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1.
Neurology ; 94(20): 876-885, 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350058

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To update the 2016 American Academy of Neurology (AAN) practice advisory for patients with stroke and patent foramen ovale (PFO). METHODS: The guideline panel followed the AAN 2017 guideline development process to systematically review studies published through December 2017 and formulate recommendations. MAJOR RECOMMENDATIONS: In patients being considered for PFO closure, clinicians should ensure that an appropriately thorough evaluation has been performed to rule out alternative mechanisms of stroke (level B). In patients with a higher risk alternative mechanism of stroke identified, clinicians should not routinely recommend PFO closure (level B). Clinicians should counsel patients that having a PFO is common; that it occurs in about 1 in 4 adults in the general population; that it is difficult to determine with certainty whether their PFO caused their stroke; and that PFO closure probably reduces recurrent stroke risk in select patients (level B). In patients younger than 60 years with a PFO and embolic-appearing infarct and no other mechanism of stroke identified, clinicians may recommend closure following a discussion of potential benefits (absolute recurrent stroke risk reduction of 3.4% at 5 years) and risks (periprocedural complication rate of 3.9% and increased absolute rate of non-periprocedural atrial fibrillation of 0.33% per year) (level C). In patients who opt to receive medical therapy alone without PFO closure, clinicians may recommend an antiplatelet medication such as aspirin or anticoagulation (level C).

2.
Neurology ; 94(16): 705-709, 2020 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213645

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To review updated evidence regarding the effectiveness of thymectomy for treating patients with myasthenia gravis (MG). METHODS: The practice advisory panel performed a systematic review and developed practice recommendations using methods developed by the American Academy of Neurology. RESULTS: One Class I study of patients younger than 65 years with nonthymomatous acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive (AChR ab+) generalized MG demonstrated better clinical outcomes in patients treated with oral prednisone and undergoing thymectomy compared with patients treated with prednisone alone, including an increased probability of attaining minimal manifestation status (no symptoms or functional limitations). CONCLUSION: For patients with nonthymomatous AChR ab+ generalized MG, treatment with thymectomy plus prednisone is probably more effective than treatment with prednisone alone for increasing the chance of attaining minimal manifestation status (risk difference at 36 months, 20%; 95% confidence interval, 1.6%-37%; moderate confidence in the evidence). RECOMMENDATIONS: Clinicians should discuss thymectomy treatment with patients with AChR ab+ generalized MG (Level B). Clinicians should counsel patients with AChR ab+ generalized MG considering minimally invasive thymectomy techniques that it is uncertain whether the benefit attained by extended transsternal thymectomy will also be attained by minimally invasive approaches (Level B).

4.
Health Expect ; 23(2): 423-432, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patient and public involvement (PPI) is recommended when developing high-quality clinical practice guidelines, but the effects of different PPI strategies are largely unstudied. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of participation and consultation strategies on guideline question development. DESIGN: Instrumental case study design. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: This study used a clinical practice guideline in development by the American Academy of Neurology. A patient, two caregivers and a dementia advocate participated in the guideline development group alongside clinicians. The guideline protocol was posted for public consultation for 30 days. INTERVENTIONS STUDIED: Participation (patient representatives on the guideline development group) and consultation (public comment, survey) PPI strategies. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Public comment responses and guideline development group meeting transcripts were analysed descriptively. Transcript quotes were compared to the conceptual model of PPI in guideline development. The effects of participation and consultation strategies within the guideline case were compared. RESULTS: Participation strategies shaped discussions, set a patient-centred scope, highlighted personal aspects of disease, affected how professionals viewed PPI, identified issues overlooked by medical professionals, and contributed to selecting patient-relevant guideline populations and outcomes. Professionals responded to public comment more than patient representatives. Patient survey participants confirmed the priorities voiced by patient representatives on the guideline development group. Final guideline questions included populations and outcomes promoted by patient representatives despite negative feedback from professional public commenters. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Participation and consultation PPI strategies have different advantages. Congruence between strategies increases the strength of the patient voice. Guideline developers should prioritize using both strategies for successful PPI.

5.
World Neurosurg ; 130: e831-e838, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295617

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether cranial metrics consistently differed between patients with moyamoya and age-, sex-, and race-matched controls. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with moyamoya disease by cerebral angiogram were obtained from a prospectively collected database through the Department of Neurosurgery at the University of Kansas Medical Center. Control patients matched by decade of age, sex, and race were collected through a deidentified hospital database by International Classification of Diseases-9 and 10 codes for ischemic stroke to identify patients with computed tomography angiograms. Imaging studies for both groups were analyzed to obtain 6 skull metrics: maximum anterior to posterior distance, maximum biparietal distance, bregma to occiput distance, right carotid canal diameter (CCD), left CCD, and cephalic index. RESULTS: Forty-five patients were identified in each cohort. Measurements of mean anterior to posterior skull diameter, mean biparietal skull diameter, bregma to occiput distances, and calculated cephalic index did not demonstrate a statistically significant difference between patients with moyamoya and control patients. Right carotid canal mean diameter was 4.8 mm for the moyamoya group and 5.4 mm for the control group, with a significant raw mean difference of -0.61 mm (95% confidence interval, -0.95 to -0.27). Left CCD was 4.7 mm for the moyamoya group and 5.5 mm for the control group, resulting in a significant raw mean difference of -0.76 mm (95% confidence interval, -1.09 to -0.43). CONCLUSIONS: This study identified 2 skull parameters as statistically different in patients with moyamoya compared with a matched control group of patients with ischemic stroke: right CCD and left CCD.


Assuntos
Cefalometria/métodos , Doença de Moyamoya/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cefalometria/normas , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord ; 33(3): 246-253, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31058683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patient and caregiver perspectives on amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) use are largely unexplored, particularly as compared with clinician views. METHODS: We surveyed clinicians, patients, caregivers, and dementia advocates on topics relating to an evidence-based guideline on amyloid PET use. Topic importance was rated on a 9-point scale. Patient stakeholder and clinician views were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. RESULTS: Patient representatives (n=107) rated all survey topics as equal to or more important than clinicians (n=114) except 1 item discussing potential harms of false-positive diagnoses. Differences between patient representative and clinician populations were greatest when comparing the competing values of false-positive and false-negative diagnoses and the value of testing asymptomatic individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Patients and caregivers emphasized the importance of having a dementia diagnosis and placed more value on testing and outcomes for asymptomatic populations than clinicians. This underscores the importance of research investigating the effect of amyloid PET results on asymptomatic individuals and the need for amyloid PET ordering and disclosure standards.

9.
Neurology ; 92(9): e888-e894, 2019 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804063

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The degree of training and variability in the clinical brain death examination performed by physicians is not known. METHODS: Surveys were distributed to physicians (including physicians-in-training) practicing at 3 separate academic medical centers. Data, including level of practice, training received in completion of a brain death examination, examination components performed, and use of confirmatory tests were collected. Data were evaluated for accuracy in the brain death examination, self-perceived competence in the examination, and indications for confirmatory tests. RESULTS: Of 225 total respondents, 68 reported completing brain death examinations in practice. Most physicians who complete a brain death examination reported they had received training in how to complete the examination (76.1%). Seventeen respondents (25%) reported doing a brain death examination that is consistent with the current practice guideline. As a part of their brain death assessment, 10.3% of physicians did not report completing an apnea test. Of clinicians who obtain confirmatory tests on an as-needed basis, 28.3% do so if a patient breathes during an apnea test, a clinical finding that is not consistent with brain death. CONCLUSIONS: There is substantial variability in how physicians approach the adult brain death examination, but our survey also identified lack of training in nearly 1 in 4 academic physicians. A formal training course in the principles and proper technique of the brain death examination by physicians with expert knowledge of this clinical assessment is recommended.


Assuntos
Morte Encefálica/diagnóstico , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Exame Neurológico/normas , Padrões de Prática Médica , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Anestesiologistas , Educação Médica , Humanos , Neurologistas , Neurocirurgiões , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Reflexo , Cirurgiões
10.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil ; 99(9): 1699-1709, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30098791

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To update the 1995 American Academy of Neurology (AAN) practice parameter on persistent vegetative state and the 2002 case definition on minimally conscious state (MCS) and provide care recommendations for patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness (DoC). METHODS: Recommendations were based on systematic review evidence, related evidence, care principles, and inferences using a modified Delphi consensus process according to the AAN 2011 process manual, as amended. RECOMMENDATIONS: Clinicians should identify and treat confounding conditions, optimize arousal, and perform serial standardized assessments to improve diagnostic accuracy in adults and children with prolonged DoC (Level B). Clinicians should counsel families that for adults, MCS (vs vegetative state [VS]/ unresponsive wakefulness syndrome [UWS]) and traumatic (vs nontraumatic) etiology are associated with more favorable outcomes (Level B). When prognosis is poor, long-term care must be discussed (Level A), acknowledging that prognosis is not universally poor (Level B). Structural MRI, SPECT, and the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised can assist prognostication in adults (Level B); no tests are shown to improve prognostic accuracy in children. Pain always should be assessed and treated (Level B) and evidence supporting treatment approaches discussed (Level B). Clinicians should prescribe amantadine (100-200 mg bid) for adults with traumatic VS/UWS or MCS (4-16 weeks post injury) to hasten functional recovery and reduce disability early in recovery (Level B). Family counseling concerning children should acknowledge that natural history of recovery, prognosis, and treatment are not established (Level B). Recent evidence indicates that the term chronic VS/UWS should replace permanent VS, with duration specified (Level B). Additional recommendations are included.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Consciência , Assistência de Longa Duração/normas , Neurologia/normas , Medicina Física e Reabilitação/normas , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Vida Independente , Masculino , Estado Vegetativo Persistente , Pesquisa de Reabilitação
11.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil ; 99(9): 1710-1719, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30098792

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To update the 1995 American Academy of Neurology (AAN) practice parameter on persistent vegetative state and the 2002 case definition for the minimally conscious state (MCS) by reviewing the literature on the diagnosis, natural history, prognosis, and treatment of disorders of consciousness lasting at least 28 days. METHODS: Articles were classified per the AAN evidence-based classification system. Evidence synthesis occurred through a modified Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation process. Recommendations were based on evidence, related evidence, care principles, and inferences according to the AAN 2011 process manual, as amended. RESULTS: No diagnostic assessment procedure had moderate or strong evidence for use. It is possible that a positive EMG response to command, EEG reactivity to sensory stimuli, laser-evoked potentials, and the Perturbational Complexity Index can distinguish MCS from vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (VS/UWS). The natural history of recovery from prolonged VS/UWS is better in traumatic than nontraumatic cases. MCS is generally associated with a better prognosis than VS (conclusions of low to moderate confidence in adult populations), and traumatic injury is generally associated with a better prognosis than nontraumatic injury (conclusions of low to moderate confidence in adult and pediatric populations). Findings concerning other prognostic features are stratified by etiology of injury (traumatic vs nontraumatic) and diagnosis (VS/UWS vs MCS) with low to moderate degrees of confidence. Therapeutic evidence is sparse. Amantadine probably hastens functional recovery in patients with MCS or VS/UWS secondary to severe traumatic brain injury over 4 weeks of treatment. Recommendations are presented separately.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Consciência , Neurologia/normas , Estado Vegetativo Persistente , Medicina Física e Reabilitação/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Vida Independente , Masculino , Prognóstico , Pesquisa de Reabilitação
13.
Neurology ; 91(10): 461-470, 2018 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30089617

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To update the 1995 American Academy of Neurology (AAN) practice parameter on persistent vegetative state and the 2002 case definition for the minimally conscious state (MCS) by reviewing the literature on the diagnosis, natural history, prognosis, and treatment of disorders of consciousness lasting at least 28 days. METHODS: Articles were classified per the AAN evidence-based classification system. Evidence synthesis occurred through a modified Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation process. Recommendations were based on evidence, related evidence, care principles, and inferences according to the AAN 2011 process manual, as amended. RESULTS: No diagnostic assessment procedure had moderate or strong evidence for use. It is possible that a positive EMG response to command, EEG reactivity to sensory stimuli, laser-evoked potentials, and the Perturbational Complexity Index can distinguish MCS from vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (VS/UWS). The natural history of recovery from prolonged VS/UWS is better in traumatic than nontraumatic cases. MCS is generally associated with a better prognosis than VS (conclusions of low to moderate confidence in adult populations), and traumatic injury is generally associated with a better prognosis than nontraumatic injury (conclusions of low to moderate confidence in adult and pediatric populations). Findings concerning other prognostic features are stratified by etiology of injury (traumatic vs nontraumatic) and diagnosis (VS/UWS vs MCS) with low to moderate degrees of confidence. Therapeutic evidence is sparse. Amantadine probably hastens functional recovery in patients with MCS or VS/UWS secondary to severe traumatic brain injury over 4 weeks of treatment. Recommendations are presented separately.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Consciência/reabilitação , Neurologia , Medicina Física e Reabilitação/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Pesquisa de Reabilitação , Humanos , Vida Independente , Neurologia/métodos , Neurologia/organização & administração , Neurologia/normas , Pesquisa de Reabilitação/métodos , Pesquisa de Reabilitação/organização & administração , Pesquisa de Reabilitação/normas , Estados Unidos
14.
Neurology ; 91(10): 450-460, 2018 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30089618

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To update the 1995 American Academy of Neurology (AAN) practice parameter on persistent vegetative state and the 2002 case definition on minimally conscious state (MCS) and provide care recommendations for patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness (DoC). METHODS: Recommendations were based on systematic review evidence, related evidence, care principles, and inferences using a modified Delphi consensus process according to the AAN 2011 process manual, as amended. RECOMMENDATIONS: Clinicians should identify and treat confounding conditions, optimize arousal, and perform serial standardized assessments to improve diagnostic accuracy in adults and children with prolonged DoC (Level B). Clinicians should counsel families that for adults, MCS (vs vegetative state [VS]/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome [UWS]) and traumatic (vs nontraumatic) etiology are associated with more favorable outcomes (Level B). When prognosis is poor, long-term care must be discussed (Level A), acknowledging that prognosis is not universally poor (Level B). Structural MRI, SPECT, and the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised can assist prognostication in adults (Level B); no tests are shown to improve prognostic accuracy in children. Pain always should be assessed and treated (Level B) and evidence supporting treatment approaches discussed (Level B). Clinicians should prescribe amantadine (100-200 mg bid) for adults with traumatic VS/UWS or MCS (4-16 weeks post injury) to hasten functional recovery and reduce disability early in recovery (Level B). Family counseling concerning children should acknowledge that natural history of recovery, prognosis, and treatment are not established (Level B). Recent evidence indicates that the term chronic VS/UWS should replace permanent VS, with duration specified (Level B). Additional recommendations are included.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Consciência/reabilitação , Medicina Física e Reabilitação/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Pesquisa de Reabilitação , Humanos , Neurologia/métodos , Neurologia/organização & administração , Pesquisa de Reabilitação/métodos , Pesquisa de Reabilitação/organização & administração , Estados Unidos
15.
Implement Sci ; 13(1): 55, 2018 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29661195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patient and public involvement (PPI) is recognized as a key component of clinical practice guideline development with important implications for guideline implementability. The impact of PPI on guidelines, however, has not been rigorously assessed. Better understanding of the impact of PPI must start with guideline question formation, which drives all subsequent development steps. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of PPI on guideline question formation and validate a conceptual model of patient and public contributions to guidelines. METHODS: For development of a clinical practice guideline on the topic of using amyloid positron emission tomography in the diagnosis of dementia, we convened two parallel guideline development groups, one with and one without patient representatives. Participating physicians were randomized to group assignment. Each group developed Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcome, Time (PICOT) questions and identified key benefits and harms to incorporate in guideline development. Analysis included a descriptive comparison of proposed PICOT questions, benefits, and harms between groups and a qualitative analysis of discussion themes from audio recordings of the question development retreats. RESULTS: Proposed guideline questions, benefits, and harms were largely similar between groups, but only the experimental group proposed outcomes relating to development of cognitive impairment at specific time points and rate of progression. The qualitative analysis of the discussions occurring during guideline question development demonstrated key differences in group conduct and validated the proposed conceptual model of patient and public contributions to guidelines. PPI influenced the conduct of guideline development, scope, inclusion of patient-relevant topics, outcome selection, and planned approaches to recommendation development, implementation, and dissemination with implications for both guideline developers and the guideline development process. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence of how PPI impacts guideline development underscores the importance of engaging patient stakeholders in guideline development and highlights developer- and guideline-specific outcomes of PPI, both of which have implications for guideline implementation. It also raises the question of whether guidelines developed without such input are acceptable for use. PPI should be considered an essential element of trustworthy guideline development for purposes of development and funding.


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade/métodos , Participação do Paciente , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Melhoria de Qualidade/organização & administração , Adulto , Idoso , Consenso , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Opinião Pública , Pesquisa Qualitativa
16.
Neurology ; 90(17): 789-800, 2018 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29686117

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To review evidence on starting, switching, and stopping disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) for multiple sclerosis (MS) in clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), and progressive MS forms. METHODS: Relevant, peer-reviewed research articles, systematic reviews, and abstracts were identified (MEDLINE, CENTRAL, EMBASE searched from inception to November 2016). Studies were rated using the therapeutic classification scheme. Prior published Cochrane reviews were also used. RESULTS: Twenty Cochrane reviews and an additional 73 full-text articles were selected for data extraction through an updated systematic review (completed November 2016). For people with RRMS, many DMTs are superior to placebo (annualized relapses rates [ARRs], new disease activity [new MRI T2 lesion burden], and in-study disease progression) (see summary and full text publications). For people with RRMS who experienced a relapse on interferon-ß (IFN-ß) or glatiramer acetate, alemtuzumab is more effective than IFN-ß-1a 44 µg subcutaneous 3 times per week in reducing the ARR. For people with primary progressive MS, ocrelizumab is probably more effective than placebo (in-study disease progression). DMTs for MS have varying adverse effects. In people with CIS, glatiramer acetate and IFN-ß-1a subcutaneous 3 times per week are more effective than placebo in decreasing risk of conversion to MS. Cladribine, immunoglobulins, IFN-ß-1a 30 µg intramuscular weekly, IFN-ß-1b subcutaneous alternate day, and teriflunomide are probably more effective than placebo in decreasing risk of conversion to MS. Suggestions for future research include studies considering comparative effectiveness, usefulness of high-efficacy treatment vs stepped-care protocols, and research into predictive biomarkers.


Assuntos
Guias como Assunto/normas , Esclerose Múltipla/terapia , Neurologia/organização & administração , Neurologia/normas , Humanos , Esclerose Múltipla/tratamento farmacológico , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
17.
Neurology ; 90(17): 777-788, 2018 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29686116

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop recommendations for disease-modifying therapy (DMT) for multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: A multidisciplinary panel developed DMT recommendations, integrating findings from a systematic review; followed an Institute of Medicine-compliant process to ensure transparency and patient engagement; and developed modified Delphi consensus-based recommendations concerning starting, switching, and stopping DMTs pertinent to people with relapsing-remitting MS, secondary progressive MS, primary progressive MS, and clinically isolated syndromes of demyelination. Recommendations were supported by structured rationales, integrating evidence from one or more sources: systematic review, related evidence (evidence not from the systematic review), principles of care, and inference from evidence. RESULTS: Thirty recommendations were developed: 17 on starting DMTs, including recommendations on who should start them; 10 on switching DMTs if breakthrough disease develops; and 3 on stopping DMTs. Recommendations encompassed patient engagement strategies and individualization of treatment, including adherence monitoring and disease comorbidity assessment. The panel also discussed DMT risks, including counseling about progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy risk in people with MS using natalizumab, fingolimod, rituximab, ocrelizumab, and dimethyl fumarate; and made suggestions for future research to evaluate relative merits of early treatment with higher potency DMTs vs standard stepped-care protocols, DMT comparative effectiveness, optimal switching strategies, long-term effects of DMT use, definitions of highly active MS, and effects of treatment on patient-specified priority outcomes. This guideline reflects the complexity of decision-making for starting, switching, or stopping MS DMTs. The field of MS treatment is rapidly changing; the Academy of Neurology development process includes planning for future updates.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Esclerose Múltipla/terapia , Neurologia/organização & administração , Neurologia/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Adulto , Humanos , Estados Unidos
18.
Neurol Clin Pract ; 8(1): 58-61, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29517067

RESUMO

Clinical practice guidelines are produced in ever-increasing numbers by the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) and other developers, with over 1,000 guidelines currently in the National Guideline Clearinghouse. Knowing when to use guidelines in clinical practice requires neurologists to assess the rigor of published guidelines and understand how guideline recommendations are best applied in individual patient encounters. This review briefly describes guideline definitions and the AAN process for guideline development, outlines key elements for assessing guideline quality, and details a practical approach for incorporating guideline recommendations when partnering with patients in shared decision-making.

19.
Neurology ; 90(10): 464-471, 2018 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29440566

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To systematically review evidence regarding ataxia treatment. METHODS: A comprehensive systematic review was performed according to American Academy of Neurology methodology. CONCLUSIONS: For patients with episodic ataxia type 2, 4-aminopyridine 15 mg/d probably reduces ataxia attack frequency over 3 months (1 Class I study). For patients with ataxia of mixed etiology, riluzole probably improves ataxia signs at 8 weeks (1 Class I study). For patients with Friedreich ataxia or spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA), riluzole probably improves ataxia signs at 12 months (1 Class I study). For patients with SCA type 3, valproic acid 1,200 mg/d possibly improves ataxia at 12 weeks. For patients with spinocerebellar degeneration, thyrotropin-releasing hormone possibly improves some ataxia signs over 10 to 14 days (1 Class II study). For patients with SCA type 3 who are ambulatory, lithium probably does not improve signs of ataxia over 48 weeks (1 Class I study). For patients with Friedreich ataxia, deferiprone possibly worsens ataxia signs over 6 months (1 Class II study). Data are insufficient to support or refute the use of numerous agents. For nonpharmacologic options, in patients with degenerative ataxias, 4-week inpatient rehabilitation probably improves ataxia and function (1 Class I study); transcranial magnetic stimulation possibly improves cerebellar motor signs at 21 days (1 Class II study). For patients with multiple sclerosis-associated ataxia, the addition of pressure splints possibly has no additional benefit compared with neuromuscular rehabilitation alone (1 Class II study). Data are insufficient to support or refute use of stochastic whole-body vibration therapy (1 Class III study).


Assuntos
Ataxia/terapia , Doenças Cerebelares/terapia , Humanos
20.
Neurology ; 90(3): 126-135, 2018 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29282327

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To update the 2001 American Academy of Neurology (AAN) guideline on mild cognitive impairment (MCI). METHODS: The guideline panel systematically reviewed MCI prevalence, prognosis, and treatment articles according to AAN evidence classification criteria, and based recommendations on evidence and modified Delphi consensus. RESULTS: MCI prevalence was 6.7% for ages 60-64, 8.4% for 65-69, 10.1% for 70-74, 14.8% for 75-79, and 25.2% for 80-84. Cumulative dementia incidence was 14.9% in individuals with MCI older than age 65 years followed for 2 years. No high-quality evidence exists to support pharmacologic treatments for MCI. In patients with MCI, exercise training (6 months) is likely to improve cognitive measures and cognitive training may improve cognitive measures. MAJOR RECOMMENDATIONS: Clinicians should assess for MCI with validated tools in appropriate scenarios (Level B). Clinicians should evaluate patients with MCI for modifiable risk factors, assess for functional impairment, and assess for and treat behavioral/neuropsychiatric symptoms (Level B). Clinicians should monitor cognitive status of patients with MCI over time (Level B). Cognitively impairing medications should be discontinued where possible and behavioral symptoms treated (Level B). Clinicians may choose not to offer cholinesterase inhibitors (Level B); if offering, they must first discuss lack of evidence (Level A). Clinicians should recommend regular exercise (Level B). Clinicians may recommend cognitive training (Level C). Clinicians should discuss diagnosis, prognosis, long-term planning, and the lack of effective medicine options (Level B), and may discuss biomarker research with patients with MCI and families (Level C).


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/terapia , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Técnica Delfos , Humanos
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