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2.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 59(2): 344-360, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325311

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The number of innate immune system disorders classified as systemic autoinflammatory diseases (SAID) has increased in recent years. More than 70% of patients with clinical manifestations of SAID did not receive a molecular diagnosis, thus being classed as so-called undifferentiated or undefined SAID (uSAID). The aim of the present study was to evaluate a next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based clinically oriented protocol in patients with uSAID. METHODS: We designed a NGS panel that included 41 genes clustered in seven subpanels. Patients with uSAID were classified into different groups according to their clinical features and sequenced for the coding portions of the 41 genes. RESULTS: Fifty patients were enrolled in the study. Thirty-four patients (72%) displayed recurrent fevers not consistent with a PFAPA phenotype. Sixteen patients displayed a chronic inflammatory disease course. A total of 100 gene variants were found (mean 2 per patient; range 0-6), a quarter of which affected suspected genes. Mutations with a definitive diagnostic impact were detected in two patients. Patients with genetically negative recurrent fevers displayed a prevalent gastrointestinal, skin and articular involvement. Patients responded to steroids on demands (94%) and colchicine, with a response rate of 78%. CONCLUSION: Even with a low molecular diagnostic rate, a NGS-based approach is able to provide a final diagnosis in a proportion of uSAID patients with evident cost-effectiveness. It also allows the identification of a subgroup of genetically negative patients with recurrent fever responding to steroid on demand and colchicine.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31876783

RESUMO

In recent years, monogenic causes of immune dysregulation syndromes, with variable phenotypes, have been documented. Mutations in the lipopolysaccharide-responsive beige-like anchor (LRBA) protein are associated with common variable immunodeficiency, autoimmunity, chronic enteropathy, and immune dysregulation disorders. The LRBA protein prevents degradation of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4) protein, thus inhibiting immune responses. Both LRBA and CTLA4 deficiencies usually present with immune dysregulation, mostly characterized by autoimmunity and lymphoproliferation. In this report, we describe a patient with an atypical clinical onset of LRBA deficiency and the patient's response to abatacept, a fusion protein-drug that mimics the action of CTLA4.

4.
Front Neurol ; 10: 1124, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31781017

RESUMO

Alexander disease (AxD) is a rare, autosomal dominant neurological disorder. Three clinical subtypes are distinguished based on age at onset: infantile (0-2 years), juvenile (2-13 years), and adult (>13 years). The three forms differ in symptoms and prognosis. Rapid neurological decline with a fatal course characterizes the early-onset forms, while symptoms are milder and survival is longer in the adult forms. Currently, the sole known cause of AxD is mutations in the GFAP gene, which encodes a type III intermediate filament protein that is predominantly expressed in astrocytes. A wide spectrum of GFAP mutations comprising point mutations, small insertions, and deletions is associated with the disease. The genotype-phenotype correlation remains unclear. The considerable heterogeneity in severity of disease among individuals carrying identical mutations suggests that other genetic or environmental factors probably modify age at onset or progression of AxD. Describing new cases is therefore important for establishing reliable genotype-phenotype correlations and revealing environmental factors able to modify age at onset or progression of AxD. We report the case of a 54-year-old Caucasian woman, previously diagnosed with ovarian cancer and treated with surgery and chemotherapy, who developed dysarthria, ataxia, and spastic tetraparesis involving mainly the left side. Cerebral and spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a peculiar tadpole-like atrophy of the brainstem. Genetic analysis of the GFAP gene detected a heterozygous mutation in exon 1 (c.219G>C), resulting in an amino acid exchange from methionine to isoleucine at codon 73 (p.M73I). The expression of this mutant in vitro affected the formation of the intermediate filament network. Thus, we have identified a new GFAP mutation in a patient with an adult form of AxD.

5.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 14(1): 270, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hirschsprung Disease (HSCR) is a congenital defect of the intestinal innervations characterized by complex inheritance. Many susceptibility genes including RET, the major HSCR gene, and several linked regions and associated loci have been shown to contribute to disease pathogenesis. Nonetheless, a proportion of patients still remains unexplained. Copy Number Variations (CNVs) have already been involved in HSCR, and for this reason we performed Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH), using a custom array with high density probes. RESULTS: A total of 20 HSCR candidate regions/genes was tested in 55 sporadic patients and four patients with already known chromosomal aberrations. Among 83 calls, 12 variants were experimentally validated, three of which involving the HSCR crucial genes SEMA3A/3D, NRG1, and PHOX2B. Conversely RET involvement in HSCR does not seem to rely on the presence of CNVs while, interestingly, several gains and losses did co-occur with another RET defect, thus confirming that more than one predisposing event is necessary for HSCR to develop. New loci were also shown to be involved, such as ALDH1A2, already found to play a major role in the enteric nervous system. Finally, all the inherited CNVs were of maternal origin. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm a wide genetic heterogeneity in HSCR occurrence and support a role of candidate genes in expression regulation and cell signaling, thus contributing to depict further the molecular complexity of the genomic regions involved in the Enteric Nervous System development. The observed maternal transmission bias for HSCR associated CNVs supports the hypothesis that in females these variants might be more tolerated, requiring additional alterations to develop HSCR disease.

6.
Ital J Pediatr ; 45(1): 111, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Familial Mediterranean Fever is a monogenic autoinflammatory disease, typically characterized by recurrent attacks of fever, serositis, aphthous of oral mucosa, erythema. "Pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum and acne syndrome" is a rare autoinflammatory disease with variable expression and typically involving joints and skin. Both the diseases are linked by the overproduction of IL-1. CASE PRESENTATION: We report on the case of two siblings affected by recurrent attacks of fever, oral aphthous stomatitis, abdominal pain, arthritis, undefined dermatitis at the hands, associated with increased AST, ALT, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, serum amyloid A, leucocytosis with neutrophilia. Infectious diseases were excluded. The genetic study for Familial Mediterranean Fever, tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome, Mevalonate kinase deficiency, showed the homozygous mutation p.M680I of exon 10 in MEFV. Their parents were heterozygous for the same mutation p.M680I, however, the mother showed severe symptoms of FMF (recurrent attacks of fever, arthralgia and arthritis, abdominal pain, thoracic pain), the father showed recurrent pustulosis prevalent on the hands and limbs, with arthralgia and abdominal pain. Both the patients started colchicine, with an improvement in clinical manifestations and a reduction of serum amyloid A. For the atypical dermatologic signs present in the two siblings and in the father, the study of other autoinflammatory syndromes was performed with next generation sequencing and showed the heterozygous rare missense mutation of unknown significance: p.(Val408Ile) of PSTPIP1 gene in the two siblings and in the mother, the father was negative. Canakinumab treatment was started in the younger patient, with the resolution of the clinical symptoms and the normalization of serum amyloid A. CONCLUSIONS: Further studies are needed to better describe the correlation between genotype and phenotype in patients with PAPA syndrome and with PAPA syndrome associated with FMF, considering that the presence of mutations in both genes may amplify clinical presentation and evolution of both diseases.

7.
Br J Haematol ; 187(4): 502-508, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309545

RESUMO

Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a congenital disorder that results in an apoptosis impairment of lymphocytes, leading to chronic lymphoproliferation and autoimmunity, mainly autoimmune cytopenias. FAS gene defects are often responsible for the disease, the phenotype of which can vary from asymptomatic/mild forms to severe disease. More rarely, defects are associated to  other genes involved in apoptosis pathway, such as CASP10. Few data are available on CASP10-mutated patients. To date, two CASP10 mutations have been recognized as pathogenic (I406L and L258F) and others have been reported with controversial result on their pathogenicity (V410l, Y446C) or are known to be polymorphic variants (L522l). In this study, we evaluated apoptosis function in patients with an ALPS/ALPS-like phenotype carrying CASP10 variants. Molecular findings were obtained by next generation sequencing analysis of genes involved in immune dysregulation syndromes. Functional studies were performed after inducing apoptosis by FAS-ligand/TRIAL stimulation and analysing cell death and the function of CASP10, CASP8 and PARP proteins. We identified 6 patients with an ALPS (n = 2) or ALPS-like (n = 4) phenotype, carrying I406L (n = 1),V410l (n = 2),Y446C (n = 1) heterozygous CASP10 variants or the L522l polymorphisms (n = 2) associated with another polymorphic homozygote variant on CASP8 or a compound heterozygous mutation on TNFRSF13C. Apoptosis was impaired in all patients showing that such variants may play a role in the development of clinical phenotype.

9.
Eur J Paediatr Neurol ; 22(4): 725-728, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29709427

RESUMO

Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by fragmented and mineralized elastic fibers in the mid-dermis of the skin, eye, digestive tract and cardiovascular system. Clinical presentation includes typical skin lesions, ocular angioid streaks, and multisystem vasculopathy. The age of onset varies considerably from infancy to old age, but the diagnosis is usually made in young adults due to frequent absence of pathognomonic skin and ocular manifestations in early childhood. We report two children with PXE presenting with isolated multisystem vasculopathy and early-onset stroke. In the first patient, diagnosis was delayed until typical dermatologic alterations appeared; in the second patient, next-generation sequencing (NGS) study led to early diagnosis and specific follow-up, underlying the crucial role in idiopathic pediatric stroke of early genetic testing using NGS-based panels.


Assuntos
Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/genética , Pseudoxantoma Elástico/complicações , Pseudoxantoma Elástico/diagnóstico , Pseudoxantoma Elástico/genética , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/genética , Adolescente , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação
12.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 76(10): 1648-1656, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28522451

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To analyse the prevalence of CECR1 mutations in patients diagnosed with early onset livedo reticularis and/or haemorrhagic/ischaemic strokes in the context of inflammation or polyarteritis nodosa (PAN). Forty-eight patients from 43 families were included in the study. METHODS: Direct sequencing of CECR1 was performed by Sanger analysis. Adenosine deaminase 2 (ADA2) enzymatic activity was analysed in monocyte isolated from patients and healthy controls incubated with adenosine and with or without an ADA1 inhibitor. RESULTS: Biallelic homozygous or compound heterozygous CECR1 mutations were detected in 15/48 patients. A heterozygous disease-associated mutation (p.G47V) was observed in two affected brothers. The mean age of onset of the genetically positive patients was 24 months (6 months to 7 years). Ten patients displayed one or more cerebral strokes during their disease course. Low immunoglobulin levels were detected in six patients. Thalidomide and anti-TNF (tumour necrosis factor) blockers were the most effective drugs. Patients without CECR1 mutations had a later age at disease onset, a lower prevalence of neurological and skin manifestations; one of these patients displayed all the clinical features of adenosine deaminase 2deficiency (DADA2) and a defective enzymatic activity suggesting the presence of a missed mutation or a synthesis defect. CONCLUSIONS: DADA2 accounts for paediatric patients diagnosed with PAN-like disease and strokes and might explain an unrecognised condition in patients followed by adult rheumatologist. Timely diagnosis and treatment with anti-TNF agents are crucial for the prevention of severe complications of the disease. Functional assay to measure ADA2 activity should complement genetic testing in patients with non-confirming genotypes.


Assuntos
Adenosina Desaminase/deficiência , Adenosina Desaminase/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/deficiência , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/genética , Livedo Reticular/genética , Poliarterite Nodosa/genética , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/genética , Adolescente , Idade de Início , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Homozigoto , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Lactente , Itália , Livedo Reticular/tratamento farmacológico , Livedo Reticular/enzimologia , Masculino , Linhagem , Poliarterite Nodosa/tratamento farmacológico , Poliarterite Nodosa/enzimologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/enzimologia , Talidomida/uso terapêutico , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Adulto Jovem
13.
Front Immunol ; 8: 2015, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29434583

RESUMO

Primary immunodeficiencies with selective susceptibility to EBV infection are rare conditions associated with severe lymphoproliferation. We followed a patient, son of consanguineous parents, referred to our center for recurrent periodic episodes of fever associated with tonsillitis and adenitis started after an infectious mononucleosis and responsive to oral steroid. An initial diagnosis of periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, cervical adenitis syndrome was done. In the following months, recurrent respiratory infections and episodes of keratitis were also observed, together with a progressive reduction of immunoglobulin levels and an increase of CD20+ cells. Cell sorting and EBV PCR showed 25,000 copies for 100,000 leukocytes with predominant infection of B lymphocytes. Lymph node's biopsy revealed reactive lymphadenopathy with paracortical involvement consistent with a chronic EBV infection. Molecular analysis of XIAP, SHA2D1A, ITK, and CD27 genes did not detect any pathogenic mutation. The patients underwent repeated courses of anti-CD20 therapy with only a partial control of the disease, followed by stem cell transplantation with a complete normalization of clinical and immunological features. Whole exome sequencing of the trio was performed. Among the variants identified, a novel loss of function homozygous c.163-2A>G mutation of the CD70 gene, affecting the exon 2 AG-acceptor splice site, fit the expected recessive model of inheritance. Indeed, deficiency of both CD27, and, more recently, of its ligand CD70, has been reported as a cause of EBV-driven lymphoproliferation and hypogammaglobulinemia. Cell surface analysis of patient-derived PHA-T cell blasts and EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines confirmed absence of CD70 expression. In conclusion, we describe a case of severe chronic EBV infection caused by a novel mutation of CD70 presenting with recurrent periodic fever.

14.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 75(8): 1550-7, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26386126

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Systemic auto-inflammatory disorders (SAIDs) are a heterogeneous group of monogenic diseases sharing a primary dysfunction of the innate immune system. More than 50% of patients with SAID does not show any mutation at gene(s) tested because of lack of precise clinical classification criteria and/or incomplete gene screening. To improve the molecular diagnosis and genotype interpretation of SAIDs, we undertook the development of a next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based protocol designed to simultaneous screening of 10 genes. METHODS: Fifty patients with SAID, already genotyped for the respective causative gene(s), were massively sequenced for the coding portions of MEFV, MVK, TNFRSF1A, NLRP3, NLRP12, NOD2, PSTPIP1, IL1RN, LPIN2 and PSMB8. Three different bioinformatic pipelines (Ion Reporter, CLC Bio Genomics Workbench, GATK-based in-house workflow) were compared. RESULTS: Once resulting variants were compared with the expected mutation list, no workflow turned out to be able to detect all the 79 variants known in the 50 DNAs. Additional variants were also detected, validated by Sanger sequencing and compared to assess true and false positive detection rates of the three workflows. Finally, the overall clinical picture of 34 patients was re-evaluated in the light of the new mutations found. CONCLUSIONS: The present gene panel has resulted suitable for molecular diagnosis of SAIDs. Moreover, genotype-phenotype correlation has confirmed that the interpretation of NGS data in patients with an undefined inflammatory phenotype is remarkably difficult, thus supporting the need of evidence-based and validated clinical criteria to be used concurrently with the genetic analysis for the final diagnosis and classification of patients with SAIDs.


Assuntos
Doenças Hereditárias Autoinflamatórias/diagnóstico , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Febre Familiar do Mediterrâneo/diagnóstico , Febre Familiar do Mediterrâneo/genética , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Doenças Hereditárias Autoinflamatórias/genética , Humanos , Mutação , Fenótipo
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 93(27): e187, 2014 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25501066

RESUMO

The association of pyoderma gangrenosum, acne, and suppurative hidradenitis (PASH) has recently been described and suggested to be a new entity within the spectrum of autoinflammatory syndromes, which are characterized by recurrent episodes of sterile inflammation, without circulating autoantibodies and autoreactive T-cells. We conducted an observational study on 5 patients with PASH syndrome, analyzing their clinical features, genetic profile of 10 genes already known to be involved in autoinflammatory diseases (AIDs), and cytokine expression pattern both in lesional skin and serum. In tissue skin samples, the expressions of interleukin (IL)-1ß and its receptors I and II were significantly higher in PASH (P = 0.028, 0.047, and 0.050, respectively) than in controls. In PASH patients, chemokines such as IL-8 (P = 0.004), C-X-C motif ligand (CXCL) 1/2/3 (P = 0.028), CXCL 16 (P = 0.008), and regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) (P = 0.005) were overexpressed. Fas/Fas ligand and cluster of differentiation (CD)40/CD40 ligand systems were also overexpressed (P = 0.016 for Fas, P = 0.006 for Fas ligand, P = 0.005 for CD40, and P = 0.004 for CD40 ligand), contributing to tissue damage and inflammation. In peripheral blood, serum levels of the main proinflammatory cytokines, that is, IL-1ß, tumor necrosis factor-α, and IL-17, were within the normal range, suggesting that in PASH syndrome, the inflammatory process is mainly localized into the skin. Four out of our 5 PASH patients presented genetic alterations typical of well-known AIDs, including inflammatory bowel diseases, and the only patient lacking genetic changes had clinically evident Crohn disease. In conclusion, overexpression of cytokines/chemokines and molecules amplifying the inflammatory network, along with the genetic changes, supports the view that PASH syndrome is autoinflammatory in origin.


Assuntos
Acne Vulgar/complicações , Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Citocinas/sangue , Hidradenite Supurativa/complicações , Pioderma Gangrenoso/complicações , Acne Vulgar/sangue , Acne Vulgar/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Doenças Autoimunes/sangue , Antígenos CD40/metabolismo , Selectina E/metabolismo , Feminino , Hidradenite Supurativa/sangue , Hidradenite Supurativa/genética , Humanos , Selectina L/metabolismo , Masculino , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pioderma Gangrenoso/sangue , Pioderma Gangrenoso/genética , Lectinas Semelhantes a Imunoglobulina de Ligação ao Ácido Siálico/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Inibidores Teciduais de Metaloproteinases/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem , Receptor fas/metabolismo
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