivity in 1305 MDD patients and 1602 healthy controls (age range 12-88 years) from 20 samples worldwide, which included both adults and adolescents, within the MDD Working Group of the Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) consortium. Processing of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data and statistical analyses were harmonized across sites and effects were meta-analyzed across studies. We observed subtle, but widespread, lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in adult MDD patients compared with controls in 16 out of 25 WM tracts of interest (Cohen's d between 0.12 and 0.26). The largest differences were observed in the corpus callosum and corona radiata. Widespread higher radial diffusivity (RD) was also observed (all Cohen's d between 0.12 and 0.18). Findings appeared to be driven by patients with recurrent MDD and an adult age of onset of depression. White matter microstructural differences in a smaller sample of adolescent MDD patients and controls did not survive correction for multiple testing. In this coordinated and harmonized multisite DTI study, we showed subtle, but widespread differences in WM microstructure in adult MDD, which may suggest structural disconnectivity in MDD.

13.
Am J Psychiatry ; 176(12): 1039-1049, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352813

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Asymmetry is a subtle but pervasive aspect of the human brain, and it may be altered in several psychiatric conditions. MRI studies have shown subtle differences of brain anatomy between people with major depressive disorder and healthy control subjects, but few studies have specifically examined brain anatomical asymmetry in relation to this disorder, and results from those studies have remained inconclusive. At the functional level, some electroencephalography studies have indicated left fronto-cortical hypoactivity and right parietal hypoactivity in depressive disorders, so aspects of lateralized anatomy may also be affected. The authors used pooled individual-level data from data sets collected around the world to investigate differences in laterality in measures of cortical thickness, cortical surface area, and subcortical volume between individuals with major depression and healthy control subjects. METHODS: The authors investigated differences in the laterality of thickness and surface area measures of 34 cerebral cortical regions in 2,256 individuals with major depression and 3,504 control subjects from 31 separate data sets, and they investigated volume asymmetries of eight subcortical structures in 2,540 individuals with major depression and 4,230 control subjects from 32 data sets. T1-weighted MRI data were processed with a single protocol using FreeSurfer and the Desikan-Killiany atlas. The large sample size provided 80% power to detect effects of the order of Cohen's d=0.1. RESULTS: The largest effect size (Cohen's d) of major depression diagnosis was 0.085 for the thickness asymmetry of the superior temporal cortex, which was not significant after adjustment for multiple testing. Asymmetry measures were not significantly associated with medication use, acute compared with remitted status, first episode compared with recurrent status, or age at onset. CONCLUSIONS: Altered brain macro-anatomical asymmetry may be of little relevance to major depression etiology in most cases.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/patologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Dominância Cerebral , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Neuroimagem , Adulto Jovem
14.
Psychiatry Res ; 279: 259-266, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31003712

RESUMO

Intensive longitudinal data studies on affective reactivity to daily life stress have used various dimensions of stress. Based on an evidence-based conceptual model of stress, the current study included unpredictability, uncontrollability and unpleasantness, and examined whether and how these predict affective reactivity in depressed and non-depressed individuals in daily life. Participants (27 depressed, 27 non-depressed) completed a diary 3 times a day for a period of 30 days. Multilevel analyses were performed to investigate unpleasantness, uncontrollability and unpredictability of daily events as univariate predictors of negative affect (NA). Multivariable models were composed to determine the optimal combination of stress dimensions, and whether the strength of the predictions differed between the depressed and non-depressed groups. Unpleasantness, uncontrollability and unpredictability each predicted subsequent NA independently. However, a combination of all three dimensions, together with an interaction between unpleasantness and uncontrollability, predicted subsequent NA best. The stress dimensions predicted NA more strongly in the depressed than the non-depressed group. This was mostly accounted for by an increased NA response to unpleasantness. Thus, unpleasantness seems to be the most important aspect of daily stress to distinguish depressed from non-depressed individuals. Nevertheless, for a comprehensive assessment of affective reactivity, a multidimensional model of event stressfulness is recommended.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Registros Médicos , Monitorização Ambulatorial/métodos , Monitorização Ambulatorial/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Affect Disord ; 245: 885-896, 2019 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30699873

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There have been considerable recent advances in understanding the genetic architecture of anxiety disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), as well as the underlying neurocircuitry of these disorders. However, there is little work on the concordance of genetic variations that increase risk for these conditions, and that influence subcortical brain structures. We undertook a genome-wide investigation of the overlap between the genetic influences from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on volumes of subcortical brain structures and genetic risk for anxiety disorders and PTSD. METHOD: We obtained summary statistics of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of anxiety disorders (Ncases = 7016, Ncontrols = 14,745), PTSD (European sample; Ncases = 2424, Ncontrols = 7113) and of subcortical brain structures (N = 13,171). SNP Effect Concordance Analysis (SECA) and Linkage Disequilibrium (LD) Score Regression were used to examine genetic pleiotropy, concordance, and genome-wide correlations respectively. SECAs conditional false discovery was used to identify specific risk variants associated with anxiety disorders or PTSD when conditioning on brain related traits. RESULTS: For anxiety disorders, we found evidence of significant concordance between increased anxiety risk variants and variants associated with smaller amygdala volume. Further, by conditioning on brain volume GWAS, we identified novel variants that associate with smaller brain volumes and increase risk for disorders: rs56242606 was found to increase risk for anxiety disorders, while two variants (rs6470292 and rs683250) increase risk for PTSD, when conditioning on the GWAS of putamen volume. LIMITATIONS: Despite using the largest available GWAS summary statistics, the analyses were limited by sample size. CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary data indicate that there is genome wide concordance between genetic risk factors for anxiety disorders and those for smaller amygdala volume, which is consistent with research that supports the involvement of the amygdala in anxiety disorders. It is notable that a genetic variant that contributes to both reduced putamen volume and PTSD plays a key role in the glutamatergic system. Further work with GWAS summary statistics from larger samples, and a more extensive look at the genetics underlying brain circuits, is needed to fully delineate the genetic architecture of these disorders and their underlying neurocircuitry.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/genética , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Variação Genética/genética , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/genética , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Tonsila do Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos de Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/fisiopatologia
16.
Dev Psychopathol ; 30(4): 1475-1485, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29224580

RESUMO

Childhood maltreatment, including abuse and neglect, may have sustained effects on the integrity and functioning of the brain, alter neurophysiological responsivity later in life, and predispose individuals toward psychiatric conditions involving socioaffective disturbances. This meta-analysis aims to quantify associations between self-reported childhood maltreatment and brain function in response to socioaffective cues in adults. Seventeen functional magnetic resonance imaging studies reporting on data from 848 individuals examined with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire were included in a meta-analysis of whole-brain findings, or a review of region of interest findings. The spatial consistency of peak activations associated with maltreatment exposure was tested using activation likelihood estimation, using a threshold of p < .05 corrected for multiple comparisons. Adults exposed to childhood maltreatment showed significantly increased activation in the left superior frontal gyrus and left middle temporal gyrus, and decreased activation in the left superior parietal lobule and the left hippocampus. Although hyperresponsivity to socioaffective cues in the amygdala and ventral anterior cingulate cortex in correlation with maltreatment severity is a replicated finding in region of interest studies, null results are reported as well. The findings suggest that childhood maltreatment has sustained effects on brain function into adulthood, and highlight potential mechanisms for conveying vulnerability to development of psychopathology.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Genome Med ; 9(1): 102, 2017 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29179742

RESUMO

Neuroimaging genomics is a relatively new field focused on integrating genomic and imaging data in order to investigate the mechanisms underlying brain phenotypes and neuropsychiatric disorders. While early work in neuroimaging genomics focused on mapping the associations of candidate gene variants with neuroimaging measures in small cohorts, the lack of reproducible results inspired better-powered and unbiased large-scale approaches. Notably, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of brain imaging in thousands of individuals around the world have led to a range of promising findings. Extensions of such approaches are now addressing epigenetics, gene-gene epistasis, and gene-environment interactions, not only in brain structure, but also in brain function. Complementary developments in systems biology might facilitate the translation of findings from basic neuroscience and neuroimaging genomics to clinical practice. Here, we review recent approaches in neuroimaging genomics-we highlight the latest discoveries, discuss advantages and limitations of current approaches, and consider directions by which the field can move forward to shed light on brain disorders.


Assuntos
Genômica , Neuroimagem , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Epistasia Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Psiquiatria
18.
Hum Psychopharmacol ; 32(5)2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28766324

RESUMO

Many psychiatric disorders are characterized by altered social cognition. The importance of social cognition has previously been recognized by the National Institute of Mental Health Research Domain Criteria project, in which it features as a core domain. Social task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) currently offers the most direct insight into how the brain processes social information; however, resting-state fMRI may be just as important in understanding the biology and network nature of social processing. Resting-state fMRI allows researchers to investigate the functional relationships between brain regions in a neutral state: so-called resting functional connectivity (RFC). There is evidence that RFC is predictive of how the brain processes information during social tasks. This is important because it shifts the focus from possibly context-dependent aberrations to context-independent aberrations in functional network architecture. Rather than being analysed in isolation, the study of resting-state brain networks shows promise in linking results of task-based fMRI results, structural connectivity, molecular imaging findings, and performance measures of social cognition-which may prove crucial in furthering our understanding of the social brain.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Comportamento Social , Mapeamento Encefálico , Humanos , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Descanso
19.
Gen Hosp Psychiatry ; 40: 18-24, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27040607

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with structural brain damage and with a high prevalence of depression. We therefore investigated structural brain alterations in both gray and white matter in CKD patients, focusing on depression-related (frontal-subcortical) regions. METHOD: This cross-sectional MRI study in 24 CKD patients and 24 age- and sex-matched controls first tested whether CKD was associated with regionally lower gray matter (GM) volumes and more severe white matter lesions (WMLs). In exploratory subanalyses, we examined whether differences were more pronounced in CKD patients with depressive symptoms. RESULTS: CKD patients showed lower global GM volume (P=.04) and more severe WMLs (P=.04) compared to controls. In addition, we found substantial clusters of lower GM in the bilateral orbitofrontal-cortex for CKD patients, which were however nonsignificant after proper multiple-comparison correction. In exploratory analyses for depressed CKD patients, reduced GM clusters were mainly detected within the frontal lobe. WML severity was unrelated to depression. CONCLUSION: CKD was characterized by differences in brain structure. Although subthreshold, lower GM volumes were observed in depression-related brain areas and were more pronounced for depressed patients. There is a need for replication in larger and longitudinal studies to investigate whether WMLs and regional GM reductions may render CKD patients more susceptible for depression.


Assuntos
Depressão/patologia , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/patologia , Substância Branca/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/diagnóstico por imagem , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem
20.
Neuroimage Clin ; 8: 79-86, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26106530

RESUMO

Independent studies on major depressive disorder (MDD) and hypertension, suggest overlapping abnormalities in brain regions associated with emotional and autonomic processing. However, the unique and interactive effects of MDD and hypertension have never been studied in a single sample. Brain volume in these areas may be an explanatory link in the comorbidity between MDD and hypertension. Voxel-based morphometry was used to test for main effects of MDD (N = 152) and hypertension (N = 82) and their interactions on gray and white matter volumes. Voxel-wise results are reported at p < .05 FWE corrected for the spatial extent of the whole brain and a-priori regions of interest (ROIs: hippocampus, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG)). In addition, analyses on the extracted total volumes of our ROIs were performed. Interactive effects in the mid-cingulate cortex (MCC) (p FWE = .01), cerebellum (p FWE = .01) and in the ACC total ROI volume (p = .02) were found. MDD in the presence, but not in the absence of hypertension was associated with lower volumes in the ACC and MCC, and with a trend towards larger gray matter volume in the cerebellum. No associations with white matter volumes were observed. Results suggest that the combination of MDD and hypertension has a unique effect on brain volumes in areas implicated in the regulation of emotional and autonomic functions. Brain volume in these regulatory areas may be an explanatory link in the comorbidity between hypertension and MDD.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/patologia , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Hipertensão/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Comorbidade , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA