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1.
Magn Reson Chem ; 57(8): 472-478, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30997697

RESUMO

Complex multicomponent, multispin molecular system, consisting of a septet trinitrene, two quintet dinitrenes, and three triplet mononitrenes, was obtained by the photolysis of 2,4,6-triazido-3-cyano-5-fluoropyridine in solid argon. To identify these paramagnetic products, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy in combination with line-shape spectral simulations and density functional theory calculations was used. The products of the photolysis was found to be triplet 2,4-diazido-3-cyano-5-fluoropyridyl-6-nitrene (DT  = 1.000 cm-1 , ET  = 0), triplet 2,4-diazido-3-cyano-5-fluoropyridyl-2-nitrene (DT  = 1.043 cm-1 , ET  = 0), triplet 2,6-diazido-3-cyano-5-fluoropyridyl-4-nitrene (DT  = 1.128 cm-1 , ET  = 0 cm-1 ), quintet 4-azido-3-cyano-5-fluoropyridyl-2,6-dinitrene (DQ  = 0.211 cm-1 , EQ  = 0.0532 cm-1 ), quintet 2-azido-3-cyano-5-fluoropyridyl-4,6-dinitrene (DQ  = 0.208 cm-1 , EQ  = 0.0386 cm-1 ), and septet 3-cyano-5-fluoropyridyl-2,4,6-trinitrene (DS  = -0.1017 cm-1 , ES  = -0.0042 cm-1 ) in a 38:4:7:22:14:4 ratio, respectively.

2.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4750, 2018 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30420598

RESUMO

Controlled switching of the spin state of transition metal ions, particularly of FeII and FeIII, is a prerequisite to achieve selectivity, efficiency, and catalysis in a number of metalloenzymes. Here we report on an iron(III) porphyrin with a photochromic axial ligand which, upon irradiation with two different wavelengths reversibly switches its spin state between low-spin (S = 1/2) and high-spin (S = 5/2) in solution (DMSO-acetone, 2:598). The switching efficiency is 76% at room temperature. The system is neither oxygen nor water sensitive, and no fatigue was observed after more than 1000 switching cycles. Concomitant with the spin-flip is a change in redox potential by ~60 mV. Besides serving as a simple model for the first step of the cytochrome P450 catalytic cycle, the spin switch can be used to switch the spin-lattice relaxation time T1 of the water protons by a factor of 15.


Assuntos
Ferro/química , Luz , Ligantes , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Modelos Moleculares , Porfirinas/química , Prótons , Piridinas/química , Fatores de Tempo
3.
J Am Chem Soc ; 139(42): 15151-15159, 2017 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29016115

RESUMO

Formal removal of two bonding partners from boranes, BR3, yields borylenes, RB, which have been inferred as reactive intermediates in a number of reactions. Phenylborylene (R = C6H5; 1) is accessible from phenyldiazidoborane by photochemical extrusion of dinitrogen under matrix isolation conditions. Concomitantly, the nitrene PhNBN is formed via phenyl rearrangement. Here we used a combination of UV/vis, IR, and ESR spectroscopy under cryogenic matrix isolation conditions to investigate the properties and reactivity of phenylborylene. We detected an absorption band of phenylborylene at 375 nm (S0 → S2) and tentatively assigned the S0 → S1 transition to a very weak band at 518 nm. We also show for the first time that an electrophilic borylene such as 1 can react with N2 reversibly and with CO irreversibly under photochemical conditions. The corresponding photoproducts PhBNN and PhBCO have triplet electronic ground states. Their small E values are in agreement with the linear arrangements Ph-B-N-N and Ph-B-C-O obtained by density functional theory computations. The D values decrease in the series PhNBN > PhBNN > PhBCO and approach the value for phenylcarbene (PhCH). Indeed, the boron center in PhBCO is isoelectronic with the carbene center in PhCH. The compounds are the first examples of boron analogues of diazoalkanes (R2CNN) and ketenes (R2CCO), and their formation may serve as a demonstration of the high reactivity of phenylborylene.

4.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 17(9): 6433-9, 2015 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25656843

RESUMO

The photolytic and thermal decomposition of fluorophosphoryl diazide, FP(O)(N3)2, was studied using matrix isolation spectroscopy. Upon ArF laser photolysis (λ = 193 nm), FPO and a new geminal azido nitrene FP(O)(N3)N were identified using matrix IR spectroscopy. The nitrene shows a triplet ground state with the zero-field parameters |D/hc| = 1.566 cm(-1) and |E/hc| = 0.005 cm(-1). Further decomposition of the nitrene into FPO was observed under an irradiation of λ > 335 nm. In contrast, no nitrene but only FPO was identified after flash vacuum pyrolysis of the diazide. To reveal the decomposition mechanism, quantum chemical calculations on the potential energy surface (PES) of the diazide using DFT methods were performed. On the singlet PES four conformers of the nitrene were predicted. The two conformers (syn and anti) showing intramolecular Nnitrene···Nα,azide interactions are much lower in energy (ca. 40 kJ mol(-1), B3LYP/6-311+G(3df)) than the other two exhibiting Nnitrene···O interactions. syn/anti refers to the relative orientation of the P[double bond, length as m-dash]O bond and the N3 group. The interconversion of these species and the decomposition into FPO via a novel three-membered ring diazo intermediate cyclo-FP(O)N2 were computationally explored. The calculated low dissociation barrier of 45 kJ mol(-1) (B3LYP/6-311+G(3df)) of this cyclic intermediate rationalizes why it could not be detected in our experiments.


Assuntos
Azidas/química , Modelos Teóricos , Argônio/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho
5.
J Phys Chem A ; 119(11): 2281-8, 2015 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25068459

RESUMO

The photochemistry of matrix isolated (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) azide, CF3SO2N3, has been studied at low temperatures. Upon ArF laser irradiation (λ = 193 nm), the azide eliminates N2 and furnishes triplet [(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]nitrene, CF3SO2N, which has been characterized by IR and EPR spectroscopy. Upon subsequent UV light irradiation (λ = 260-400 nm) the nitrene converts to CF3N═SO2 and CF3S(O)NO through a Curtius-type rearrangement. Further two new species CF2N═SO2F and FSNO were identified together with CF2NF, SO2, F2CO, CF3NO, and SO as side products. In addition, triplet nitrene CF3N was detected by its EPR and IR spectra. The complex stepwise photodecomposition of matrix isolated CF3SO2N3 is discussed in terms of the observed photolysis products and quantum chemical calculations.

6.
Chemistry ; 20(40): 12917-23, 2014 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25145605

RESUMO

The benzyl radical (1) is a key intermediate in the combustion and tropospheric oxidation of toluene. Because of its relevance, the reaction of 1 with molecular oxygen was investigated by matrix-isolation IR and EPR spectroscopy as well as computational methods. The primary reaction product of 1 and O2 is the benzylperoxyl radical (2), which exists in several conformers that can easily interconvert even at cryogenic temperatures. Photolysis of radical 2 at 365 nm results in a formal [1,3]-H migration and subsequent cleavage of the O-O bond to produce a hydrogen-bonded complex between the hydroxyl radical and benzaldehyde (4). Prolonged photolysis produces the benzoyl radical (5) and water, which finally yield the phenyl radical (7), CO, and H2O. Thus, via a sequence of exothermic reactions 1 is transformed into radicals of even higher reactivity, such as OH and 7. Our results have implications for the development of models for the highly complicated process of combustion of aromatic compounds.

7.
Chemistry ; 17(14): 3977-84, 2011 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21384447

RESUMO

The elusive triplet fluorocarbonyl nitrene, FC(O)N (X(3 A''), has been generated in high yield from matrix-isolated FC(O)N(3) by ArF excimer laser photolysis (λ=193 nm). As a side product FNCO was formed. The novel nitrene was characterized by IR, UV/Vis, EPR spectroscopy, and quantum-chemical calculations. All six fundamental vibrations of FC(O)N at 1681.3, 1193.8, 879.8, 646.5, 588.7, and 434.8 cm(-1) (argon matrix, 16 K), their (12/13)C, (16/18)O, and (14/15)N isotopic shifts, and four electronic transitions at T(0) =13 890, 25 428, 29 166, and 30 900 cm(-1) that exhibit vibrational fine structures have been detected. Under visible-light irradiation at λ≥495 nm, FC(O)N reacted with molecular N(2) in the matrix cage at 6 K to give back FC(O)N(3), whereas near-UV irradiation at λ≥335 nm yielded FNCO. The singlet-triplet energy gaps of different carbonyl nitrenes are discussed.


Assuntos
Fluorcarbonetos/química , Iminas/química , Luz , Estrutura Molecular , Fotólise , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Raios Ultravioleta
8.
Chemistry ; 16(15): 4496-506, 2010 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20232440

RESUMO

The photochemistry of 2-iodo-3,4,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl azide (7 d) has been investigated in argon and neon matrices at 4 K, and the products characterized by IR and EPR spectroscopy. The primary photochemical step is loss of a nitrogen molecule and formation of phenyl nitrene 1 d. Further irradiation with UV or visible light results in mixtures of 1 d with azirine 5 d', ketenimine 6 d', nitreno radical 2 d, and azirinyl radical 9. The relative amounts of these products strongly depend on the matrix and on the irradiation conditions. Nitreno radical 2 d with a quartet ground state was characterized by EPR spectroscopy. Electronic structure calculations in combination with the experimental results allow for a detailed understanding of the properties of this unusual new type of organic high-spin molecules.

9.
Chemistry ; 15(48): 13466-73, 2009 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19918816

RESUMO

Triplet difluorophosphoryl nitrene F(2)P(O)N (X(3)A'') was generated on ArF excimer laser irradiation (lambda=193 nm) of F(2)P(O)N(3) in solid argon matrix at 16 K, and characterized by its matrix IR, UV/Vis, and EPR spectra, in combination with DFT and CBS-QB3 calculations. On visible light irradiation (lambda>420 nm) at 16 K F(2)P(O)N reacts with molecular nitrogen and some of the azide is regenerated. UV irradiation (lambda=255 nm) of F(2)P(O)N (X(3)A'') induced a Curtius-type rearrangement, but instead of a 1,3-fluorine shift, nitrogen migration to give F(2)PON is proposed to be the first step of the photoisomerization of F(2)P(O)N into F(2)PNO (difluoronitrosophosphine). Formation of novel F(2)PNO was confirmed with (15)N- and (18)O-enriched isotopomers by IR spectroscopy and DFT calculations. Theoretical calculations predict a rather long P-N bond of 1.922 A [B3LYP/6-311+G(3df)] and low bond-dissociation energy of 76.3 kJ mol(-1) (CBS-QB3) for F(2)PNO.

10.
J Org Chem ; 74(19): 7370-82, 2009 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19778078

RESUMO

The photochemistry of a series of fluorinated p-iodophenyl azides 2 has been investigated using matrix isolation IR and EPR spectroscopy. In all cases, the corresponding phenylnitrenes 1 were formed as primary photoproducts. Further irradiation of the nitrenes 1 resulted in the formation of azirines 3, ketenimines 4, and nitreno radicals 5. The yield of 5 depends on the number of ortho fluorine substituents: with two ortho fluorine atoms the highest yield is observed, whereas without fluorine atoms the yield is too low for IR spectroscopic detection. The interconversion between the isomers 1, 3, and 4 proved to be rather complex. If the fluorine atoms are distributed unsymmetrically, two isomers of azirines 3 and ketenimines 4 can be formed. The yields of these isomers depend critically on the irradiation conditions.

11.
J Org Chem ; 74(19): 7238-44, 2009 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19725551

RESUMO

Septet 2,4,6-trinitrenotoluene is the major paramagnetic product formed during the photolysis of 2,4,6-triazidotoluene in cryogenic matrices. This trinitrene displays different electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra in solid argon and in 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (2MTHF) glass, corresponding to septet spin states with the zero-field splitting (ZFS) parameters D(S) = -0.0938 cm(-1), E(S) = -0.0040 cm(-1) and D(S) = -0.0934 cm(-1), E(S) = -0.0015 cm(-1), respectively. Analysis of these parameters shows that the molecular and electronic structure of the septet trinitrene derived from the EPR spectrum in argon is in good agreement with the expectations from DFT calculations. The very small parameter E(S) in 2MTHF glass is explained by significant changes of the spin densities on the three nitrene units due to interactions of the nitrogen atom with surrounding 2MTHF molecules.


Assuntos
Magnetismo , Nitrocompostos/química , Tolueno/análogos & derivados , Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica , Estrutura Molecular , Nitrocompostos/síntese química , Fotólise , Tolueno/síntese química , Tolueno/química
12.
J Org Chem ; 73(18): 7045-51, 2008 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18710286

RESUMO

Septet 3,5-difluoropyridyl-2,4,6-trinitrene along with quintet 2-azido-3,5-difluoropyridyl-4,6-dinitrene, quintet 4-azido-3,5-difluoropyridyl-2,6-dinitrene, triplet 2,6-diazido-3,5-difluoropyridyl-4-nitrene, and triplet 2,4-diazido-3,5-difluoropyridyl-6-nitrene have been obtained by photolysis of 2,4,6-triazido-3,5-difluoropyridine in solid argon at 4 K. The electronic and magnetic properties of the matrix-isolated nitrenes were studied using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy in combination with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The fine-structure parameters of the nitrenes were determined with high accuracy from computer spectral simulations. All signals in the EPR spectra of the nitrenes randomly oriented in the solid phase were unambiguously assigned on the basis of eigenfield calculations of the Zeeman energy levels and angular dependencies of resonance fields from the direction of the applied magnetic field.


Assuntos
Iminas/química , Piridinas/química , Simulação por Computador , Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica/métodos , Elétrons , Iminas/efeitos da radiação , Magnetismo , Modelos Químicos , Estrutura Molecular , Fotólise , Piridinas/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta
13.
J Am Chem Soc ; 130(13): 4396-403, 2008 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18327939

RESUMO

2,3,5,6-Tetrafluorophenylnitren-4-yl (5) was synthesized in argon at 4 K via the photolysis of 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-4-iodo-phenyl azide (6). Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy allows us to observe triradical 5 in its quartet state with the zero-field splitting (ZFS) parameters |D/hc| = 0.285 and |E/hc| = 0.043 cm-1. The quartet ground state of 5 is in accordance with our previous infrared (IR) spectroscopic investigation, in which the high-spin quartet state, but no low-spin doublet state, of 5 was observed in solid argon at 4 K [Wenk, H. H.; Sander, W. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2002, 41, 2742-2745]. Because annealing of the matrix at temperatures of >10 K results in the rapid recombination of the highly reactive species 5 with I atoms produced during the photolysis of 6, the Curie-Weiss behavior could not be investigated. However, the absence of low-spin states in the IR investigations, as well as the results of ab initio and density functional theory (DFT) calculations, strongly suggest that 5 has a robust quartet ground state that is best-described as an unprecedented sigma,sigma,pi-triradical. The ZFS of 5 has been successfully reproduced by DFT calculations, which furthermore provide qualitative insight into the origin of the observed EPR parameters.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Fluorados/química , Modelos Químicos , Azidas/química , Azidas/efeitos da radiação , Simulação por Computador , Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica/métodos , Radicais Livres/química , Radicais Livres/efeitos da radiação , Estrutura Molecular , Teoria Quântica , Raios Ultravioleta
14.
J Am Chem Soc ; 130(10): 2993-3000, 2008 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18278907

RESUMO

A new efficient synthesis of m-xylylene 1 is reported. The diradical 1 was trapped in argon matrices at 10 K and characterized by IR, UV-vis, and EPR spectroscopy. The syntheses reported before only allowed generation of 1 in organic glasses, and the spectroscopic identification was limited to fluorescence and EPR spectroscopy. Diradical 1 proved to be highly photolabile, and irradiation results in the formation of three isomeric hydrocarbons 7, 9, and 11 which could be identified by comparison of their IR spectra with the results of DFT calculations.


Assuntos
Raios Ultravioleta , Xilenos/química , Xilenos/efeitos da radiação , Simulação por Computador , Radicais Livres/química , Radicais Livres/efeitos da radiação , Modelos Químicos , Estrutura Molecular , Fotoquímica , Fotólise , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho/métodos
15.
J Org Chem ; 72(3): 715-24, 2007 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17253786

RESUMO

The photochemistry of 3-iodo-2,4,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl azide 8 and 3,5-diiodo-2,4,6-trifluorophenyl azide 9 was studied by IR and EPR spectroscopy in cryogenic argon and neon matrices. Both compounds form the corresponding nitrenes as primary photoproducts in photostationary equilibria with their azirine and ketenimine isomers. In contrast to fluorinated phenylnitrenes, ring-opened products are obtained upon short-wavelength irradiation of the iodine-containing systems, indicative of C-I bond cleavage in the nitrenes or didehydroazepines under these conditions. Neither 3-dehydrophenylnitrene 6 nor 3,5-didehydrophenylnitrene 7 could be detected directly. The structures of the acyclic photoproducts were identified by extensive comparison with DFT calculated spectra. Mechanistic aspects of the rearrangements leading to the observed products and the electronic properties of the title intermediates are discussed on the basis of DFT as well as high-level ab initio calculations. The computations indicate strong through-bond coupling of the exocyclic orbital in the meta position with the singly occupied in-plane nitrene orbital in the monoradical nitrenes. In contrast to the ortho or para isomers, this interaction results in low-spin ground states for meta nitrene radicals and a weakening of the C1-C2 bond causing the kinetic instability of these species even under low-temperature conditions. 3,5-Didehydrophenylnitrenes, on the other hand, in which a strong C3-C5 interaction reduces coupling of the radical sites with the nitrene unit, might be accessible synthetic targets if the intermediate formation of labile monoradicals could be circumvented.

16.
Photochem Photobiol ; 82(1): 332-8, 2006.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16194128

RESUMO

The 2,2,2-trifluoroethoxycarbonyl radical, 3b, has been generated by pulsed irradiation of 9-fluorenone oxime 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl oxalate 1b in carbon tetrachloride and acetonitrile solution. It was characterized by time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) and infrared spectroscopy. The radical has a lifetime in the range of microseconds and can be detected within the rise time of our time-resolved equipment before undergoing recombination or reactions with the solvent. No decarbonylation or decarboxylation was observed. In the presence of oxygen, the radical is quenched to yield the 2,2,2-trifluoroethoxycarbonylperoxy radical 4b, which has again a lifetime in the range of several microseconds. Time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (TREPR) allowed for the detection of a 1 : 1 : 1 triplet of the fluorene-9-iminyl radical 7 at g = 2.0032 and a 1 : 3 : 3 : 1 quartet with additional hyperfine splitting (HFS) due to proton coupling at g = 2.001 for the trifluoroethoxycarbonyl radical 3b. Calculations indicate that alkoxycarbonyl radicals can exist in conformations that are s-trans or s-cis with respect to the R-O-C(O) x dihedral. A comparison of experimental TREPR spectra with simulations indicates that the s-trans conformer is observed in the case of the ethoxycarbonyl radical, 3a. In the case of the trifluorethoxycarbonyl radical, 3b, however, the additional proton HFS observed shows that it is the s-cis conformer that is formed. As calculations give evidence for a fairly high activation enthalpy for s-cis-s-trans interconversion of alkoxycarbonyl radicals, this discrepancy is likely due to differing conformational preferences of the precursor molecules.

17.
J Org Chem ; 70(17): 6609-15, 2005 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16095277

RESUMO

The selenocysteinyl radical 1 has been generated for the first time by laser flash photolysis (lambda(exc) = 266 nm) of dimethyl bis(N-tert-butoxycarbonyl)-l-selenocystine 2 and of [(9-fluorenylideneamino)oxycarbonyl]methyl(N-tert-butoxycarbonyl)-l-selenocysteine 3 in acetonitrile and characterized by time-resolved (TR) UV/Vis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and electron paramagnetic spectroscopy in combination with theoretical methods. A detailed product study was conducted using gas chromatography and one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. In the case of [(9-fluorenylideneamino)oxycarbonyl]methyl(N-tert-butoxycarbonyl)-l-selenocysteine 3, the (9-fluorenylideneamino)oxycarbonyl moiety serves as a photolabile protection group providing a "caged selenocysteinyl radical" suitable for biophysical applications. Cleavage of the diselenide bridge or the selenium-carbonyl bond by irradiation is possible in high quantum yields. Because of the lack of a good IR chromophore in the mid-IR region, the selenocysteinyl radical 1 cannot be monitored directly by TR FTIR spectroscopy. TR UV/Vis spectroscopy revealed the formation of the selenocysteinyl radical 1 from both precursors. The selenocysteinyl radical 1 has a lifetime tau approximately 63 mus and exhibits a strong band located at lambda(max) = 335 nm. Calculated UV absorptions of the selenocysteinyl radical (UB3LYP/6-311G(d,p)) are in good agreement with the experimental results. The use of TR UV/Vis spectroscopy permitted the determination of the decay rates of the selenocysteinyl radical in the presence of two quenchers. The product studies demonstrated the reversible photoreaction of dimethyl bis(N-tert-butoxycarbonyl)-l-selenocystine 2. Products of the photolysis of the "caged selenocysteinyl radical" precursor 3 are dimethyl bis(N-tert-butoxycarbonyl)-l-selenocystine 2, carbon dioxide, and some further smaller fragments. In addition, the photodecomposition of the (9-fluorenylideneamino)oxycarbonyl moiety produced 9-fluorenone-oxime 4, 9-fluoren-imine 5, and 6 and 7 as products of the dimerization of two 9-fluorenoneiminoxy radicals 8.


Assuntos
Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica/métodos , Selenocisteína/química , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta/métodos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos , Radicais Livres , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética
19.
J Am Chem Soc ; 126(25): 7846-52, 2004 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15212532

RESUMO

We have studied the matrix photolysis of 2,4,6-triazido-1,3,5-triazine (cyanuric triazide, 1). Stepwise generation of the corresponding mononitrene, dinitrene, and trinitrene was observed by matrix IR and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The generated species were identified by comparison of their matrix IR spectra with density functional theory (DFT) computational results. The generation of 2,4,6-trinitreno-1,3,5-triazine with a septet ground state was confirmed for the first time by matrix EPR spectroscopy. The trinitrene readily decomposed into three NCN molecules upon further photoirradiation. This process was also confirmed by matrix EPR spectroscopy.

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