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1.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(5)2021 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800007

RESUMO

Malignant tumors are rarely homogenous on the morphological, genome, transcriptome or proteome level. In this study, we investigate the intratumor heterogeneity of BAP-1 expression in uveal melanoma with digital image analysis of 40 tumors. The proportion of BAP-1 positive cells was measured in full tumor sections, hot spots, cold spots and in scleral margins. The mean difference between hot spots and cold spots was 41 percentage points (pp, SD 29). Tumors with gene expression class 1 (associated with low metastatic risk) and 2 (high metastatic risk) had similar intratumor heterogeneity. Similarly, the level of intratumor heterogeneity was comparable in tumors from patients that later developed metastases as in patients that did not. BAP-1 measured in any tumor region added significant prognostic information to both American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) tumor size category (p ≤ 0.001) and gene expression class (p ≤ 0.04). We conclude that there is substantial intratumor heterogeneity in uveal melanoma BAP-1 expression. However, it is of limited prognostic importance. Regardless of region, analysis of BAP-1 expression adds significant prognostic information beyond tumor size and gene expression class.

3.
Ocul Immunol Inflamm ; : 1-5, 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33683183

RESUMO

Purpose: To present a patient with Rosai-Dorfman Disease (RDD), a histiocytic proliferative disorder typified by lymphadenopathy with rare ocular manifestations, who developed panuveitis that responded to pegylated interferon.Methods: Descriptive case report of a patient with RDD with multi-organ involvement including ocular manifestations including bilateral panuveitis with choroidal masses.Results: A 54-year-old African American woman with known systemic RDD of the breast, lung, and gastrointestinal tract presented with panuveitis with choroidal masses in both eyes. Her systemic and ocular disease initially responded well to oral and topical steroid therapy. Later, however, her systemic disease progressed with multiple muscular and bony lesions. Systemic therapy was switched to pegylated interferon, a cytokine with antiviral, antitumor and immunomodulatory activity. After 14 months of therapy with pegylated interferon, the patient's systemic and ocular disease stabilized.Conclusion: Rosai-Dorfman disease may be complicated by panuveitis and choroidal masses that may respond to pegylated interferon with stabilization of systemic and ocular manifestations. A multi-disciplinary approach is essential given the unique diagnostic and management challenges of RDD.

4.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 62(2): 32, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33616620

RESUMO

Purpose: To quantitatively evaluate the changes in orientation and morphometric features of mouse retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in different regions of the eye during aging. Methods: We segmented individual RPE cells from whole RPE flatmount images of C57BL/6J mice (postnatal days 30 to 720) using a machine-learning method and evaluated changes in morphometric features, including our newly developed metric combining alignment and shape of RPE cells during aging. Results: Mainly, the anterior part of the RPE sheet grows during aging, while the posterior part remains constant. Changes in size and shape of the peripheral RPE cells are prominent with aging as cells become larger, elongated, and concave. Conversely, the central RPE cells maintain relatively constant size and numbers with aging. Cell count in the central area and the overall cell count (approximately 50,000) were relatively constant over different age groups. RPE cells also present a specific orientation concordance that matches the shape of the specific region of the eyeball. Those cells near the optic disc or equator have a circumferential orientation to cover the round shape of the eyeball, whereas those cells in the periphery have a radial orientation and corresponding radial elongation, the extent of which increases with aging and matches with axial elongation of the eyeball. Conclusions: These results suggest that the fluid RPE morphology reflects various growth rates of underlying eyeball, and RPE cells could be classified into four regional classes (near the optic disc, central, equatorial, and peripheral) according to their morphometric features.

5.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33637620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Orbital inflammatory disease (OID) encompasses a wide range of pathology including thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO), granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), sarcoidosis and non-specific orbital inflammation (NSOI), accounting for up to 6% of orbital diseases. Understanding the underlying pathophysiology of OID can improve diagnosis and help target therapy. AIMS: To test the hypothesis that shared signalling pathways are activated in different forms of OID. METHODS: In this secondary analysis, pathway analysis was performed on the previously reported differentially expressed genes from orbital adipose tissue using patients with OID and healthy controls who were characterised by microarray. For the original publications, tissue specimens were collected from oculoplastic surgeons at 10 international centres representing four countries (USA, Canada, Australia and Saudi Arabia). Diagnoses were independently confirmed by two masked ocular pathologists (DJW, HEG). Gene expression profiling analysis was performed at the Oregon Health & Science University. Eighty-three participants were included: 25 with TAO, 6 with orbital GPA, 7 with orbital sarcoidosis, 25 with NSOI and 20 healthy controls. RESULTS: Among the 83 subjects (mean (SD) age, 52.8 (18.3) years; 70% (n=58) female), those with OID demonstrated perturbation of the downstream gene expressions of the IGF-1R (MAPK/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), adipocytokine and AMPK signalling pathways compared with healthy controls. Specifically, GPA samples differed from controls in gene expression within the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R, PI3K-Akt (p=0.001), RAS (p=0.005)), PPARγ (p=0.002), adipocytokine (p=0.004) or AMPK (p=<0.001) pathways. TAO, sarcoidosis and NSOI samples were also found to have statistically significant differential gene expression in these pathways. CONCLUSIONS: Although OID includes a heterogenous group of pathologies, TAO, GPA, sarcoidosis and NSOI share enrichment of common gene signalling pathways, namely IGF-1R, PPARγ, adipocytokine and AMPK. Pathway analyses of gene expression suggest that other forms of orbital inflammation in addition to TAO may benefit from blockade of IGF-1R signalling pathways.

6.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 226: 191-200, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529584

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To find immunohistochemical markers that distinguish adenocarcinoma of the nonpigmented ciliary epithelium (NPCE) from metastatic carcinoma, especially metastatic renal cell carcinoma. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: Three cases of adenocarcinoma of the NPCE were examined histologically with hematoxylin-eosin stain and immunohistochemical stains including vimentin, AE1/AE3, Cam 5.2, CK7, PAX2, PAX8, AMACR, and CAIX. We also reviewed previously reported cases of this tumor. RESULTS: We found that the immunohistochemical profile of adenocarcinoma of the NPCE can overlap with renal cell carcinoma. Both tumors can express vimentin, cytokeratin AE1/AE3, Cam 5.2, PAX2, PAX8, and AMACR. One of the adenocarcinomas of the NPCE in our series also expressed CD10 and the renal cell carcinoma marker (RCC Ma). Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) was not detected in any of the 3 tumors. CONCLUSIONS: Adenocarcinomas arising in phthisic eyes can be diagnostically challenging. We have found it particularly difficult to distinguish adenocarcinoma of the NPCE from metastatic carcinoma, especially metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma and papillary renal cell carcinoma. Because of the immunophenotypic overlap, most patients will require systemic workup including imaging of the kidneys to be certain of the diagnosis.

7.
Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 49(2): 161-168, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33426794

RESUMO

Secondary ocular malignancies most commonly spread to the choroid. Previously, the prognosis was poor however, with newer treatments including immunotherapy, patient's life expectancy have increased. It is therefore, important that ophthalmologists diagnose this condition in a timely manner and offer treatment to maximize visual potential and refer them on to oncology colleagues in order to optimize their systemic treatment for their primary cancer.

8.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 223: 60-74, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130046

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We sought to compare the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and interobserver agreement of the two most commonly used classification systems for conjunctival melanocytic intraepithelial lesions with the new World Health Organization (WHO) classification. DESIGN: Retrospective case series and evaluation of classification systems. METHODS: We reviewed the pathology and medical records of all patients who underwent a primary biopsy procedure for conjunctival primary acquired melanosis (PAM) at Wills Eye Hospital between 1974 and 2002 who had ≥36 months of follow-up. Data collected included age, sex, clinical findings, recurrence, and progression to melanoma. Twelve ophthalmic pathologists analyzed scanned hematoxylin and eosin-stained virtual microscopic slides using 3 classification systems: PAM, conjunctival melanocytic intraepithelial neoplasia, and the WHO 4th edition classification of conjunctival melanocytic intraepithelial lesions. Observer agreement, sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of each classification system were assessed. RESULTS: There were 64 patients who underwent 83 primary excisions with cryotherapy for conjunctival PAM who had adequate tissue for histopathologic evaluation. The interobserver agreement in distinction between the low- and high-grade lesions was 76% for PAM, 67% for conjunctival melanocytic intraepithelial neoplasia, and 81% for WHO classification system. Low-grade lesions provided the greatest interpretative challenge with all 3 classification systems. The 3 classification systems had comparable accuracy of 81%-83% in their ability to identify lesions with potential for recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the comparable strengths and limitations of the 3 classification systems for conjunctival melanocytic intraepithelial lesions and suggests that the simplified WHO classification scheme is appropriate for evaluation of these lesions.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991496

RESUMO

The authors present 3 patients from this retrospective case series to review the clinical findings, imaging, pathology, and treatment of orbital atypical lipomatous tumor/well-differentiated liposarcoma. Pathology of biopsy specimens ranged from spindle cell proliferations mimicking neurofibroma to proliferations of well-differentiated adipocytes. Immunohistochemical stains were positive for murine double minute 2 in 1 case, and fluorescent in situ hybridization showed amplification of murine double minute 2 in 2 cases. Treatments ranged from serial debulking, proton beam irradiation, and exenteration. None of the patients developed metastases. A literature review supported the low-grade nature of this lesion. Orbital atypical lipomatous tumor/well-differentiated liposarcoma is a low-grade, indolent liposarcoma that may be locally invasive. The histologic diagnosis is enhanced with immunohistochemical staining for murine double minute 2 and fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis for amplification of murine double minute 2. Although treatment may vary according to the individual, conservative therapies may be attempted prior to radical surgery.

10.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 219: 107-120, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574779

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To characterize the clinical features of subtype-specific lacrimal gland lymphoma and their effect on patient survival. DESIGN: Multicenter retrospective interventional case series. METHODS: Patient data were collected from 6 international eye cancer centers from January 1, 1980, through December 31, 2017. All patients with histologically verified primary or secondary lymphoma of the lacrimal gland were included. Primary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS). RESULTS: A total of 260 patients with lacrimal gland lymphoma were identified. The median age was 58 years and 52% of patients were men. Non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphomas constituted 99% (n = 258) and T-cell lymphomas constituted 1% (n = 2). The most frequent lymphoma subtypes were extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (EMZL) (n = 177, 68%), follicular lymphoma (FL) (n = 26, 10%), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) (n = 25, 10%), and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) (n = 17, 7%). Low-grade lymphomas (EMZL and FL) were most commonly treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), whereas high-grade lymphomas (DLBCL and MCL) were treated with chemotherapy in combination with rituximab and/or EBRT. The prognosis was relatively good with a 5-year OS and DSS of 73.8% and 87.5%, respectively. Lymphoma subtype was a statistically significant predictor for DSS, with EMZL (5-year DSS: 93.4%) having the best prognosis and DLBCL (5-year DSS: 52.6%) having the poorest. CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest reported collection of data of subtype-specific lacrimal gland lymphoma. The subtype distribution of lacrimal gland lymphoma resembles that of the ocular adnexa. Prognosis is good and the histologic subtype is a significant predictor for disease-specific survival.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32514378

RESUMO

Background: The cases discussed highlight the atypical presentation and diagnostic dilemmas of toxoplasmosis with fulminant retinal necrosis and the potentially devastating visual outcomes of toxoplasma chorioretinitis following local corticosteroid exposure. Case presentation: We report a series of three patients who presented with toxoplasmosis mimicking severe acute retinal necrosis. Patients were between 59 and 77 years old and had been exposed to local corticosteroids preceding our evaluation. All patients demonstrated diffuse retinal whitening with severe vision loss on presentation. Polymerase chain reaction testing (PCR) was diagnostic in two patients, and histopathologic examination of a vitrectomy specimen was diagnostic in one patient. All cases of retinitis resolved with anti-parasitic medication; however, visual acuity failed to improve in all patients due to disease severity and presentation. Conclusions: Local corticosteroid injection may trigger or exacerbate toxoplasmosis chorioretinitis, leading to fulminant retinal necrosis and severe vision loss. Toxoplasma chorioretinitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with clinical features of acute retinal necrosis, particularly following local corticosteroid injection regardless of their baseline systemic immune status. Diagnostic vitrectomy may be helpful in patients in whom PCR testing is negative and ocular toxoplasmosis is suspected.

13.
Curr Eye Res ; 45(12): 1563-1571, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32397839

RESUMO

PURPOSE: While fibroblasts constitute the main cell component of the sclera, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the cell densities of melanocytes at different regions of the sclera, and to compare them with associated scleral fibroblast densities in human donor eye sections. METHODS: . Paraffin-embedded sections of sclera from 21 human eyes were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) and immunohistochemical staining (S-100/AEC). Scleral melanocyte and fibroblast numbers were counted in different regions of the sclera. The relationship between the melanocyte density and iris pigmentation was also analyzed. RESULTS: . Melanocytes were found in the posterior region of the sclera, especially around the vessels and nerves in emmissarial canals, whereas no or rare melanocytes were found in equatorial and anterior regions. In H&E sections, melanocyte densities in eyes with light-colored irides were significantly less than in eyes with medium or dark-colored irides (P < .05). In S-100-stained sections, more melanocytes could be detected than those in the H&E sections in light-colored eyes (P < .05), but not in medium or dark-colored eyes (P > .05). The numbers of scleral fibroblasts were relatively stable in different regions. In the posterior scleral region, the numbers of fibroblasts were slightly higher than the number of melanocytes, however, this differences were not statistically significant (P > .05). CONCLUSION: . Notable numbers of melanocytes were present in the posterior sclera suggesting that these cells may play a role in ocular physiology and in the pathogenesis of various disorders of the sclera.

15.
Nat Rev Dis Primers ; 6(1): 24, 2020 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32273508

RESUMO

Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults. UMs are usually initiated by a mutation in GNAQ or GNA11, unlike cutaneous melanomas, which usually harbour a BRAF or NRAS mutation. The annual incidence in Europe and the USA is ~6 per million population per year. Risk factors include fair skin, light-coloured eyes, congenital ocular melanocytosis, ocular melanocytoma and the BAP1-tumour predisposition syndrome. Ocular treatment aims at preserving the eye and useful vision and, if possible, preventing metastases. Enucleation has largely been superseded by various forms of radiotherapy, phototherapy and local tumour resection, often administered in combination. Ocular outcomes are best with small tumours not extending close to the optic disc and/or fovea. Almost 50% of patients develop metastatic disease, which usually involves the liver, and is usually fatal within 1 year. Although UM metastases are less responsive than cutaneous melanoma to chemotherapy or immune checkpoint inhibitors, encouraging results have been reported with partial hepatectomy for solitary metastases, with percutaneous hepatic perfusion with melphalan or with tebentafusp. Better insight into tumour immunology and metabolism may lead to new treatments.

16.
Ocul Oncol Pathol ; 6(2): 129-137, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32258021

RESUMO

Background: Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common intraocular tumour in adults. Currently there are different tests available to determine the risk of UM for metastasis, among which include BRCA1-associated protein-1 (BAP1) immunohistochemistry (IHC) and gene expression profiling (GEP). BAP1 is a deubiquitylating enzyme (DUB) that has tumour suppressor activity, the loss of which therefore is associated with higher risk for tumour growth and metastasis. Objectives: To compare and correlate the prognostic significance of BAP1-IHC staining patterns and GEP in the prediction of UM's risk for metastasis. Methods: This is a retrospective chart review with prospective follow-up of patients with primary UM who underwent enucleation from the year 2008 to 2018. Clinical history, histopathologic findings, GEP classification, BAP1-IHC of the formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues, and follow-up data for metastasis were collected and statistically analysed. Results: A total of 30 enucleated eyes with UM were included in the study. All class 1a tumours had high nuclear BAP1 expression and all class 2 had low nuclear BAP1 expression. Fifty percent of the class 1b tumours had low nuclear BAP1 expression. Among the tumours with low nuclear BAP1 expression, 68% developed metastasis, while 9% developed metastasis among high nuclear expression. Fifty-five percent developed metastasis in tumours with high cytoplasmic expression and 42% for low cytoplasmic expression. Predictive values for metastasis (positive predictive value, negative predictive value) are as follows: (1) nuclear BAP1-IHC (68%, 91%), (2) cytoplasmic BAP1-IHC (55%, 58%), and (3) GEP (73%, 80%). Nuclear BAP1-IHC and GEP had the same accuracy rate of 77% and cytoplasmic BAP1-IHC had an accuracy of 57%. Conclusion: Low nuclear BAP1-IHC strongly correlates with GEP class 2 and was equally accurate in the prediction of metastasis.

17.
Exp Eye Res ; 193: 107987, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097618

RESUMO

Cytologic features such as the shape and size of tumor cells can predict metastatic death in uveal melanoma and other cancers but suffer from poor reproducibility. In this study, we investigate the interobserver concordance of digital morphometry, and correlate the results with BRCA associated protein-1 (BAP-1) expression and BAP-1 gene mutation status, monosomy 3, gene expression classifications and patient survival in uveal melanoma. The average number of cells analyzed in each of 107 tumors, was 1957 (SD 349). Mean time consumption was less than 2.5 min per tumor. Identical morphometric classification was obtained for ≥85% of tumors in all twelve evaluated morphometric variables (κ 0.70-0.93). The mean nucleus area, nucleus perimeter, nucleus max caliper and nucleus to cell area ratio were significantly greater in tumors with low BAP-1 expression and gene expression class 2. Patients had significantly shorter survival if their tumors had low BAP-1 (Log-Rank p = 0.002), gene expression class 2 (p = 0.004), long nucleus perimeters (p = 0.031), long nucleus max calipers (p = 0.029) and high mean nucleus to cell area ratios (p = 0.041) as defined in a training cohort and then tested in a validation cohort. Long nucleus perimeters and long nucleus max calipers correlated with monosomy 3 (Pearson Chi-Square p = 0.006 and p = 0.009, respectively). Long nucleus perimeters also correlated with BAP-1 mutation (p = 0.017). We conclude that digital morphometry can be fast and highly reproducible, that for the first time, morphometry parameters can be objectively quantitated in thousands of cells at a time in sub-µm resolutions, and that variables describing the shape and size tumor nuclei correlate to BAP-1 status, monosomy 3, gene expression class as well as patient survival.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular/patologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Melanoma/genética , Monossomia/genética , RNA Neoplásico/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/genética , Neoplasias Uveais/genética , Idoso , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/metabolismo , Melanoma/mortalidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Suécia/epidemiologia , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/biossíntese , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/biossíntese , Neoplasias Uveais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Uveais/mortalidade
18.
Sci Adv ; 6(6): eaav7504, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32083172

RESUMO

Liver metastases often progress from primary cancers including uveal melanoma (UM), breast, and colon cancer. Molecular biomarker imaging is a new non-invasive approach for detecting early stage tumors. Here, we report the elevated expression of chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) in liver metastases in UM patients and metastatic UM mouse models, and development of a CXCR4-targeted MRI contrast agent, ProCA32.CXCR4, for sensitive MRI detection of UM liver metastases. ProCA32.CXCR4 exhibits high relaxivities (r 1 = 30.9 mM-1 s-1, r 2 = 43.2 mM-1 s-1, 1.5 T; r 1 = 23.5 mM-1 s-1, r 2 = 98.6 mM-1 s-1, 7.0 T), strong CXCR4 binding (K d = 1.10 ± 0.18 µM), CXCR4 molecular imaging capability in metastatic and intrahepatic xenotransplantation UM mouse models. ProCA32.CXCR4 enables detecting UM liver metastases as small as 0.1 mm3. Further development of the CXCR4-targeted imaging agent should have strong translation potential for early detection, surveillance, and treatment stratification of liver metastases patients.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Meios de Contraste , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Imagem Molecular , Receptores CXCR4/metabolismo , Animais , Meios de Contraste/química , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Metástase Neoplásica , Ligação Proteica , Curva ROC , Receptores CXCR4/química , Receptores CXCR4/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
19.
Ophthalmology ; 127(5): 616-636, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864668

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To establish a process to evaluate and standardize a state-of-the-art nomenclature for reporting neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) data. DESIGN: Consensus meeting. PARTICIPANTS: An international panel of retina specialists, imaging and image reading center experts, and ocular pathologists. METHODS: During several meetings organized under the auspices of the Macula Society, an international study group discussed and codified a set nomenclature framework for classifying the subtypes of neovascular AMD and associated lesion components. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A consensus classification of neovascular AMD. RESULTS: The study group created a standardized working definition of AMD. The components of neovascular AMD were defined and subclassified. Disease consequences of macular neovascularization were delineated. CONCLUSIONS: The framework of a consensus nomenclature system, a definition of AMD, and a delineation of the subtypes of neovascular AMD were developed. Establishing a uniform set of definitions will facilitate comparison of diverse patient groups and different studies. The framework presented is modified and updated readily, processes that are anticipated to occur on a periodic basis. The study group suggests that the consensus standards outlined in this article be used in future reported studies of neovascular AMD and clinical practice.


Assuntos
Neovascularização de Coroide/classificação , Terminologia como Assunto , Degeneração Macular Exsudativa/classificação , Idoso , Lâmina Basilar da Corioide/patologia , Neovascularização de Coroide/diagnóstico , Consenso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/patologia , Acuidade Visual , Degeneração Macular Exsudativa/diagnóstico
20.
Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg ; 36(2): e44-e46, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809487

RESUMO

Basal cell carcinoma accounts for 90% of malignant tumors of the eyelid. Basal cell carcinoma has been reported to rarely occur in conjunction with osteoma cutis or bone formation in the skin. The mechanism of this secondary osteoma cutis has yet to be explained. Herein, the authors present the case of a 68-year-old woman with a rapidly enlarging basal cell carcinoma with secondary osteoma cutis of the left lower eyelid.

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