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1.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 42(15): 5063-5074, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34302413

RESUMO

Aberrant brain structural connectivity in major depressive disorder (MDD) has been repeatedly reported, yet many previous studies lack integration of different features of MDD with structural connectivity in multivariate modeling approaches. In n = 595 MDD patients, we used structural equation modeling (SEM) to test the intercorrelations between anhedonia, anxiety, neuroticism, and cognitive control in one comprehensive model. We then separately analyzed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) connectivity measures in association with those clinical variables, and finally integrated brain connectivity associations, clinical/cognitive variables into a multivariate SEM. We first confirmed our clinical/cognitive SEM. DTI analyses (FWE-corrected) showed a positive correlation of anhedonia with fractional anisotropy (FA) in the right anterior thalamic radiation (ATR) and forceps minor/corpus callosum, while neuroticism was negatively correlated with axial diffusivity (AD) in the left uncinate fasciculus (UF) and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF). An extended SEM confirmed the associations of ATR FA with anhedonia and UF/IFOF AD with neuroticism impacting on cognitive control. Our findings provide evidence for a differential impact of state and trait variables of MDD on brain connectivity and cognition. The multivariate approach shows feasibility of explaining heterogeneity within MDD and tracks this to specific brain circuits, thus adding to better understanding of heterogeneity on the biological level.

2.
Neuroimage Clin ; 30: 102683, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215153

RESUMO

An interplay of early environmental and genetic risk factors with recent stressful life events (SLEs) in adulthood increases the risk for adverse mental health outcomes. The interaction of early risk and current SLEs on brain structure has hardly been investigated. Whole brain voxel-based morphometry analysis was performed in N = 786 (64.6% female, mean age = 33.39) healthy subjects to identify correlations of brain clusters with commonplace recent SLEs. Genetic and early environmental risk factors, operationalized as those for severe psychopathology (i.e., polygenic scores for neuroticism, childhood maltreatment, urban upbringing and paternal age) were assessed as modulators of the impact of SLEs on the brain. SLEs were negatively correlated with grey matter volume in the left medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC, FWE p = 0.003). This association was present for both, positive and negative, life events. Cognitive-emotional variables, i.e., neuroticism, perceived stress, trait anxiety, intelligence, and current depressive symptoms did not account for the SLE-mOFC association. Further, genetic and environmental risk factors were not correlated with grey matter volume in the left mOFC cluster and did not affect the association between SLEs and left mOFC grey matter volume. The orbitofrontal cortex has been implicated in stress-related psychopathology, particularly major depression in previous studies. We find that SLEs are associated with this area. Important early life risk factors do not interact with current SLEs on brain morphology in healthy subjects.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Estresse Psicológico
3.
Depress Anxiety ; 38(8): 846-859, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with specific phobia (SP) show altered brain activation when confronted with phobia-specific stimuli. It is unclear whether this pathogenic activation pattern generalizes to other emotional stimuli. This study addresses this question by employing a well-powered sample while implementing an established paradigm using nonspecific aversive facial stimuli. METHODS: N = 111 patients with SP, spider subtype, and N = 111 healthy controls (HCs) performed a supraliminal emotional face-matching paradigm contrasting aversive faces versus shapes in a 3-T magnetic resonance imaging scanner. We performed region of interest (ROI) analyses for the amygdala, the insula, and the anterior cingulate cortex using univariate as well as machine-learning-based multivariate statistics based on this data. Additionally, we investigated functional connectivity by means of psychophysiological interaction (PPI). RESULTS: Although the presentation of emotional faces showed significant activation in all three ROIs across both groups, no group differences emerged in all ROIs. Across both groups and in the HC > SP contrast, PPI analyses showed significant task-related connectivity of brain areas typically linked to higher-order emotion processing with the amygdala. The machine learning approach based on whole-brain activity patterns could significantly differentiate the groups with 73% balanced accuracy. CONCLUSIONS: Patients suffering from SP are characterized by differences in the connectivity of the amygdala and areas typically linked to emotional processing in response to aversive facial stimuli (inferior parietal cortex, fusiform gyrus, middle cingulate, postcentral cortex, and insula). This might implicate a subtle difference in the processing of nonspecific emotional stimuli and warrants more research furthering our understanding of neurofunctional alteration in patients with SP.


Assuntos
Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Transtornos Fóbicos , Tonsila do Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Emoções , Expressão Facial , Giro do Cíngulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Transtornos Fóbicos/diagnóstico por imagem
4.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254062, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34288935

RESUMO

PHOTONAI is a high-level Python API designed to simplify and accelerate machine learning model development. It functions as a unifying framework allowing the user to easily access and combine algorithms from different toolboxes into custom algorithm sequences. It is especially designed to support the iterative model development process and automates the repetitive training, hyperparameter optimization and evaluation tasks. Importantly, the workflow ensures unbiased performance estimates while still allowing the user to fully customize the machine learning analysis. PHOTONAI extends existing solutions with a novel pipeline implementation supporting more complex data streams, feature combinations, and algorithm selection. Metrics and results can be conveniently visualized using the PHOTONAI Explorer and predictive models are shareable in a standardized format for further external validation or application. A growing add-on ecosystem allows researchers to offer data modality specific algorithms to the community and enhance machine learning in the areas of the life sciences. Its practical utility is demonstrated on an exemplary medical machine learning problem, achieving a state-of-the-art solution in few lines of code. Source code is publicly available on Github, while examples and documentation can be found at www.photon-ai.com.

5.
Biol Psychiatry ; 90(4): 243-252, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34172278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging studies of suicidal behavior have so far been conducted in small samples, prone to biases and false-positive associations, yielding inconsistent results. The ENIGMA-MDD Working Group aims to address the issues of poor replicability and comparability by coordinating harmonized analyses across neuroimaging studies of major depressive disorder and related phenotypes, including suicidal behavior. METHODS: Here, we pooled data from 18 international cohorts with neuroimaging and clinical measurements in 18,925 participants (12,477 healthy control subjects and 6448 people with depression, of whom 694 had attempted suicide). We compared regional cortical thickness and surface area and measures of subcortical, lateral ventricular, and intracranial volumes between suicide attempters, clinical control subjects (nonattempters with depression), and healthy control subjects. RESULTS: We identified 25 regions of interest with statistically significant (false discovery rate < .05) differences between groups. Post hoc examinations identified neuroimaging markers associated with suicide attempt including smaller volumes of the left and right thalamus and the right pallidum and lower surface area of the left inferior parietal lobe. CONCLUSIONS: This study addresses the lack of replicability and consistency in several previously published neuroimaging studies of suicide attempt and further demonstrates the need for well-powered samples and collaborative efforts. Our results highlight the potential involvement of the thalamus, a structure viewed historically as a passive gateway in the brain, and the pallidum, a region linked to reward response and positive affect. Future functional and connectivity studies of suicidal behaviors may focus on understanding how these regions relate to the neurobiological mechanisms of suicide attempt risk.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Tentativa de Suicídio , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Neuroimagem
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34102346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brain functional alterations during emotion processing in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) compared with healthy control subjects (HCs) are frequently reported. However, evidence for functional correlates of emotion processing with regard to MDD trajectories is scarce. This study investigates the role of lifetime disease course for limbic brain activation during negative emotional face processing in patients with MDD. METHODS: In a large sample of patients with MDD (n = 333; 58.55% female) and HCs (n = 333; 60.06% female), brain activation was investigated during a negative emotional face-processing task within a cross-sectional design. Differences between HC and MDD groups were analyzed. Previous disease course, characterized by 2 components, namely hospitalization and duration of illness, was regressed on brain activation of the amygdala, (para-)hippocampus, and insula in patients with MDD. RESULTS: Patients with MDD showed increased activation in the amygdala, insula, and hippocampus compared with HCs (all p values corrected for familywise error [pFWE] < .045). The hospitalization component showed negative associations with brain activation in the bilateral insula (right: pFWE = .026, left: pFWE = .019) and (para-)hippocampus (right: pFWE = .038, left: pFWE = .031). No significant association was found for the duration of illness component (all pFWE > .057). CONCLUSIONS: This study investigated negative emotion processing in a large sample of patients with MDD and HCs. Our results confirm limbic hyperactivation in patients with MDD during negative emotion processing; however, this hyperactivation may resolve with a more severe lifetime disease course in the insula and (para-)hippocampus-brain regions involved in emotion processing and regulation. These findings need further replication in longitudinal studies.

8.
J Sex Med ; 18(6): 1122-1129, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In contrast to cisgender persons, transgender persons identify with a different gender than the one assigned at birth. Although research on the underlying neurobiology of transgender persons has been accumulating over the years, neuroimaging studies in this relatively rare population are often based on very small samples resulting in discrepant findings. AIM: To examine the neurobiology of transgender persons in a large sample. METHODS: Using a mega-analytic approach, structural MRI data of 803 non-hormonally treated transgender men (TM, n = 214, female assigned at birth with male gender identity), transgender women (TW, n = 172, male assigned at birth with female gender identity), cisgender men (CM, n = 221, male assigned at birth with male gender identity) and cisgender women (CW, n = 196, female assigned at birth with female gender identity) were analyzed. OUTCOMES: Structural brain measures, including grey matter volume, cortical surface area, and cortical thickness. RESULTS: Transgender persons differed significantly from cisgender persons with respect to (sub)cortical brain volumes and surface area, but not cortical thickness. Contrasting the 4 groups (TM, TW, CM, and CW), we observed a variety of patterns that not only depended on the direction of gender identity (towards male or towards female) but also on the brain measure as well as the brain region examined. CLINICAL TRANSLATION: The outcomes of this large-scale study may provide a normative framework that may become useful in clinical studies. STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS: While this is the largest study of MRI data in transgender persons to date, the analyses conducted were governed (and restricted) by the type of data collected across all participating sites. CONCLUSION: Rather than being merely shifted towards either end of the male-female spectrum, transgender persons seem to present with their own unique brain phenotype. Mueller SC, Guillamon A, Zubiaurre-Elorza L, et al. The Neuroanatomy of Transgender Identity: Mega-Analytic Findings From the ENIGMA Transgender Persons Working Group. J Sex Med 2021;18:1122-1129.


Assuntos
Pessoas Transgênero , Transexualidade , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Neuroanatomia , Transexualidade/diagnóstico por imagem
9.
J Psychiatry Neurosci ; 46(3): E328-E336, 2021 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33904668

RESUMO

Background: Childhood maltreatment has been associated with reduced hippocampal volume in healthy individuals, whereas social support, a protective factor, has been positively associated with hippocampal volumes. In this study, we investigated how social support is associated with hippocampal volume in healthy people with previous experience of childhood maltreatment. Methods: We separated a sample of 446 healthy participants into 2 groups using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire: 265 people without maltreatment and 181 people with maltreatment. We measured perceived social support using a short version of the Social Support Questionnaire. We examined hippocampal volume using automated segmentation (Freesurfer). We conducted a social support × group analysis of covariance on hippocampal volumes controlling for age, sex, total intracranial volume, site and verbal intelligence. Results: Our analysis revealed significantly lower left hippocampal volume in people with maltreatment (left F1,432 = 5.686, p = 0.018; right F1,433 = 3.371, p = 0.07), but no main effect of social support emerged. However, we did find a significant social support × group interaction for left hippocampal volume (left F1,432 = 5.712, p = 0.017; right F1,433 = 3.480, p = 0.06). In people without maltreatment, we observed a trend toward a positive association between social support and hippocampal volume. In contrast, social support was negatively associated with hippocampal volume in people with maltreatment. Limitations: Because of the correlative nature of our study, we could not infer causal relationships between social support, maltreatment and hippocampal volume. Conclusion: Our results point to a complex dynamic between environmental risk, protective factors and brain structure - in line with previous evidence - suggesting a detrimental effect of maltreatment on hippocampal development.

10.
Psychol Med ; : 1-7, 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33858550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Two prominent risk factors for major depressive disorder (MDD) are childhood maltreatment (CM) and familial risk for MDD. Despite having these risk factors, there are individuals who maintain mental health, i.e. are resilient, whereas others develop MDD. It is unclear which brain morphological alterations are associated with this kind of resilience. Interaction analyses of risk and diagnosis status are needed that can account for complex adaptation processes, to identify neural correlates of resilience. METHODS: We analyzed brain structural data (3T magnetic resonance imaging) by means of voxel-based morphometry (CAT12 toolbox), using a 2 × 2 design, comparing four groups (N = 804) that differed in diagnosis (healthy v. MDD) and risk profiles (low-risk, i.e. absence of CM and familial risk v. high-risk, i.e. presence of both CM and familial risk). Using regions of interest (ROIs) from the literature, we conducted an interaction analysis of risk and diagnosis status. RESULTS: Volume in the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG), part of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), was significantly higher in healthy high-risk individuals. There were no significant results for the bilateral superior frontal gyri, frontal poles, pars orbitalis of the inferior frontal gyri, and the right MFG. CONCLUSIONS: The healthy high-risk group had significantly higher volumes in the left DLPFC compared to all other groups. The DLPFC is implicated in cognitive and emotional processes, and higher volume in this area might aid high-risk individuals in adaptive coping in order to maintain mental health. This increased volume might therefore constitute a neural correlate of resilience to MDD in high risk.

11.
Schizophr Bull ; 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33860786

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: More than a century of research on the neurobiological underpinnings of major psychiatric disorders (major depressive disorder [MDD], bipolar disorder [BD], schizophrenia [SZ], and schizoaffective disorder [SZA]) has been unable to identify diagnostic markers. An alternative approach is to study dimensional psychopathological syndromes that cut across categorical diagnoses. The aim of the current study was to identify gray matter volume (GMV) correlates of transdiagnostic symptom dimensions. METHODS: We tested the association of 5 psychopathological factors with GMV using multiple regression models in a sample of N = 1069 patients meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria for MDD (n = 818), BD (n = 132), and SZ/SZA (n = 119). T1-weighted brain images were acquired with 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging and preprocessed with CAT12. Interactions analyses (diagnosis × psychopathological factor) were performed to test whether local GMV associations were driven by DSM-IV diagnosis. We further tested syndrome specific regions of interest (ROIs). RESULTS: Whole brain analysis showed a significant negative association of the positive formal thought disorder factor with GMV in the right middle frontal gyrus, the paranoid-hallucinatory syndrome in the right fusiform, and the left middle frontal gyri. ROI analyses further showed additional negative associations, including the negative syndrome with bilateral frontal opercula, positive formal thought disorder with the left amygdala-hippocampus complex, and the paranoid-hallucinatory syndrome with the left angular gyrus. None of the GMV associations interacted with DSM-IV diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: We found associations between psychopathological syndromes and regional GMV independent of diagnosis. Our findings open a new avenue for neurobiological research across disorders, using syndrome-based approaches rather than categorical diagnoses.

12.
Psychol Med ; : 1-12, 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: MRI-derived cortical folding measures are an indicator of largely genetically driven early developmental processes. However, the effects of genetic risk for major mental disorders on early brain development are not well understood. METHODS: We extracted cortical complexity values from structural MRI data of 580 healthy participants using the CAT12 toolbox. Polygenic risk scores (PRS) for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression, and cross-disorder (incorporating cumulative genetic risk for depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, autism spectrum disorder, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder) were computed and used in separate general linear models with cortical complexity as the regressand. In brain regions that showed a significant association between polygenic risk for mental disorders and cortical complexity, volume of interest (VOI)/region of interest (ROI) analyses were conducted to investigate additional changes in their volume and cortical thickness. RESULTS: The PRS for depression was associated with cortical complexity in the right orbitofrontal cortex (right hemisphere: p = 0.006). A subsequent VOI/ROI analysis showed no association between polygenic risk for depression and either grey matter volume or cortical thickness. We found no associations between cortical complexity and polygenic risk for either schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or psychiatric cross-disorder when correcting for multiple testing. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in cortical complexity associated with polygenic risk for depression might facilitate well-established volume changes in orbitofrontal cortices in depression. Despite the absence of psychopathology, changed cortical complexity that parallels polygenic risk for depression might also change reward systems, which are also structurally affected in patients with depressive syndrome.

13.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33863996

RESUMO

Individuals with bipolar disorders (BD) frequently suffer from obesity, which is often associated with neurostructural alterations. Yet, the effects of obesity on brain structure in BD are under-researched. We obtained MRI-derived brain subcortical volumes and body mass index (BMI) from 1134 BD and 1601 control individuals from 17 independent research sites within the ENIGMA-BD Working Group. We jointly modeled the effects of BD and BMI on subcortical volumes using mixed-effects modeling and tested for mediation of group differences by obesity using nonparametric bootstrapping. All models controlled for age, sex, hemisphere, total intracranial volume, and data collection site. Relative to controls, individuals with BD had significantly higher BMI, larger lateral ventricular volume, and smaller volumes of amygdala, hippocampus, pallidum, caudate, and thalamus. BMI was positively associated with ventricular and amygdala and negatively with pallidal volumes. When analyzed jointly, both BD and BMI remained associated with volumes of lateral ventricles  and amygdala. Adjusting for BMI decreased the BD vs control differences in ventricular volume. Specifically, 18.41% of the association between BD and ventricular volume was mediated by BMI (Z = 2.73, p = 0.006). BMI was associated with similar regional brain volumes as BD, including lateral ventricles, amygdala, and pallidum. Higher BMI may in part account for larger ventricles, one of the most replicated findings in BD. Comorbidity with obesity could explain why neurostructural alterations are more pronounced in some individuals with BD. Future prospective brain imaging studies should investigate whether obesity could be a modifiable risk factor for neuroprogression.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) are known to share clinical comorbidity and to have genetic overlap. Besides their shared genetics, both diseases seem to be associated with alterations in brain structural connectivity and impaired cognitive performance, but little is known about the mechanisms by which genetic risk of T2D might affect brain structure and function and if they do, how these effects could contribute to the disease course of MDD. METHODS: This study explores the association of polygenic risk for T2D with structural brain connectome topology and cognitive performance in 434 nondiabetic patients with MDD and 539 healthy control subjects. RESULTS: Polygenic risk score for T2D across MDD patients and healthy control subjects was found to be associated with reduced global fractional anisotropy, a marker of white matter microstructure, an effect found to be predominantly present in MDD-related fronto-temporo-parietal connections. A mediation analysis further suggests that this fractional anisotropy variation may mediate the association between polygenic risk score and cognitive performance. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide preliminary evidence of a polygenic risk for T2D to be linked to brain structural connectivity and cognition in patients with MDD and healthy control subjects, even in the absence of a direct T2D diagnosis. This suggests an effect of T2D genetic risk on white matter integrity, which may mediate an association of genetic risk for diabetes and cognitive impairments.

15.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 192, 2021 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33782385

RESUMO

A retrospective meta-analysis of magnetic resonance imaging voxel-based morphometry studies proposed that reduced gray matter volumes in the dorsal anterior cingulate and the left and right anterior insular cortex-areas that constitute hub nodes of the salience network-represent a common substrate for major psychiatric disorders. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that the common substrate serves as an intermediate phenotype to detect genetic risk variants relevant for psychiatric disease. To this end, after a data reduction step, we conducted genome-wide association studies of a combined common substrate measure in four population-based cohorts (n = 2271), followed by meta-analysis and replication in a fifth cohort (n = 865). After correction for covariates, the heritability of the common substrate was estimated at 0.50 (standard error 0.18). The top single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs17076061 was associated with the common substrate at genome-wide significance and replicated, explaining 1.2% of the common substrate variance. This SNP mapped to a locus on chromosome 5q35.2 harboring genes involved in neuronal development and regeneration. In follow-up analyses, rs17076061 was not robustly associated with psychiatric disease, and no overlap was found between the broader genetic architecture of the common substrate and genetic risk for major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, or schizophrenia. In conclusion, our study identified that common genetic variation indeed influences the common substrate, but that these variants do not directly translate to increased disease risk. Future studies should investigate gene-by-environment interactions and employ functional imaging to understand how salience network structure translates to psychiatric disorder risk.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Esquizofrenia , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Retrospectivos , Esquizofrenia/genética
16.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 46: 93-104, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648793

RESUMO

Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype is the strongest single gene predictor of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and has been frequently associated with AD-related brain structural alterations before the onset of dementia. While previous research has primarily focused on hippocampal morphometry in relation to APOE, sporadic recent findings have questioned the specificity of the hippocampus and instead suggested more global effects on the brain. With the present study we aimed to investigate associations between homozygous APOE ε4 status and cortical gray matter structure as well as white matter microstructure. In our study, we contrasted n = 31 homozygous APOE ε4 carriers (age=34.47 years, including a subsample of n = 12 subjects with depression) with a demographically matched sample without an ε4 allele (resulting total sample: N = 62). Morphometry analyses included a) Freesurfer based cortical segmentations of thickness and surface area measures and b) tract based spatial statistics of DTI measures. We found pronounced and widespread reductions in cortical surface area of ε4 homozygotes in 57 out of 68 cortical brain regions. In contrast, no differences in cortical thickness were observed. Furthermore, APOE ε4 homozygous carriers showed significantly lower fractional anisotropy in the corpus callosum, the right internal and external capsule, the left corona radiata and the right fornix. The present findings support a global rather than regionally specific effect of homozygous APOE ε4 allele status on cortical surface area and white matter microstructure. Future studies should aim to delineate the clinical implications of these findings.

17.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 126: 105148, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513455

RESUMO

Novelty seeking (NS) has previously been identified as a personality trait that is associated with elevated body mass index (BMI) and obesity. Of note, both obesity and reduced impulse control - a core feature of NS - have previously been associated with grey matter volume (GMV) reductions in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Yet, it remains unknown, if body weight-related grey matter decline in the OFC might be explained by higher levels of NS. To address this question, we studied associations between NS, BMI and brain structure in 355 healthy subjects. Brain images were pre-processed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). BMI was calculated from self-reported height and weight. The Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) was used to assess NS. NS and BMI were associated positively (r = .137, p = .01) with NS being a significant predictor of BMI (B = 0.172; SE B = 0.05; ß = 0.184; p = 0.001). Significant associations between BMI and GMV specifically in the OFC (x = -44, y = 56, z = -2, t(350) = 4.34, k = 5, pFWE = 0.011) did not uphold when correcting for NS in the model. In turn, a significant negative association between NS and OFC GMV was found independent of BMI (x = -2, y = 48, z = -10, t(349) = 4.42, k = 88, pFWE = 0.008). Body mass-related grey matter decrease outside the OFC could not be attributed to NS. Our results suggest that body-weight-related orbitofrontal grey matter reduction can at least partly be linked to higher levels of NS. Given the pivotal role of the OFC in overweight as well as cognitive domains such as impulse inhibition, executive control and reward processing, its association with NS seems to provide a tenable neurobiological correlate for future research.

18.
Neuropsychopharmacology ; 46(5): 891-899, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801319

RESUMO

Childhood maltreatment is associated with cognitive deficits that in turn have been predictive for therapeutic outcome in psychiatric patients. However, previous studies have either investigated maltreatment associations with single cognitive domains or failed to adequately control for confounders such as depression, socioeconomic environment, and genetic predisposition. We aimed to isolate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and dysfunction in diverse cognitive domains, while estimating the contribution of potential confounders to this relationship, and to investigate gene-environment interactions. We included 547 depressive disorder and 670 healthy control participants (mean age: 34.7 years, SD = 13.2). Cognitive functioning was assessed for the domains of working memory, executive functioning, processing speed, attention, memory, and verbal intelligence using neuropsychological tests. Childhood maltreatment and parental education were assessed using self-reports, and psychiatric diagnosis was based on DSM-IV criteria. Polygenic scores for depression and for educational attainment were calculated. Multivariate analysis of cognitive domains yielded significant associations with childhood maltreatment (η²p = 0.083, P < 0.001), depression (η²p = 0.097, P < 0.001), parental education (η²p = 0.085, P < 0.001), and polygenic scores for depression (η²p = 0.021, P = 0.005) and educational attainment (η²p = 0.031, P < 0.001). Each of these associations remained significant when including all of the predictors in one model. Univariate tests revealed that maltreatment was associated with poorer performance in all cognitive domains. Thus, environmental, psychopathological, and genetic risk factors each independently affect cognition. The insights of the current study may aid in estimating the potential impact of different loci of interventions for cognitive dysfunction. Future research should investigate if customized interventions, informed by individual risk profiles and related cognitive preconditions, might enhance response to therapeutic treatments.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Depressão , Adulto , Criança , Cognição , Depressão/genética , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Pais
20.
Mol Psychiatry ; 26(4): 1399-1408, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467393

RESUMO

The metabolic serum marker HbA1c has been associated with both impaired cognitive performance and altered white matter integrity in patients suffering from diabetes mellitus. However, it remains unclear if higher levels of HbA1c might also affect brain structure and function in healthy subjects. With the present study we therefore aimed to investigate the relationship between HbA1c levels and cognitive performance as well as white matter microstructure in healthy, young adults. To address this question, associations between HbA1c and cognitive measures (NIH Cognition Toolbox) as well as DTI-derived imaging measures of white matter microstructure were investigated in a publicly available sample of healthy, young adults as part of the Humane Connectome Project (n = 1206, mean age = 28.8 years, 45.5% male). We found that HbA1c levels (range 4.1-6.3%) were significantly inversely correlated with measures of cognitive performance. Higher HbA1c levels were associated with significant and widespread reductions in fractional anisotropy (FA) controlling for age, sex, body mass index, ethnicity, and education. FA reductions were furthermore found to covary with measures of cognitive performance. The same pattern of results could be observed in analyses restricted to participants with HBA1c levels below 5.7%. The present study demonstrates that low-grade HbA1c variation below diagnostic threshold for diabetes is related to both cognitive performance and white matter integrity in healthy, young adults. These findings highlight the detrimental impact of metabolic risk factors on brain physiology and underscore the importance of intensified preventive measures independent of the currently applied diagnostic HbA1c cutoff scores.


Assuntos
Substância Branca , Adulto , Anisotropia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Cognição , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada , Humanos , Masculino , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
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