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1.
Reprod Health ; 18(1): 91, 2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947413

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A growing body of evidence indicates that some people seek options to terminate a pregnancy without medical assistance, but experiences doing so have largely been documented only among people accessing a clinic-based abortion. We aim to describe self-managed abortion (SMA) experiences of people recruited outside of clinics, including their motivations for SMA, pregnancy confirmation and decision-making processes, method choices, and clinical outcomes. METHODS: In 2017, we conducted 14 in-depth interviews with self-identified females of reproductive age who recently reported in an online survey administered to Ipsos' KnowledgePanel that, since 2000, they had attempted SMA while living in the United States. We asked participants about their reproductive histories, experiences seeking reproductive health care, and SMA experiences. We used an iterative process to develop codes and analyzed transcripts using thematic content analysis methods. RESULTS: Motivations and perceptions of effectiveness varied by whether participants had confirmed the pregnancy prior to SMA. Participants who confirmed their pregnancies chose SMA because it was convenient, accessible, and private. Those who did not test for pregnancy were motivated by a preference for autonomy and felt empowered by the ability to try something on their own before seeking facility-based care. Participants prioritized methods that were safe and available, though not always effective. Most used herbs or over-the-counter medications; none used self-sourced abortion medications, mifepristone and/or misoprostol. Five participants obtained facility-based abortions and one participant decided to continue the pregnancy after attempting SMA. The remaining eight reported being no longer pregnant after SMA. None of the participants sought care for  SMA complications; one participant saw a provider to confirm abortion completion. CONCLUSIONS: There are many types of SMA experiences. In addition to those who pursue SMA as a last resort (after facing barriers to facility-based care) or as a first resort (because they prefer homeopathic remedies), our findings show that some individuals view SMA as a potential interim step worth trying after suspecting pregnancy and before accessing facility-based care. These people in particular would benefit from a medication abortion product available over the counter, online, or in the form of a missed-period pill.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972398

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We explored whether routine pregnancy self-testing is feasible and acceptable to women at risk of late recognition of pregnancy as a strategy to facilitate early entry into either antenatal or abortion care. METHODS: A feasibility study among South African sexually active women not desiring pregnancy within 1 year, and not using long-acting or injectable contraceptives. At recruitment, we provided five free urine pregnancy tests for self-testing on the first day of each of the next 3 months. We sent monthly text reminders to use the tests with requests for no-cost text replies. Our main outcome was the proportion of participants self-testing within 5 days of the text reminder over three consecutive months. Other outcomes were ease of use of tests, preference for self-testing versus clinic testing, acceptability of routine self-testing (all binary responses followed by open response options) and response to text messages (four-point Likert scale). RESULTS: We followed up 71/76 (93%) participants. Two confirmed new pregnancies at the first scheduled test and completed exit interviews, and 64/69 (93%) self-reported completing all three monthly tests. Self-testing was easy to do (66/71, 93%); advantages were convenience (21/71, 30%) and privacy (18/71, 25%), while the main disadvantage was no nurse present to advise (17/71, 24%). Most would recommend monthly testing (70/71, 99%). Text reminders were generally not bothersome (57/71, 80%); 35/69 (51%) participants replied with test results over all three months. CONCLUSION: Providing free pregnancy tests to women at risk of late recognition of pregnancy is feasible to strengthen early confirmation of pregnancy status.

3.
Obstet Gynecol ; 137(5): 907-915, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831931

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence of contraindications to hormonal contraception among postpartum women. METHODS: Low-income postpartum women who planned to delay childbearing for 2 years or longer after delivery were recruited for a prospective cohort study from eight Texas hospitals. Women self-reported health conditions that corresponded to category 3 and 4 contraindications to combined hormonal contraception and progestin-only methods, based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 2016 Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use. We used mixed-effects Poisson regression models to assess characteristics associated with reporting any contraindication 6 months after delivery. We examined the proportion of women who used a contraindicated method. RESULTS: Of 1,452 women who completed the 6-month interview, 19.1% reported a category 3 or 4 contraindication to combined hormonal contraception (16.8% category 4) and 5.4% reported a contraindication to depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (0.1% category 4). Only 0.8% had any category 3 or 4 contraindication to progestin-only pills and 0.6% to the implant. Migraine with aura (12.4%) and hypertension (4.8%) were the most common contraindications. The prevalence of any contraindication was higher among women who were 30 years or older (prevalence ratio 1.45 95% CI 1.21-1.73), overweight (prevalence ratio 1.39, 95% CI 1.07-1.80), obese (prevalence ratio 1.55, 95% CI 1.16-2.07), and insured (prevalence ratio 1.34, 95% CI 1.04-1.74). Compared with U.S.-born Latina women, the prevalence of contraindications was higher among Black women (prevalence ratio 1.37, 95% CI 1.14-1.64) and lower among foreign-born Latina women (prevalence ratio 0.71, 95% CI 0.59-0.86). Among women with contraindications, 28 (10.3%) were using combined hormonal contraception; six (8%) were using a contraindicated progestin-only method. CONCLUSION: Nearly one in five participants had a category 3 or 4 contraindication to combined hormonal contraception. Patients at higher risk for adverse birth outcomes are more likely to have contraindications. Clinicians should counsel on contraception and contraindications prenatally to facilitate the most informed postpartum decision.

4.
Womens Health Issues ; 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33832830

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Utah law requires patients to have a face-to-face "informed consent" visit at least 72 hours prior to abortion. Planned Parenthood Association of Utah (PPAU) offers this visit via telemedicine as an alternative to an in-person visit, which can require burdensome travel. This novel study identifies factors associated with using telemedicine for informed consent, patients' reasons for using it, and experiences with it, compared to in-person informed consent. METHODS: In 2017 and 2018, patients 18 years and older seeking abortion at PPAU completed a self-administered online survey about their experiences with the informed consent visit. We used linear and logistic regression models to compare participants' demographic characteristics by informed consent visit type, and descriptive statistics to describe reasons for using each visit type and experiences with the visit. Multivariable logistic regression models examined associations between visit type and satisfaction. RESULTS: Responses from 166 telemedicine patients and 217 in-person informed consent patients indicate that telemedicine participants would have had to travel significantly further than in-person participants traveled to attend the visit at the clinic (mean of 65 miles versus 21 miles, p < .001). In multivariable analyses, telemedicine participants had higher odds of being "very satisfied" with the visit (aOR, 2,89; 95% CI: 1.93-4.32) and "very comfortable" asking questions during the visit (aOR, 3.76; 95% CI: 2.58-5.49), compared to participants who attended in-person visits. CONCLUSIONS: Telemedicine offers a convenient, acceptable option for mandated pre-abortion informed consent visits and reduces the burden of additional travel and associated barriers for some patients, particularly those who live further away from clinics.

5.
Contraception ; 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33811840

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate obstetrician-gynecologists' (ob-gyns) willingness to provide medication abortion if the in-person dispensing requirement for mifepristone were removed. STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed a subsample (n = 868) from a 2016 to 2017 national survey of ob-gyns, focusing on questions related to provision of medication abortion. RESULTS: In the survey, 164 (19%) ob-gyns reported providing medication abortion in the prior year. When we asked those not providing medication abortion if they would offer the method to their patients if the in-person dispensing requirement for mifepristone were removed, 171 (24%) ob-gyns reported they would, suggesting a potential doubling of providers (+104%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 97%-112%). The largest theoretical increases were in the Midwest (+189%, 95% CI: 172%-207%) and South (+118%, 95% CI: 103%-134%). In multivariable regression analysis, female ob-gyns and those in university faculty practices had higher odds of reporting they would start providing medication abortion if the dispensing requirement were removed, while those in practice >10 years had lower odds. CONCLUSIONS: Removal of the in-person dispensing requirement could increase provision of medication abortion, including in regions with limited abortion access. IMPLICATIONS: In order to improve access to medication abortion, the mifepristone Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy should be modified or removed to allow clinicians to prescribe the medication with dispensing by pharmacies, including mail-order pharmacies.

6.
Obstet Gynecol ; 137(4): 613-622, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706339

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate effectiveness and acceptability of medication abortion with mifepristone dispensed by pharmacists. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study at eight clinical sites and pharmacies in California and Washington State from July 2018 to March 2020. Pharmacists at participating pharmacies underwent a 1-hour training on medication abortion. We approached patients who had already been evaluated, counseled, and consented for medication abortion per standard of care. Patients interested in study participation gave consent, and the clinician electronically sent a prescription to the pharmacy for mifepristone 200 mg orally, followed 24-48 hours later by misoprostol 800 micrograms buccally. Participants were sent web-based surveys about their experience and outcomes on days 2 and 14 after enrollment and had routine follow-up with study sites. We extracted demographic and clinical data, including abortion outcome and adverse events, from medical records. We performed multivariable logistic regression to assess the association of pharmacy experience and other covariates with satisfaction. RESULTS: We enrolled 266 participants and obtained clinical outcome information for 262 (98.5%), of whom two reported not taking either medication. Of the 260 participants with abortion outcome information, 252 (96.9%) and 237 (91.2%) completed day 2 and 14 surveys, respectively. Complete medication abortion (primary outcome) occurred for 243 participants (93.5%, 95% CI 89.7-96.1%). Four participants (1.5%, 95% CI 0.4-3.9%) had an adverse event, none of which was serious or related to pharmacist dispensing. In the day 2 survey, 91.3% (95% CI 87.1-94.4%) of participants reported satisfaction with the pharmacy experience. In the day 14 survey, 84.4% (95% CI 79.1-88.8%) reported satisfaction with the medication abortion experience. Those reporting being very satisfied with the pharmacy experience had higher odds of reporting overall satisfaction with medication abortion (adjusted odds ratio 2.96, 95% CI 1.38-6.32). CONCLUSION: Pharmacist dispensing of mifepristone for medication abortion is effective and acceptable to patients, with a low prevalence of adverse events. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03320057.

7.
Contraception ; 2021 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33762170

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess changes in Texas-resident border-state abortions, medication abortions, and abortions ≥22 weeks from last menstrual period (LMP) before and after implementation of House Bill 2 (HB2) in November 2013 and before and after the US Supreme Court's decision regarding HB2 in June 2016. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted an interrupted time series analysis using 2012-2017 data on Texas-resident abortions in Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and New Mexico. Data on procedure type and gestational age were available only for abortions in New Mexico. RESULTS: Border states reported 762 Texas-resident abortions in 2012, 1,673 in 2014, and 1,475 in 2017. Texas-resident abortions in all border states nearly doubled following HB2's implementation (incidence rate ratio [IRR]=1.92, 95% CI: 1.67-2.20). Border-state abortions then decreased by 19% after the 2016 US Supreme Court decision, compared to the period prior to the decision and after HB2's implementation (IRR=0.81, 95% CI: 0.73-0.91). From 2012 to 2014, the proportion of Texas-resident abortions in New Mexico that were medication abortion increased from 5% to 20% (p < 0.001) and the proportion that were ≥22 weeks from LMP decreased from 40% to 23% (p < p<0.001). Texas vital statistics undercounted annual out-of-state abortions, reporting only 13%-73% of abortions reported by border-state clinics during the study period. CONCLUSIONS: HB2 was associated with increases in border-state abortions for Texas residents, including in the number of those ≥22 weeks from LMP. Border-state abortions declined after the Supreme Court ruled HB2 unconstitutional yet remained higher than pre-HB2 levels. IMPLICATIONS STATEMENT: Abortion restrictions that severely curtail access may result in increases in travel out of state for care. Documenting out-of-state abortions is important for evaluating broader policy impacts and to prepare for future service disruptions. Texas residents may have more limited options for care if border states enact restrictive abortion laws.

8.
BMC Womens Health ; 21(1): 132, 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33784993

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Following self-managed abortion (SMA), or a pregnancy termination attempt outside of the formal health system, some patients may seek care in an emergency department. Information about provider experiences treating these patients in hospital settings on the Texas-Mexico border is lacking. METHODS: The study team conducted semi-structured interviews with physicians, advanced practice clinicians, and nurses who had experience with patients presenting with early pregnancy complications in emergency and/or labor and delivery departments in five hospitals near the Texas-Mexico border. Interview questions focused on respondents' roles at the hospital, knowledge of abortion services and laws, perspectives on SMA trends, experiences treating patients presenting after SMA, and potential gaps in training related to abortion. Researchers conducted interviews in person between October 2017 and January 2018, and analyzed transcripts using a thematic analysis approach. RESULTS: Most of the 54 participants interviewed said that the care provided to SMA patients was, and should be, the same as for patients presenting after miscarriage. The majority had treated a patient they suspected or confirmed had attempted SMA; typically, these cases required only expectant management and confirmation of pregnancy termination, or treatment for incomplete abortion. In rare cases, further clinical intervention was required. Many providers lacked clinical and legal knowledge about abortion, including local resources available. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment provided to SMA patients is similar to that provided to patients presenting after early pregnancy loss. Lack of provider knowledge about abortion and SMA, despite their involvement with SMA patients, highlights a need for improved training.

9.
JAMA Intern Med ; 181(5): 713-714, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33616601
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579718

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This trial reports on use of the copper intrauterine device (IUD) after immediate compared with delayed insertion following medical abortion at 17-20 gestational weeks (GW). METHODS: This randomised controlled trial was conducted at one tertiary hospital and five community healthcare centres in Cape Town, South Africa. Eligible consenting women were randomised to immediate (within 24 hours) or delayed (3 weeks post-abortion) insertion of the copper IUD. Follow-up was at 6 weeks, 3 months and 6 months. Main outcomes were use of the original IUD and use of any IUD, including replacement IUDs at 6 weeks post-abortion. Secondary outcomes included rates of expulsion and malposition at 6 weeks, use of any IUD at 3 and 6 months, and acceptability of the IUD. RESULTS: We recruited and randomised 114 women admitted for elective medical abortion between August 2018 and June 2019. In the immediate and delayed study arms, respectively, 45/55 (82%) and 12/57 (21%) women received the IUD as planned. By intention-to-treat, 56% in the immediate and 19% in the delayed arms were using the original IUD at 6 weeks (p<0.001), and 76% in the immediate and 40% in the delayed arms were using any IUD (p<0.001). Complete expulsion or removal occurred in 32% in the immediate and 7% in the delayed arms (p=0.044). CONCLUSIONS: Insertion of an IUD immediately after medical abortion at 17-20 GW results in increased use after 6 weeks compared with delayed insertion, however expulsion rates are higher than with interval insertion. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT03505047), Pan African Trials Registry (www.pactr.org), 201804003324963.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431615

RESUMO

AIM: In Mexico, many pharmacies sell oral contraceptives (OCs) over the counter (OTC); however, little is known about the background characteristics of OTC pill users. The primary objective of this study was to understand the characteristics of OTC OC users in Mexico, including whether there were differences by age, urbanicity, and insurance status. This information is instructive as other countries explore allowing OTC access to OCs. METHODS: We analysed the nationally representative 2014 Mexican National Survey of Demographic Dynamics (ENADID) among a sample of OC users aged 15-54 years (n=1970). We performed multivariable logistic models to understand the characteristics associated with OTC access, with age, urbanicity, and insurance status as our primary predictors of interest. Additionally, we descriptively explored knowledge of how frequently to take OCs by pill source and age. RESULTS: Some 54% of pill users, including 66% of those aged 15-17 years, obtained their OCs OTC. In multivariable regression we found no differences in OTC access by age. However, being uninsured (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.86, 95% CI 1.23 to 2.82) (compared with employer-based public insurance) and living in an urban area (AOR 4.73, 95% CI 3.37 to 6.66) (compared with rural area) were associated with a higher odds of OTC access among pill users. Women's knowledge of how frequently to take OCs was similar between OTC and prescription users within age groups. CONCLUSIONS: These findings point to the importance of OTC availability of OCs for pill users of all ages and uninsured and urban women in Mexico in particular.

13.
Contraception ; 103(3): 163-170, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33451721

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine if either prophylactic tramadol 50 mg or ibuprofen 400 mg/metoclopramide 10 mg result in lower maximal pain compared to placebo in women ≤63 days' gestation having a mifepristone-misoprostol medical abortion. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled trial in Nepal, South Africa, and Vietnam. Participants seeking medical abortion received active treatment or placebo, taken at time of misoprostol and repeated 4 hours later. All had access to additional analgesia. The primary outcome was mean maximum pain score within 8 hours. Participants self-assessed maximum pain using an 11-point numeric rating scale recorded in paper diaries; we analyzed these data using intention-to-treat analysis. Secondary outcomes included use of additional analgesia, side effects, and satisfaction. RESULTS: We enrolled 563 patients between June 2016 and October 2017; 5 participants failed to follow up. Mean adjusted maximum pain scores within 8 hours in both active arms were lower than placebo (tramadol: n = 188, 6.78 (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.46, 7.11); ibuprofen/metoclopramide: n = 187, 6.43 (95% CI 6.10, 6.75); placebo: n = 188, 7.42 (95% CI 7.10, 7.74); p = 0.0001). Additional analgesia was used by 97 (52.2%) participants in the tramadol group, 80 (43.0%) in the ibuprofen/metoclopramide group, and 103 (55.7%) in the placebo group, p = 0.04. More dizziness (p = 0.004), headache (p = 0.03), and vomiting (p < 0.001) occurred in the tramadol group. More participants reported experienced pain was the same or less than expected in the ibuprofen/metoclopramide group (p = 0.05); overall abortion satisfaction did not differ by group (p = 0.44). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with placebo, tramadol or ibuprofen/metoclopramide co-administered with misoprostol and repeated 4 h later resulted in lower mean maximum pain scores that failed to achieve clinical significance. Women who received ibuprofen/metoclopramide were least likely to use additional analgesia and reported fewer side effects. IMPLICATIONS: Given that tramadol, ibuprofen, and metoclopramide are inexpensive, globally available; and, ibuprofen and metoclopramide are included on the World Health Organization Essential Medicines List, these medicines could be considered for prophylactic pain management during medical abortion.

14.
Contraception ; 103(3): 151-156, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359507

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE(S): Telemedicine for medication abortion (teleMAB) is safe and effective, yet little is known about how its introduction affects service delivery. We assessed changes in service delivery patterns 1 year after introducing teleMAB at Planned Parenthood in 2 U.S. states. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective records analysis using electronic health record data from Planned Parenthood health centers in Montana and Nevada from 2015 to 2018. We included all patients receiving medication or aspiration abortion in the year before and after introducing site-to-site teleMAB. Outcomes included: the proportion of medication abortions (vs. aspiration); gestational age at abortion; time to appointment; and distance traveled. We compared outcomes pre- and postimplementation using χ2, t tests, and Mann-Whitney U tests. RESULTS: We analyzed data for 3,038 abortions: 1,314 pre- and 1,724 postimplementation. In Montana, the proportion of medication abortions increased postimplementation (60% vs. 65%, p = 0.04). Mean gestational age was similar: 58 versus 57 days (p = 0.35). Mean time to appointment decreased (14 vs. 12 days, p < 0.0001), as did one-way distance traveled by patients (134 vs. 115 miles, p = 0.03). In Nevada, where Planned Parenthood only provided medication abortion, total medication abortions increased (461 vs. 735). Mean gestational age remained stable (51 vs. 51 days, p = 0.33), as did time to appointment (8 vs. 8 days, p = 0.76). Mean one-way distance traveled was 47 miles in the preperiod versus 34 miles in the postperiod (p = 0.22). CONCLUSION(S): Medication abortion increased after the introduction of telemedicine in both states, though we cannot account for abortions performed by other providers. Telemedicine has the potential to improve access to medication abortion. IMPLICATIONS: Telemedicine has the potential to improve or maintain access to medication abortion and should be taken to scale where feasible. Continued efforts are needed to mitigate or reverse policy restrictions on telemedicine for medication abortion.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297830

RESUMO

Objective: To assess whether evidence-based information on progestin-only pills (POPs) and over-the-counter (OTC) oral contraceptives (OCs) increases support among clinicians for bringing a POP or combined oral contraceptive (COC) OTC and to identify concerns clinicians may have about OTC access to OCs. Materials and Methods: In 2018 a survey of 778 clinicians assessed support for bringing a POP and COC OTC before and after receiving evidence-based information, which was pretested through in-depth interviews. Clinicians were randomized into two groups, stratified by clinician type. One group received information about OTC access to OCs generally, and the second group received OTC information plus information about POPs. Levels of support between arms were compared using robust Poisson models. Results: Before receiving information, 31% of clinicians supported moving a POP OTC. After receiving information, 39% of clinicians who only received OTC information supported moving a POP OTC compared to 61% who received OTC and POP information (relative risk = 1.53, 95% confidence interval: 1.34 to 1.75). Support for bringing a COC OTC increased marginally for those who received OTC and POP information, while support among those who received only OTC information increased by 12 percentage points (to 50%). Among clinicians opposed to moving a POP OTC after receiving information, top concerns included safety (26%), effectiveness (19%), potential for incorrect use (19%), and loss of preventive screenings (15%). Conclusion: Evidence-based information, particularly around POPs, has the potential to change clinician attitudes and address misconceptions about POPs and OTC access.

16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(12): e2029245, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33337493

RESUMO

Importance: Increasing evidence indicates that people are attempting their own abortions outside the formal health care system. However, population-based estimates of experience with self-managed abortion (SMA) are lacking. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of SMA attempts among the general US population. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional survey study was fielded August 2 to 17, 2017 among English- and Spanish- speaking, self-identified female panel members from the GfK web-based KnowledgePanel. Women ages 18 to 49 years were approached to complete a 1-time survey. Data were analyzed from September 22, 2017, to March 26, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: SMA was defined as "some women may do something on their own to try to end a pregnancy without medical assistance. For example, they may get information from the internet, a friend, or family member about pills, medicine, or herbs they can take on their own, or they may do something else to try to end the pregnancy." SMA was assessed using the question, "Have you ever taken or used something on your own, without medical assistance, to try to end an unwanted pregnancy?" Participants reporting SMA were asked about methods used, reasons, and outcomes. Factors associated with SMA experience, including age, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, nativity, reproductive health history, and geography, were assessed. Projected lifetime SMA prevalence was estimated using discrete-time event history models, adjusting for abortion underreporting. Results: Among 14 151 participants invited to participate, 7022 women (49.6%) (mean [SE] age, 33.9 [9.0] years) agreed to participate. Among these, 57.4% (95% CI, 55.8%-59.0%) were non-Hispanic White, 20.2% (95% CI, 18.9%-21.5%) were Hispanic, and 13.3% (95% CI, 12.1%-14.5%) were non-Hispanic Black; and 15.1% (95% CI, 14.1%-16.3%) reported living at less than 100% federal poverty level (FPL). A total of 1.4% (95% CI, 1.0%-1.8%) of participants reported a history of attempting SMA while in the US. Projected lifetime prevalence of SMA adjusting for underreporting of abortion was 7.0% (95% CI, 5.5%-8.4%). In bivariable analyses, non-Hispanic Black (prevalence ratio [PR], 3.16; 95% CI, 1.48-6.75) and Hispanic women surveyed in English (PR, 3.74; 95% CI, 1.78-7.87) were more likely than non-Hispanic White women to have attempted SMA. Women living below 100% of the FPL were also more likely to have attempted SMA compared with those at 200% FPL or greater (PR, 3.43; 95% CI, 1.83-6.42). At most recent SMA attempt, 20.0% (95% CI, 10.9%-33.8%) of respondents used misoprostol, 29.2% (95% CI, 17.5%-44.5%) used another medication or drug, 38.4% (95% CI, 25.3%-53.4%) used herbs, and 19.8% (95% CI, 10.0%-35.5%) used physical methods. The most common reasons for SMA included that it seemed faster or easier (47.2% [95% CI, 33.0%-61.8%]) and the clinic was too expensive (25.2% [95% CI, 15.7%-37.7%]). Of all attempts, 27.8% (95% CI, 16.6%-42.7%) of respondents reported they were successful; the remainder reported they had subsequent facility-based abortions (33.6% [95% CI, 21.0%-49.0%]), continued the pregnancy (13.4% [95% CI, 7.4%-23.1%]), had a miscarriage (11.4% [95% CI, 4.2%-27.5%]), or were unsure (13.3% [95% CI, 6.8%-24.7%]). A total of 11.0% (95% CI, 5.5%-21.0%) of respondents reported a complication. Conclusions and Relevance: This cross-sectional study found that approximately 7% of US women reported having attempted SMA in their lifetime, commonly with ineffective methods. These findings suggest that surveys of SMA experience among patients at abortion clinics may capture only one-third of SMA attempts. People's reasons for attempting SMA indicate that as abortion becomes more restricted, SMA may become more common.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Gravidez não Desejada/psicologia , Autogestão , Aborto Induzido/métodos , Aborto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Tomada de Decisões , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Prevalência , História Reprodutiva , Autogestão/métodos , Autogestão/psicologia , Autogestão/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 81(6): 750-759, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308404

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to measure changes in the payer mix and incidence of emergency department (ED) opioid-related overdose encounters after an April 2014 expansion of Medicaid to childless adults led to a 43% increase in Medicaid coverage for men and 8% for women statewide. METHOD: We explored two competing hypotheses using data visualization and comparative interrupted time-series analysis (CITS): (a) expanded eligibility for Medicaid is associated with a change in payer mix only and (b) sociodemographic groups that gained Medicaid eligibility were more likely to use ED services for opioid overdose. Data included encounters at all Wisconsin nonfederal hospitals over 23 quarters from 2010 to 2015 and American Community Survey estimates of pre- and post-policy Medicaid eligibility by sex and age. RESULTS: We found an increase in the share of opioid-related ED visits covered by Medicaid for men and women ages 19-29 and for men ages 30-49 following the expansion. The number of visits increased substantially in April 2014 for men ages 30-49, with Medicaid-covered visits driving this result. We found little evidence of an increase in overall visits for other age groups for either men or women. CONCLUSIONS: The relationship between Medicaid expansion and opioid ED use is complex. Changes in case mix and increased access to care likely both play a role in the overall increase in these ED visits. Being uninsured may be an important barrier to seeking emergency care for opioid-related overdoses.

18.
Womens Health Issues ; 30(6): 446-452, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obstetrician-gynecologists (ob-gyns) play a critical role in improving access to timely abortion care. This cross-sectional study estimates the proportion of ob-gyns providing abortion referral in the prior year and identifies predictors of direct (facilitated) referral compared with indirect referral (providing contact information). METHODS: In 2016-2017, we invited a national sample of 2,500 ob-gyns to complete a survey. We restricted the final sample of 1,280 respondents (52% response rate) to participants who had abortion-seeking patients in the last 12 months (n = 868, 68% of the sample). We calculated descriptive statistics by referral type and conducted logistic regression analyses to examine associations between physician and practice setting characteristics and abortion referral type (direct vs. indirect). RESULTS: Eighty-eight percent of ob-gyns provided abortion referral (479 [55%] indirect referrals; 287 [33%] direct referrals). Abortion provision in the prior year (adjusted odds ratio, 2.82; 95% confidence interval, 1.80-4.42) was a significant predictor of direct referrals. Compared with ob-gyns practicing in the Northeast, ob-gyns in the South had lower odds of direct referrals (adjusted odds ratio, 0.39; 95% confidence interval, 0.24-0.62), whereas those in the West had higher odds (adjusted odds ratio, 1.91; 95% confidence interval, 1.14-3.23). Ob-gyns providing direct referrals were more likely to practice within 25 miles of an abortion facility compared with those who provided indirect referrals (25% vs. 5%, respectively; p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Although the majority of ob-gyns refer patients for abortion care, most offer indirect referrals, only providing contact information for an abortion provider. Ob-gyns should facilitate referrals as access becomes more constrained, especially in regions where abortion facilities are limited.

19.
Contraception ; 102(6): 406-408, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898546

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess obstetrician-gynecologists' practices related to emergency contraception (EC). We performed a survey of ACOG Fellows and Junior Fellows between August 2016 and March 2017. RESULTS: The final sample was 1280 respondents (52.2% response rate). The majority (84%) reported offering at least one form of EC, with 18% offering ulipristal acetate and 29% offering copper IUDs. Fifty-seven percent of those offering IUDs reported recommending them in the last 12 months. Few had placed IUDs for EC. Half of ob-gyns reported not recommending copper IUDs because patients rarely seek EC. CONCLUSION: Many obstetrician-gynecologists are not offering the most effective forms of EC. IMPLICATIONS: Both patients and clinicians need more outreach about the most effective methods of emergency contraception.

20.
Obstet Gynecol ; 136(4): e31-e47, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804884

RESUMO

Medication abortion, also referred to as medical abortion, is a safe and effective method of providing abortion. Medication abortion involves the use of medicines rather than uterine aspiration to induce an abortion. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved medication abortion regimen includes mifepristone and misoprostol. The purpose of this document is to provide updated evidence-based guidance on the provision of medication abortion up to 70 days (or 10 weeks) of gestation. Information about medication abortion after 70 days of gestation is provided in other ACOG publications ().


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Mifepristona/farmacologia , Misoprostol/farmacologia , Abortivos/farmacologia , Aborto Induzido/métodos , Aborto Induzido/normas , Protocolos Clínicos , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Gravidez , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez/efeitos dos fármacos , Estados Unidos
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