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1.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043960

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: The association of mild obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) with important clinical outcomes remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between mild OSA and systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) in the European Sleep Apnoea Database (ESADA) cohort. METHODS: In a multicentre sample of 4732 patients we analyzed the risk of mild OSA (sub-classified into two groups: mildAHI 5-<11/h (apnoea-hypopnoea frequency/hour [AHI] 5 to <11/h) and mildAHI 11-<15/hOSA (AHI ≥11 to <15/h ) compared to non-apnoeic snorers for prevalent SAH after adjustment for relevant confounding factors including gender, age, smoking, obesity, daytime sleepiness, dyslipidaemia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, type 2 diabetes and sleep test methodology [polygraphy (PG) or polysomnography (PSG)]. RESULTS: SAH prevalence was higher in the mildAHI 11-<15/h OSA group compared with the mildAHI 5-<11/h group and non-apnoeic snorers (52 vs 45 vs 30%, p<0.001). Corresponding adjusted Odds Ratios (OR) for SAH were 1.789 (mildAHI 11-<15/h, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49-2.15) and 1.558 (mildAHI 5-<11/h, 95%, CI 1.34-1.82), respectively; p<0.001. In sensitivity analysis, mildAHI 11-<15/h OSA remained a significant predictor for SAH both in PG (OR = 1.779, 95% CI 1.403-2.256; p<0.001) and PSG group (OR = 1.424, 95% CI 1.047-1.939; p=0.025). CONCLUSION: Our data suggest a dose response relationship between mild OSA and SAH risk, starting from 5 events/hour in PG-recordings and continuing with a further risk increase in the 11 to <15 range. These findings potentially introduce a challenge to traditional thresholds of OSA severity and may help to stratify OSA patients according to cardiovascular risk.

2.
Eur J Intern Med ; 73: 7-15, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980328

RESUMO

A good night's sleep is a prerequisite for sustainable mental and physical health. Sleep disorders, including sleep disordered breathing, insomnia and sleep related motor dysfunction (e.g., restless legs syndrome), are common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), especially in more severe disease. COPD is commonly associated with multimorbidity, and sleep disorders as a component of this multimorbidity spectrum have a further negative impact on COPD-related comorbidities. Indeed, concomitant diseases in COPD and in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are similar, suggesting that the combination of COPD and OSA, the so called OSA-COPD overlap syndrome (OVS), affects patient outcomes. Potential clinically important interactions of OVS exist in cardiovascular and metabolic disease, arthritis, anxiety, depression, neurocognitive disorder and the fatigue syndrome. Correct diagnosis for recognition and treatment of sleep-related disorders in COPD is recommended. However, surprisingly limited information is available and further research and improved diagnostic tools are needed. In the absence of clear evidence, we agree with the recommendation of the Global Initiative on Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease that sleep disorders should be actively searched for and treated in patients with COPD. We believe that both aspects are important components of the holistic approach required in patients with chronic multimorbid conditions.

3.
J Sleep Res ; : e12956, 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808986

RESUMO

Whole blood carbonic anhydrase activity (CAa) is increased in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Our study investigated the influence of positive airway pressure (PAP) or CA inhibitor acetazolamide (ACT) therapy on CAa, OSA and blood pressure. Thirty-three OSA patients (21 hypertensive, body mass index (BMI) 37 ± 7 kg/m2 and apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of 47 ± 31 events/hr) were followed-up after PAP treatment (compliance, 4.7 ± 1.5 hr/day; duration, median 6 [IQR 6,6] months) (Cohort A). A second OSA Cohort (B) contained nine hypertensive patients (BMI, 29 ± 4 kg/m2 ; AHI, 39 ± 20 events/hr) with 2-week treatment of ACT, PAP or ACT + PAP in an open crossover study. CAa was assessed at baseline and at the end of each treatment period. In Cohort A, baseline CAa was higher in hypertensive, compared with normotensive, patients (1,033 ± 204 versus 861 ± 201 units, p = .028). PAP treatment reduced systolic/diastolic blood pressure but not CAa (-9 ± 11/-5 ± 7 mmHg and -20 ± 289 units, p < .001, <.001 and .70). In Cohort B, blood pressure was reduced in both ACT-treated groups (-10 ± 10/-5 ± 7 mmHg, p = .043 and .019; and -5 ± 5/-13 ± 13 mmHg, p < .001 and .009). AHI was reduced in both groups: ACT only, -17 ± 9 events/hr p = .001; and ACT + PAP, -39 ± 19 events/hr, p < .001. PAP did not change CAa (p = .98) but activity tended to decrease after ACT with or without PAP (p = .081 and .056). CAa is elevated in hypertensive OSA patients. Long-term PAP reduced blood pressure without affecting CAa. ACT reduced blood pressure and CAa. Increased CAa may constitute a physiological characteristic in OSA, contributing to comorbid hypertension.

4.
Respirology ; 2019 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872530

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: OSA and PLMS are known to induce acute BP swings during sleep. Our current study aimed to address the independent effect of PLMS on BP in an unselected OSA patient cohort. METHODS: This cross-sectional analysis included 1487 patients (1110 males, no previous hypertension diagnosis or treatment, mean age: 52.5 years, mean BMI: 30.5 kg/m2 ) with significant OSA (defined as AHI ≥ 10) recruited from the European Sleep Apnoea Cohort. Patients underwent overnight PSG. Patients were stratified into two groups: patients with significant PLMS (PLMSI > 25 events/hour of sleep) and patients without significant PLMS (PLMSI < 25 events/hour of sleep). SBP, DBP and PP were the variables of interest. For each of these, a multivariate regression linear model was fitted to evaluate the relationship between PLMS and outcome adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical covariates (gender, age, BMI, AHI, ESS, diabetes, smoking and sleep efficiency). RESULTS: The univariate analysis of SBP showed an increment of BP equal to 4.70 mm Hg (P < 0.001) in patients with significant PLMS compared to patients without significant PLMS. This increment remained significant after implementing a multivariate regression model (2.64 mm Hg, P = 0.044). No significant increment of BP was observed for DBP and PP. CONCLUSION: PLMS is associated with a rise in SBP regardless of AHI, independent of clinical and sociodemographic confounders. A PLMS phenotype may carry an increased risk for cardiovascular disease in OSA patients.

5.
Eur Respir Rev ; 28(153)2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554703

RESUMO

COPD and obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) are highly prevalent and different clinical COPD phenotypes that influence the likelihood of comorbid OSA. The increased lung volumes and low body mass index (BMI) associated with the predominant emphysema phenotype protects against OSA whereas the peripheral oedema and higher BMI often associated with the predominant chronic bronchitis phenotype promote OSA. The diagnosis of OSA in COPD patients requires clinical awareness and screening questionnaires which may help identify patients for overnight study. Management of OSA-COPD overlap patients differs from COPD alone and the survival of overlap patients treated with nocturnal positive airway pressure is superior to those untreated. Sleep-related hypoventilation is common in neuromuscular disease and skeletal disorders because of the effects of normal sleep on ventilation and additional challenges imposed by the underlying disorders. Hypoventilation is first seen during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep before progressing to involve non-REM sleep and wakefulness. Clinical presentation is nonspecific and daytime respiratory function measures poorly predict nocturnal hypoventilation. Monitoring of respiration and carbon dioxide levels during sleep should be incorporated in the evaluation of high-risk patient populations and treatment with noninvasive ventilation improves outcomes.

6.
Lancet Respir Med ; 7(8): 645-647, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300335
7.
J Sleep Res ; : e12895, 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347213

RESUMO

In obstructive sleep apnea, patients' sleep is fragmented leading to excessive daytime sleepiness and co-morbidities like arterial hypertension. However, traditional metrics are not always directly correlated with daytime sleepiness, and the association between traditional sleep quality metrics like sleep duration and arterial hypertension is still ambiguous. In a development cohort, we analysed hypnograms from mild (n = 213), moderate (n = 235) and severe (n = 277) obstructive sleep apnea patients as well as healthy controls (n = 105) from the European Sleep Apnea Database. We assessed sleep by the analysis of two-step transitions depending on obstructive sleep apnea severity and anthropometric factors. Two-step transition patterns were examined for an association to arterial hypertension or daytime sleepiness. We also tested cumulative distributions of wake as well as sleep-states for power-laws (exponent α) and exponential distributions (decay time τ) in dependency on obstructive sleep apnea severity and potential confounders. Independent of obstructive sleep apnea severity and potential confounders, wake-state durations followed a power-law distribution, while sleep-state durations were characterized by an exponential distribution. Sleep-stage transitions are influenced by obstructive sleep apnea severity, age and gender. N2 → N3 → wake transitions were associated with high diastolic blood pressure. We observed higher frequencies of alternating (symmetric) patterns (e.g. N2 → N1 → N2, N2 → wake → N2) in sleepy patients both in the development cohort and in a validation cohort (n = 425). In conclusion, effects of obstructive sleep apnea severity and potential confounders on sleep architecture are small, but transition patterns still link sleep fragmentation directly to obstructive sleep apnea-related clinical outcomes like arterial hypertension and daytime sleepiness.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30666100

RESUMO

Purpose: This study investigated the effect of dual bronchodilation with the long-acting ß-receptor agonist/long-acting muscarinic antagonist combination, indacaterol/glycopyrronium (IND/GLY), on nighttime oxygenation, lung function, sleep quality, and symptoms in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD. Patients and methods: This was a 4-week, double-blind, multicenter, placebo-controlled, two-period crossover study. Patients were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive IND/GLY 110/50 µg once daily or matching placebo. The primary objective was to evaluate the effect of treatment with IND/GLY on mean nighttime oxygenation, compared with placebo. The secondary objective was to determine the time spent <90% in blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) compared with placebo. Exploratory objectives were to assess the effect of IND/GLY, compared with placebo, on sleep quality measured by the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) Sleep Scale and the COPD and Asthma Sleep Impact Scale (CASIS) questionnaires and on symptoms assessed by COPD Assessment Test (CAT) questionnaire. Results: In total, 38 patients were randomized (n=22, IND/GLY; n=16, placebo). The change in nighttime oxygenation (SpO2) was similar, and there was a comparable difference in time spent <90% SpO2 between IND/GLY and placebo. Increases from baseline for the difference between IND/GLY and placebo for trough FEV1, FVC, and inspiratory capacity (P<0.05) were seen, with a corresponding reduction in residual volume and functional residual capacity (P<0.05). IND/GLY treatment showed an improvement in scores for CAT (P=0.0208), CASIS, and the MOS Sleep Scale measures, Sleep Problems Index I, Sleep Problems Index II (P=0.0315), Sleep Adequacy, Sleep Disturbance Scale, Somnolence Scale, and Short of Breath Scale (P=0.0031). Conclusion: In this study, IND/GLY 110/50 µg once daily improved symptoms, sleep quality, and lung function, but showed no effect on nighttime oxygenation in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/administração & dosagem , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Glicopirrolato/administração & dosagem , Indanos/administração & dosagem , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/administração & dosagem , Oxigênio/sangue , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Quinolonas/administração & dosagem , Sono , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Broncodilatadores/efeitos adversos , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Glicopirrolato/efeitos adversos , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Indanos/efeitos adversos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/efeitos adversos , Noruega , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/sangue , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Qualidade de Vida , Quinolonas/efeitos adversos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Capacidade Vital
11.
Sleep Breath ; 23(1): 135-142, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29869108

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Recent studies suggest an increased prevalence of chronic pain conditions and restless legs syndrome (RLS) in patients with chronic pulmonary disease (CPD). We analyzed the prevalence and risk factors for pain and RLS in a population-based sample of females with comorbid CPD. METHOD: Questionnaire-based data from 2745 women aged 18-64 years were analyzed regarding comorbid CPD status (severe bronchitis, emphysema, asthma). Pain status was assessed according to symptoms reflecting severity (Visual Analogue Scale, VAS rating 0-10) and duration and spreading (limited spread or widespread) of pain. A diagnosis of RLS was defined by four validated diagnostic criteria. Anthropometrics and co-morbidities were assessed as covariates in univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: Widespread pain was overrepresented in women with CPD (44.6 vs. 24.6%, p < 0.001). The odds ratio for widespread pain in women with CPD was 1.6 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-2.2, p < 0.001) in the fully adjusted model. Severe pain (VAS rating ≥ 7) was more prevalent in females with known CPD (28.8 vs. 15.4%, p < 0.001, odd ratio 1.4 (95% CI 1.0-1.9, p = 0.029)). The prevalence of RLS was 37.4 and 23.8% in subjects with or without CPD, respectively (p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, CPD was associated with a 30% risk increase for RLS (odds ratio 1.3 (95% CI 1.0-1.7, p = 0.04)). CONCLUSION: This population-based study identified CPD as an independent risk factor for severe and widespread pain as well as for RLS. Further research addressing pathophysiological mechanisms linking CPD and chronic pain conditions/RLS is warranted.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/complicações , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Síndrome das Pernas Inquietas/complicações , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , Dor Crônica/diagnóstico , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Síndrome das Pernas Inquietas/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Sleep Res ; 28(4): e12774, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30246416

RESUMO

Education in the scoring of sleep-disordered breathing is organised differently and data on the evaluation of teaching strategies based on student ratings are sparse. The aim of the study was to analyse the gain in theoretical and practical knowledge achieved during different course settings offered by a national sleep society. The course contained 1 hr of theoretical teaching (scoring rules and recording methodology) and 2.5 hr of practical scoring (physiological breathing, obstructive/central sleep apnea and hypoventilation). Three different settings were provided: a large scoring group including participants with mixed experiences (1), a small scoring group with inexperienced scorers (2), and guided scoring for experienced scorers (3). Evaluation was performed at the end of the course. Data from 67 out of 82 participants (79%) were analysed (42 nurses/technicians and 25 physicians/dentists). Previous scoring experience was limited, moderate and extended in 25, 26, and 15 students, respectively. Gain of practical knowledge and overall course rating were significantly higher in settings 2 and 3 compared with 1 (p = 0.005 and p = 0.018 respectively). Guided scoring was the preferred practical teaching setting in experienced scorers, whereas scoring in large groups together with an experienced student was preferred in newcomers. Profession did not influence gain of knowledge, course satisfaction or preferred course design. From the student's perspective, consensus scoring in groups or guided scoring for all students may have advantages compared with single/small-group scoring settings. Technical teaching knowledge of faculty members is of significant importance.

13.
Sleep Breath ; 23(1): 319-326, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30547350

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between insomnia and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease, has not been extensively studied. We aimed to assess the independent association between insomnia and CRF in a population-based cohort of subjects aged 50 to 64 years. METHODS: Subjects participating in the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImaging Study (SCAPIS) pilot cohort (n = 603, men 47.9%) underwent a submaximal cycle ergometer test for estimation of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). Data on physical activity and sedentary time were collected via waist-worn accelerometers. An insomnia severity index score ≥ 10 was used to define insomnia. RESULTS: Insomnia was identified in 31.8% of the population. The VO2max was significantly lower in insomnia subjects compared with the non-insomnia group (31.2 ± 6.3 vs. 32.4 ± 6.5 ml* kg-1 *min-1, p = 0.028). There was no difference in objectively assessed physical activity or time spent sedentary between the groups. In a multivariate generalized linear model adjusting for confounders, an independent association between insomnia status and lower VO2max was found in men, but not in women (ß = - 1.15 [95% CI - 2.23-- 0.06] and - 0.09 [- 1.09-0.92], p = 0.038 and 0.866, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: We found a modest, but significant, association between insomnia and lower CRF in middle-aged men, but not in women. Our results suggest that insomnia may link to cardiovascular disease via reduced CRF. Insomnia may require a specific focus in the context of health campaigns addressing CRF.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/complicações , Estudos de Coortes , Correlação de Dados , Estudos Transversais , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxigênio/sangue , Projetos Piloto , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/fisiopatologia
14.
Sleep Med ; 59: 56-65, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30555029

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: The Clinical Global Impression scale (CGI) reflects the clinician's assessment of the disease impact on patient's global functioning. We assessed predictors of CGI scale rating in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). PATIENTS/METHODS: Consecutive patients with suspected OSA (n = 7581) were identified in the European Sleep Apnea Database (ESADA). Anthropometrics, comorbidities, apnea severity obtained by polygraphy or polysomnography, and daytime sleepiness [Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS)] were assessed. The CGI 7-point scale was completed at the end of the diagnostic process (CGI-severity, ie, CGI-S) and, in a subpopulation, at treatment follow-up (CGI-Improvement). RESULTS: CGI-S was rated mild to moderate in 44% of patients. CGI rating at any given apnea intensity was worse in women than in men (p < 0.01). Patients undergoing polygraphy (n = 5075) were more frequently rated as severely ill compared to those studied with polysomnography (19.0% vs 13.0%, p < 0.001). In patients aged ≤65 years, CGI scoring was generally better than in the elderly despite a similar degree of OSA (eg, 'normal, not ill' 24.2% vs 15.3%, p < 0.01, respectively). Independent predictors of CGI rating included age, BMI, AHI, ESS, cardio-metabolic comorbidities, and diagnosis based on polygraphy. CGI-improvement rating (Beta = -0.406, p < 0.01) was superior to sleep apnea severity or ESS-score (Beta = 0.052 and -0.021, p = 0.154 and 0.538 respectively) at baseline for prediction of good CPAP compliance at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: CGI rating is confounded by gender, age class and the type of sleep diagnostic method. As OSA phenotypes differ, CGI may contribute as a clinical tool to reflect the significance of clinical disease.

15.
Respirology ; 23(12): 1180-1189, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30133061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and dyslipidaemia are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease. This study investigates the association between OSA and plasma lipid concentrations in patients enrolled in the European Sleep Apnea Database (ESADA) cohort. METHODS: The cross-sectional analysis included 8592 patients without physician-diagnosed hyperlipidaemia or reported intake of a lipid-lowering drug (age 50.1 ± 12.7 years, 69.1% male, BMI: 30.8 ± 6.6 kg/m2 , mean apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI): 25.7 ± 25.9 events/h). The independent relationship between measures of OSA (AHI, oxygen desaturation index (ODI), mean and lowest oxygen saturation) and lipid profile (total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and fasting triglycerides (TG)) was determined by means of general linear model analysis. RESULTS: There was a dose response relationship between TC and ODI (mean ± SE (mg/dL): 180.33 ± 2.46, 184.59 ± 2.42, 185.44 ± 2.42 and 185.73 ± 2.44; P < 0.001 across ODI quartiles I-IV). TG and LDL concentrations were better predicted by AHI than by ODI. HDL-C was significantly reduced in the highest AHI quartile (mean ± SE (mg/dL): 48.8 ± 1.49 vs 46.50 ± 1.48; P = 0.002, AHI quartile I vs IV). Morbid obesity was associated with lower TC and higher HDL-C values. Lipid status was influenced by geographical location with the highest TC concentration recorded in Northern Europe. CONCLUSION: OSA severity was independently associated with cholesterol and TG concentrations.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Dislipidemias , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapêutico , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/diagnóstico , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/sangue , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/epidemiologia
16.
J Sleep Res ; 27(6): e12719, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29962011

RESUMO

New European Union (EU) regulations state that untreated moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) coincident with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) constitutes a medical disorder leading to unfitness to drive. However, fitness to drive can be re-established by successful treatment of OSA and EDS. The aim of the current study was to compare patients undergoing the certification process with those of an unselected OSA patient cohort. The study compared consecutive patients in the certification group (n = 132) with a representative group of OSA patients with a current driving license and an Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI) ≥ 15 n/h (n = 790). The adherence to positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy and the change in EDS (Epworth Sleepiness Scale [ESS] score) with treatment were analysed. Patient characteristics and severity of sleep apnea did not differ significantly between groups (certification/reference group: BMI 30 ± 5/31 ± 5 kg/m2 , AHI 33 ± 20/36 ± 20 n/hr, ESS 12 ± 6/11 ± 5). However, the certification group was oversampled with elderly drivers (70-85 years: 22% vs. 9%, p = 0.001). PAP compliance was higher in the certification group than in the reference group (PAP use ≥ 4 hr/night in 96% vs. 53%, p = 0.001) and mean ESS reduction was -8.0 (-8.9 - -7.1) versus -4.0 (-4.4 - -3.5), respectively (p < 0.001). Patients attending the fitness to drive evaluation reported almost complete adherence to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and elimination of EDS symptoms. Besides possible baseline differences, this strong response may be explained by factors such as a selection process of elderly patients, a self-rating component in the assessment of the treatment response and the threat of a driving license suspension. Our data suggest that an improved certification process with objective rather than subjective components, along with a reduced selection bias, is warranted.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Certificação/métodos , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/psicologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/terapia , Sonolência , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Exame para Habilitação de Motoristas/psicologia , Certificação/normas , Estudos de Coortes , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/métodos , Exercício/fisiologia , Exercício/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cooperação do Paciente , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/epidemiologia , Suécia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Sleep Res ; 27(6): e12729, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29998568

RESUMO

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and asthma are often associated and several studies suggest a bidirectional relationship between asthma and OSA. This study analyzed the characteristics of patients with suspected OSA from the European Sleep Apnea Database according to presence/absence of physician-diagnosed asthma. Cross-sectional data in 16,236 patients (29.1% female) referred for suspected OSA were analyzed according to occurrence of physician-diagnosed asthma for anthropometrics, OSA severity and sleepiness. Sleep structure was assessed in patients studied by polysomnography (i.e. 48% of the sample). The prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma in the entire cohort was 4.8% (7.9% in women, 3.7% in men, p < 0.0001), and decreased from subjects without OSA to patients with mild-moderate and severe OSA (p = 0.02). Obesity was highly prevalent in asthmatic women, whereas BMI distribution was similar in men with and without physician-diagnosed asthma. Distribution of OSA severity was similar in patients with and without physician-diagnosed asthma, and unaffected by treatment for asthma or gastroesophageal reflux. Asthma was associated with poor sleep quality and sleepiness. Physician-diagnosed asthma was less common in a sleep clinic population than expected from the results of studies in the general population. Obesity appears as the major factor raising suspicion of OSA in asthmatic women, whereas complaints of poor sleep quality were the likely reason for referral in asthmatic men.


Assuntos
Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/epidemiologia , Papel do Médico , Autorrelato , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Asma/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polissonografia/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia
18.
Eur Respir J ; 52(3)2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29853491

RESUMO

Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a major challenge for physicians and healthcare systems throughout the world. The high prevalence and the impact on daily life of OSA oblige clinicians to offer effective and acceptable treatment options. However, recent evidence has raised questions about the benefits of positive airway pressure therapy in ameliorating comorbidities.An international expert group considered the current state of knowledge based on the most relevant publications in the previous 5 years, discussed the current challenges in the field, and proposed topics for future research on epidemiology, phenotyping, underlying mechanisms, prognostic implications and optimal treatment of patients with OSA.The group concluded that a revision to the diagnostic criteria for OSA is required to include factors that reflect different clinical and pathophysiological phenotypes and relevant comorbidities (e.g. nondipping nocturnal blood pressure). Furthermore, current severity thresholds require revision to reflect factors such as the disparity in the apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) between polysomnography and sleep studies that do not include sleep stage measurements, in addition to the poor correlation between AHI and daytime symptoms such as sleepiness. Management decisions should be linked to the underlying phenotype and consider outcomes beyond AHI.


Assuntos
Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/terapia , Comorbidade , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Polissonografia , Sociedades Médicas
19.
Eur Respir J ; 51(5)2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29724917

RESUMO

Nasal high flow (NHF) reduces minute ventilation and ventilatory loads during sleep but the mechanisms are not clear. We hypothesised NHF reduces ventilation in proportion to physiological but not anatomical dead space.11 subjects (five controls and six chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients) underwent polysomnography with transcutaneous carbon dioxide (CO2) monitoring under a metabolic hood. During stable non-rapid eye movement stage 2 sleep, subjects received NHF (20 L·min-1) intermittently for periods of 5-10 min. We measured CO2 production and calculated dead space ventilation.Controls and COPD patients responded similarly to NHF. NHF reduced minute ventilation (from 5.6±0.4 to 4.8±0.4 L·min-1; p<0.05) and tidal volume (from 0.34±0.03 to 0.3±0.03 L; p<0.05) without a change in energy expenditure, transcutaneous CO2 or alveolar ventilation. There was a significant decrease in dead space ventilation (from 2.5±0.4 to 1.6±0.4 L·min-1; p<0.05), but not in respiratory rate. The reduction in dead space ventilation correlated with baseline physiological dead space fraction (r2=0.36; p<0.05), but not with respiratory rate or anatomical dead space volume.During sleep, NHF decreases minute ventilation due to an overall reduction in dead space ventilation in proportion to the extent of baseline physiological dead space fraction.


Assuntos
Cânula , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Espaço Morto Respiratório , Sono/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polissonografia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Taxa Respiratória , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar
20.
Scand J Pain ; 18(2): 187-194, 2018 04 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29794301

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Chronic widespread pain (CWP) is associated with poor quality of sleep, but the detailed underlying mechanisms are still not fully understood. In this study we investigated the influence of CWP on morning cortisol and fasting glucose concentrations as well as sleep disordered breathing. METHODS: In this case-control study, subjects with CWP (n=31) and a control group without CWP (n=23) were randomly selected from a population-based cohort of women. Current pain intensity, sleep quality, excessive daytime sleepiness [Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS)], psychiatric comorbidity and occurrence of restless legs syndrome (RLS) were assessed. Overnight polygraphy was applied to quantify sleep apnoea, airflow limitation and attenuations of finger pulse wave amplitude (>50%) as a surrogate marker for increased skin sympathetic activity. Morning cortisol and fasting glucose concentrations were determined. Generalised linear models were used for multivariate analyses. RESULTS: CWP was associated with higher cortisol (464±141 vs. 366±111 nmol/L, p=0.011) and fasting glucose (6.0±0.8 vs. 5.4±0.7 mmol/L, p=0.007) compared with controls. The significance remained after adjustment for age, body mass index, RLS and anxiety status (ß=122±47 nmol/L and 0.89±0.28 mmol/L, p=0.009 and 0.001, respectively). The duration of flow limitation in sleep was longer (35±22 vs. 21±34 min, p=0.022), and pulse wave attenuation was more frequent (11±8 vs. 6±2 events/h, p=0.048) in CWP subjects compared with controls. RLS was associated with higher ESS independent of CWP (ß=3.1±1.3, p=0.018). CONCLUSIONS: Elevated morning cortisol, impaired fasting glucose concentration and increased skin sympathetic activity during sleep suggested an activated adrenal medullary system in subjects with CWP, which was not influenced by comorbid RLS. IMPLICATIONS: CWP is associated with activated stress markers that may deteriorate sleep.


Assuntos
Glicemia , Dor Crônica/sangue , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Síndrome das Pernas Inquietas/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Dor Crônica/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Jejum , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/sangue , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fotoperíodo , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Síndrome das Pernas Inquietas/epidemiologia , Sono , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/sangue , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/epidemiologia , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
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