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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(2): 25-29, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945037

RESUMO

Birth defects are a leading cause of infant mortality in the United States, accounting for 20.6% of infant deaths in 2017 (1). Rates of infant mortality attributable to birth defects (IMBD) have generally declined since the 1970s (1-3). U.S. linked birth/infant death data from 2003-2017 were used to assess trends in IMBD. Overall, rates declined 10% during 2003-2017, but decreases varied by maternal and infant characteristics. During 2003-2017, IMBD rates decreased 4% for infants of Hispanic mothers, 11% for infants of non-Hispanic black (black) mothers, and 12% for infants of non-Hispanic white (white) mothers. In 2017, these rates were highest among infants of black mothers (13.3 per 10,000 live births) and were lowest among infants of white mothers (9.9). During 2003-2017, IMBD rates for infants who were born extremely preterm (20-27 completed gestational weeks), full term (39-40 weeks), and late term/postterm (41-44 weeks) declined 20%-29%; rates for moderate (32-33 weeks) and late preterm (34-36 weeks) infants increased 17%. Continued tracking of IMBD rates can help identify areas where efforts to reduce IMBD are needed, such as among infants born to black and Hispanic mothers and those born moderate and late preterm (32-36 weeks).


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/mortalidade , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Anormalidades Congênitas/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil/etnologia , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Recém-Nascido , Criança Pós-Termo , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Mol Genet Metab Rep ; 21: 100523, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660292

RESUMO

Background: Phenylketonuria (PKU) imposes a substantial burden on people living with the condition and their families. However, little is known about the time cost and financial burden of having PKU or caring for a child with the condition. Methods and findings: Primary data were collected with a detailed cost and utilization survey. Primary outcomes included utilization and out-of-pocket costs of medical services, medical formula, and prescribed low-protein food consumption, as well as the time and perceived effort involved in following the PKU diet. Respondents were people living with PKU or parents of children with PKU identified through a state newborn screening program database. Secondary administrative claims data were also used to calculate mean total, insurer, and out-of-pocket payments in inpatient, outpatient (office visits, emergency room, and laboratory tests), and pharmacy settings for privately insured persons with PKU. Payments were calculated for sapropterin and for PKU formula.In primary data analysis (children n = 32, adults n = 52), annual out-of-pocket costs were highest for low-protein foods (child = $1651; adult = $967) compared with other categories of care. The time burden of PKU care was high; families reported spending more than 300 h per year shopping for and preparing special diet foods.In secondary data analysis, children 12-17 years old had the highest average medical expenditures ($54,147; n = 140) compared to children 0-11 years old ($19,057; n = 396) and adults 18 years and older ($40,705; n = 454). Medication costs were the largest contributor to medical costs, accounting for 61-81% of total costs across age groups. Sapropterin was the largest driver of medication costs, accounting for 85% of child medication costs and 92% of adult medication costs. Conclusion: Treatment for PKU incurs a substantial time and cost burden on persons with PKU and their families. Estimated medical expenditures using claims data varied by age group, but sapropterin represented the largest cost for PKU treatment from a payer perspective across age groups.

4.
6.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 1450(1): 268-280, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267542

RESUMO

Although the proportion of anemia amenable to change varies by population, the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria used to describe the public health severity of anemia are based on population prevalences. We describe the importance of measuring iron and other etiologic indicators to better understand what proportion of anemia could be responsive to interventions. We discuss the necessity of measuring inflammation to interpret iron biomarkers and documenting anemia of inflammation. Finally, we suggest assessing nonmodifiable genetic blood disorders associated with anemia. Using aggregated results from the Global Burden of Disease 2016, we compare population prevalence of anemia with years lived with disability (YLD) estimates, and the relative contributions of mild, moderate, and severe anemia to YLD. Anemia prevalences correlated with YLD and the relative proportion of moderate or severe anemia increased with anemia prevalence. However, individual-level survey data revealed irregular patterns between anemia prevalence, the prevalence of moderate or severe anemia, and the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (IDA). We conclude that although the WHO population prevalence criteria used to describe the public health severity of anemia are important for policymaking, etiologic-specific metrics that take into account IDA and other causes will be necessary for effective anemia control policies.

7.
JAMA Pediatr ; 173(7): 617-618, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107538
8.
Perm J ; 232019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30939282

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a rare, genetic, and underdiagnosed disease that causes vascular malformations throughout the body. Two specific combinations of International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision-Clinical Modification diagnosis codes, the "HHT Algorithms" (HHTAs), were developed previously from a derivation cohort to help identify undiagnosed HHT cases. OBJECTIVES: To test these 2 algorithms, and a third, newly designed HHTA, in an independent population with available clinical records and thus identify people who might have undiagnosed HHT. METHODS: The HHTAs were applied to the patient population of Kaiser Permanente Northern California. The HHTAs produced 3 groups (A, B, and C) using different combinations of diagnosis codes reflecting clinical manifestations of HHT. First, the number of Kaiser Permanente Northern California patients with each code was determined by database programming. Next, detailed chart review was performed, and patients with a Curaçao score of 2 or higher were considered to have possible HHT. RESULTS: Of 3,065,210 records queried, 163 patients met HHTA criteria. After chart review, the study identified 113 patients with possible undiagnosed HHT (Group A: n = 3, Group B: n = 3, Group C: n = 107). CONCLUSION: Employing the HHTAs in this community-based population resulted in a modest yield of patients with possible HHT. Further research is required to assess the utility of the HHTAs in identifying patients with actual HHT.


Assuntos
Telangiectasia Hemorrágica Hereditária/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , California , Estudos Transversais , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Telangiectasia Hemorrágica Hereditária/classificação
9.
SAGE Open Med ; 7: 2050312119840200, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30956790

RESUMO

Despite the prominence of episode groupers for analysis and reimbursement in US payer settings, peer-reviewed articles using episode groupers for cost-of-illness analysis that informs public health research and decision-making are uncommon. This article provides a brief practical guide to episode-based cost analysis and offers some examples of episode grouper products. It is intended for an audience of health services researchers and managers in public health settings who perform or commission cost-of-illness studies with the US healthcare claims fee-for-service data but lack familiarity with episode groupers.

10.
Pharmacoeconomics ; 37(4): 461-473, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953263

RESUMO

Spillover effects on the welfare of family members may refer to caregiver health effects, informal care time costs, or both. This review focuses on methods that have been used to measure and value informal care time and makes suggestions for their appropriate use in cost-of-illness and cost-effectiveness analyses. It highlights the importance of methods to value informal care time that are independent of caregiver health effects in order to minimize double counting of spillover effects. Although the concept of including caregiver time costs in economic evaluations is not new, relatively few societal perspective cost-effectiveness analyses have included informal care, with the exception of dementia. This is due in part to challenges in measuring and valuing time costs. Analysts can collect information on time spent in informal care or can assess its impact in displacing other time use, notably time in paid employment. A key challenge is to ensure appropriate comparison groups that do not require informal care to be able to correctly estimate attributable informal care time or foregone market work. To value informal care time, analysts can use estimates of hourly earnings in either opportunity cost or replacement cost approaches. Researchers have used widely varying estimates of hourly earnings. Alternatively, stated-preference methods (i.e. contingent valuation, conjoint analysis) can be used to value the effect of informal care on utility, but this can entail double counting with health effects. Lack of consensus and standardization of methods makes it difficult to compare estimates of informal care costs.

11.
Haemophilia ; 25(3): 456-462, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924993

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Epidemiological surveillance of haemophilia through linkage of medical records within a US state has not been conducted in 20 years. AIM: The Indiana Haemophilia Surveillance Project aims to identify all persons with haemophilia who resided in Indiana in 2011-2013 and to determine the percentage of patients in Indiana cared for at a federally recognized haemophilia treatment centre (HTC). METHODS: A retrospective review of medical charts was conducted to identify haemophilia cases during the surveillance years. Case-finding methods involved a variety of medical care resources including hospitals, administrative claims data and haematology/oncology clinic reports. RESULTS: In Indiana, 704 unique haemophilia cases were identified. Of those cases, 456 (64.8%) had factor VIII and 248 (35.2%) had factor IX deficiency. Among those with known severity levels (n = 685), 233 (34%) were severe, 185 (27%) were moderate, and 267 (39%) were mild. Overall, 81.7% of the haemophilia patients identified visited an HTC at least once during the three-year study period, which was the requirement for being considered an HTC patient. Age-adjusted prevalence for 2013 was 19.4 haemophilia cases per 100 000 males, 12.7 per 100 000 for factor VIII and 6.7 per 100 000 for factor IX. Incidence of haemophilia over the 10 years prior to the surveillance years was 1:3688 live male births in Indiana. During the surveillance years, 24 cases (3.4%) died. CONCLUSION: We observed higher incidence and prevalence of haemophilia in Indiana compared to previous national estimates, as well as higher HTC utilization among persons with haemophilia.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Hemofilia A/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Indiana/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 14(1): 70, 2019 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30902101

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We describe early health services utilization for children diagnosed with medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency through newborn screening in Ontario, Canada, relative to a screen negative comparison cohort. METHODS: Eligible children were identified via newborn screening between April 1, 2006 and March 31, 2010. Age-stratified rates of physician encounters, emergency department (ED) visits and inpatient hospitalizations to March 31, 2012 were compared using incidence rate ratios (IRR) and incidence rate differences (IRD). We used negative binomial regression to adjust IRRs for sex, gestational age, birth weight, socioeconomic status and rural/urban residence. RESULTS: Throughout the first few years of life, children with MCAD deficiency (n = 40) experienced statistically significantly higher rates of physician encounters, ED visits, and hospital stays compared with the screen negative cohort. The highest rates of ED visits and hospitalizations in the MCAD deficiency cohort occurred from 6 months to 2 years of age (ED use: 2.1-2.5 visits per child per year; hospitalization: 0.5-0.6 visits per child per year), after which rates gradually declined. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms that young children with MCAD deficiency use health services more frequently than the general population throughout the first few years of life. Rates of service use in this population gradually diminish after 24 months of age.


Assuntos
Acil-CoA Desidrogenase/deficiência , Mau Uso de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo Lipídico/epidemiologia , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo Lipídico/terapia , Peso ao Nascer , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo Lipídico/diagnóstico , Masculino , Triagem Neonatal , Ontário/epidemiologia , Características de Residência , Fatores Socioeconômicos
13.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(5): 107-111, 2019 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30730872

RESUMO

In 2011, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services added critical congenital heart disease (CCHD), which occurs in two of every 1,000 births, to the list of conditions recommended to states for universal newborn screening (1). Without early detection, infants with CCHD are at risk for substantial morbidity and death in the first weeks and months of life (2). Based on 2007-2013 data, deaths from CCHD and other cardiac causes in infants aged <6 months significantly declined in infants born in eight states after they had fully implemented mandated newborn CCHD screening policies by June 2013 (3). CDC collaborated with the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and the Association of Public Health Laboratories' Newborn Screening Technical Assistance and Evaluation Program (NewSTEPs) to update a 2015 report (4) on states' actions toward adopting and implementing policies supporting CCHD newborn screening. In 2018, all 50 states and the District of Columbia (DC) had implemented CCHD screening policies, and, with one exception, all states mandated that screening be done (California mandates that screening be offered). However, not all states had data systems in place for tracking all screening results and outcomes. Ongoing evaluation activities, which rely on screening data, could help identify program improvement opportunities and monitor the impact of early identification of CCHD.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico , Triagem Neonatal , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estados Unidos
15.
Matern Child Health J ; 23(5): 623-632, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30600516

RESUMO

Objectives We aimed to examine the extent to which health plan expenditures for infertility services differed by whether women resided in states with mandates requiring coverage of such services and by whether coverage was provided through a self-insured plan subject to state mandates versus fully-insured health plans subject only to federal regulation. Methods This retrospective cohort study used individual-level, de-identified health insurance claims data. We included women 19-45 years of age who were continuously enrolled during 2011 and classified them into three mutually exclusive groups based on highest treatment intensity: in vitro fertilization (IVF), intrauterine insemination (IUI), or ovulation-inducing (OI) medications. Using generalized linear models, we estimated adjusted annual mean, aggregate, and per member per month (PMPM) expenditures among women in states with an infertility insurance mandate and those in states without a mandate, stratified by enrollment in a fully-insured or self-insured health plan. Results Of the 6,006,017 women continuously enrolled during 2011, 9199 (0.15%) had claims for IVF, 10,112 (0.17%) had claims for IUI, and 23,739 (0.40%) had claims for OI medications. Among women enrolled in fully insured plans, PMPM expenditures for infertility treatment were 3.1 times higher for those living in states with a mandate compared with states without a mandate. Among women enrolled in self-insured plans, PMPM infertility treatment expenditures were 1.2 times higher for mandate versus non-mandate states. Conclusions for Practice Recorded infertility treatment expenditures were higher in states with insurance reimbursement mandates versus those without mandates, with most of the difference in expenditures incurred by fully-insured plans.


Assuntos
Fármacos para a Fertilidade/economia , Programas Governamentais/economia , Adulto , Feminino , Programas Governamentais/métodos , Programas Governamentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Gastos em Saúde/tendências , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/economia , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Infertilidade/tratamento farmacológico , Infertilidade/economia , Cobertura do Seguro/normas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Governo Estadual , Estados Unidos
17.
Psychiatr Serv ; 70(1): 26-34, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30373494

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurodevelopmental disorder of childhood. Clinical guidelines recommend behavior therapy as the first-line treatment for preschool-age children with ADHD. This study evaluated longitudinal patterns of services received by Medicaid-enrolled children ages 2 to 5 with ADHD in seven southeastern states (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, and South Carolina). METHODS: A discrete sequence clustering analysis was used with 2005-2012 Medicaid Analytic eXtract data to profile patient-level utilization for each state, with a focus on receipt of psychological services and medication. The model output was used to assess utilization behaviors longitudinally relative to recommended care guidelines and to characterize sources of variation in utilization patterns by demographic and ecological factors. RESULTS: Five states had a utilization profile with a high probability of receipt of psychological services before medication among children with ADHD, covering 16% of the total study population. Most young children's ADHD care experience in the seven states (65%) fit utilization profiles characterized by a high probability of receiving any ADHD medication. Black race was significantly associated with higher utilization of psychological services in three states. CONCLUSIONS: About 16% of Medicaid-enrolled preschool-age children with ADHD received care during 2005-2012 that appeared to be consistent with 2011 recommended care guidelines. State-level and subpopulation variations in utilization for ADHD-related clinical care were found. The findings indicate that there were major gaps in treatment for ADHD among young children and that the gaps are wider for some states and subpopulations of children.

18.
J Med Econ ; 22(6): 501-508, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30384792

RESUMO

Background: Human-capital based lifetime productivity estimates are frequently used in cost-of-illness (COI) analyses and, less commonly, in cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs). Previous US estimates assumed that labor productivity and real earnings both grow by 1% per year. Objectives: This study presents estimates of annual and lifetime productivity for 2016 using data from the American Community Survey, the American Time Use Survey, and the Current Population Survey, and with varying assumptions about real earnings growth. Methods: The sum of market productivity (gross annual personal labor earnings adjusted for employer-paid benefits) and the imputed value of non-market time spent in household, caring, and volunteer services was estimated. The present value of lifetime productivity at various ages was calculated for synthetic cohorts using annual productivity estimates, life tables, discount rates, and assumptions about future earnings growth rates. Results: Mean annual productivity was $57,324 for US adults in 2016, including $36,935 in market and $20,389 in non-market productivity. Lifetime productivity at birth, using a 3% discount rate, is roughly $1.5 million if earnings grow by 1% per year and $1.2 million if future earnings growth averages 0.5% per year. Conclusions: Inclusion of avoidable productivity losses in societal-perspective CEAs of health interventions is recommended in new US cost-effectiveness guidelines. However, estimates vary depending on whether analysts choose to estimate total productivity or just market productivity, and on assumptions made about growth in future productivity and earnings.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Eficiência , Modelos Econômicos , Salários e Benefícios/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Censos , Feminino , Humanos , Tábuas de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Salários e Benefícios/economia , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 53(12): 1611-1618, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30381911

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Published cost estimates for cystic fibrosis (CF) are based on older data and do not reflect increased use of specialty drugs in recent years. We assessed recent trends in healthcare expenditures for CF patients in the United States (US) with employer-sponsored health insurance. METHODS: The study is a retrospective analysis of claims data for privately insured individuals aged 0-64 years who were continuously enrolled in non-capitated plans for at least 1 calendar year during 2010-2016. Mean annual expenditures during a calendar year were calculated for individuals who met a claims-based CF case definition. Average annual growth rates were calculated through linear regression of the natural logarithm of annual expenditures. RESULTS: The annual CF prevalence was 1.1-1.4 per 10 000 adults and 2.9-3.0 per 10 000 children. Average spending adjusted for inflation nearly doubled from roughly $67 000 per patient in 2010 and 2011 to approximately $131 000 per patient in 2016. Inflation-adjusted spending on outpatient and inpatient care increased by 0.5% and 2.5% per year, respectively, whereas pharmaceutical spending increased by 20.2% per year. Virtually all of the growth in pharmaceutical spending was accounted for by spending on specialty drugs; inflation-adjusted spending on other medications increased by 1.3% per year. The annual growth rate in pharmaceutical spending rose by 33.1% during 2014-2016, the years during which lumacaftor/ivacaftor was introduced. CONCLUSIONS: Per-patient expenditures for privately-insured patients with CF almost doubled during 2010-2016; specialty drugs were largely responsible for this increase, with a major contribution from new, genotype-targeted CFTR modulator medications.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística/economia , Planos de Assistência de Saúde para Empregados , Gastos em Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Fibrose Cística/tratamento farmacológico , Honorários Farmacêuticos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
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