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1.
J Rheumatol ; 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062599

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to assess the content and measurement constructs of the candidate instruments for the domains of 'Pain' and 'Physical function/activity' in the OMERACT Shoulder Core Set. The results of this ICF based analysis may inform further decisions on which instruments finally to be included in the Core Set. METHODS: The materials for the analysis were the 13 candidate measurement instruments within 'Pain' and 'Physical function/activity' in the Shoulder Core Domain Set, which either passed or received amber ratings (meaning there were some issues with the instrument) in the OMERACT filtering process. The content of the candidate instruments was extracted and linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), using the refined linking rules. The linking rules enhance the comparability of instruments, by providing a comprehensive overview of the content of the instruments, the context in which the measurements take place, the perspectives adopted and the types of response options. RESULTS: The ICF content analysis showed large variation in content and measurement constructs in the candidate instruments for the Shoulder Core Outcome Measurement Set. CONCLUSION: Two of six 'Pain' instruments include other constructs than pain. Within 'Physical function/activity' two candidate instruments matched the domain, three included additional content and the two last instruments included meaningful concepts in the response options, suggesting that they should be omitted as candidate instruments. The analyses show that the content in most existing instruments of shoulder pain and functioning extend across Core Set domains.

2.
Eur J Pain ; 24(1): 19-38, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433541

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The transition from adolescence to adulthood is a sensitive period in life for health outcomes, including back pain. The objective was to synthesize evidence on risk factors for new episodes of back pain in emerging adults (18-29 years). METHODS: The protocol was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42016046635). We searched Medline; EMBASE; AMED and other databases up to September 2018 for prospective cohort studies that estimated the association between risk factor(s) and self-reported back pain. Risk factors could be measured before or during the age range 18-29 years, and back pain could be measured during or after this age range, with at least 12 months between assessments. Risk factors assessed in ≥3 studies were summarized. Risk of bias was assessed using a 6-item checklist. RESULTS: Forty-nine studies were included with more than 150 different risk factors studied. Nine studies had low risk of bias, 26 had moderate and 14 had high risk of bias. Age, sex, height, body mass index (BMI), smoking, physical activity level, a history of back pain, job satisfaction and structural imaging findings were investigated in three or more studies. History of back pain was the only risk factor consistently associated with back pain after adjustment (nine studies). CONCLUSION: There is moderate quality evidence that a history of back pain is a risk factor for back pain. There are inconsistent associations for age, sex, height, BMI, smoking and activity level. No associations were found between job satisfaction and structural imaging findings and back pain. SIGNIFICANCE: Emerging adulthood is a transitional period of life with changes in life style, potentially influencing future musculoskeletal health. This systematic review included 49 articles evaluating more than 150 potential risk factors for back pain, one of the most prevalent musculoskeletal disorders. No consistent results were found for life style factors such as physical activity level or BMI, both highlighted as important risk factors in previous literature. Importantly, a previous episode of back pain was a consistent risk factor for a new episode of back pain across several studies, and further investigation of risk factors for the first back pain episode is needed.

3.
Eur J Pain ; 24(1): 171-181, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Referral to secondary care is common for a considerable proportion of patients with persistent sciatica symptoms. It is unclear if information from clinical assessment can further identify distinct subgroups of disc-related sciatica, with perhaps different clinical courses. AIMS: This study aims to identify and describe clusters of imaging confirmed disc-related sciatica patients using latent class analysis, and compare their clinical course. METHODS: The study population were 466 patients with disc-related sciatica. Variables from clinical assessment were included in the analysis. Characteristics of the identified clusters were described and their clinical course over 2 years was compared. RESULTS: A four-cluster solution was optimal. Cluster 1 (n = 110) had mild back and leg pain; cluster 2 (n = 59) had moderate back and leg pain; cluster 3 (n = 158) had mild back pain and severe leg pain; cluster 4 (n = 139) had severe back and leg pain. Patients in cluster 4 had the most severe profile in terms of disability, distress and comorbidity and the lowest reported global change and the smallest proportion of patients with a successful outcome at 2 years. Of the 135 patients who underwent surgery, 42% and 41% were in clusters 3 and 4, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Using a strict diagnosis of sciatica, this work identified four clusters of patients primarily differentiated by back and leg pain severity. Patients with severe back and leg pain had the most severe profile at baseline and follow-up irrespective of intervention. This simple classification system may be useful when considering prognosis and management with sciatica patients. SIGNIFICANCE: Using data from a large observational prospective study, this work identifies four distinct clusters of patients with imaging confirmed disc-related sciatica. This classification could be used when considering prognosis and management with sciatica patients at their initial consultation.

4.
Value Health ; 22(12): 1410-1416, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Institute for Medical Technology Assessment Productivity Cost Questionnaire (iPCQ) was recently developed to cover all domains of productivity costs; absenteeism, presenteeism and productivity costs related to unpaid work. The original iPCQ has not been tested with respect to neither content or construct validity, nor reliability, and there is no Norwegian version of the questionnaire. OBJECTIVES: To translate and cross-culturally adapt the iPCQ into Norwegian and to test its measurement properties among patients with musculoskeletal disorders. METHODS: Translation and cross-cultural adaptation was conducted according to guidelines, and measurement properties were investigated using a cross-sectional design including a test-retest assessment. Patients with musculoskeletal disorders were recruited from secondary care. Data quality, content validity (10 patients evaluated comprehensibility, 2 researchers and 1 clinician evaluated relevance and comprehensiveness), construct validity (factor analysis, internal consistency, divergent hypothesis testing), and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient two-way random average agreement, Cohen's unweighted kappa) were assessed. RESULTS: In total, 115 patients with a mean age (SD) of 46 (9) years were included, and 62 responded to the retest. The questionnaire was feasible, with little missing data and no floor or ceiling effects. Content validity displayed good comprehensibility and relevance and sufficient comprehensiveness. Factor analysis revealed a 3-component solution accounting for 82% of the total variance; items loaded as expected and supported the original structure of the iPCQ. Internal consistency was acceptable for the 3 components of productivity cost, with an inter-item correlation ranging from 0.42 to 0.62. Further, a total of 91% of our hypotheses were verified. The intraclass correlation coefficient values ranged from 0.88 to 0.99 for all items except one; kappa ranged from 0.61 to 0.92, indicating overall good reliability of the questionnaire. CONCLUSIONS: The Norwegian iPCQ showed good measurement properties among patients with musculoskeletal disorders from secondary care in Norway. We therefore recommend the iPCQ as a useful tool for measuring productivity costs in patients with musculoskeletal disorders.

5.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 20(1): 510, 2019 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679522

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Back Beliefs Questionnaire (BBQ) is a 14-item patient-reported questionnaire that measures attitudes and beliefs about the consequences of back pain. The BBQ has recently been translated into Norwegian, but its psychometric properties have not yet been tested. The aim of this study is to evaluate the reliability and construct validity of the BBQ when used on elderly patients with back pain. METHOD: A prospective cohort study with a test-retest design among 116 elderly patients (> 55 years of age) seeking primary care for a new episode of back pain. Test-retest, standard error of measurement (SEM), minimal detectable change (MDC), internal consistency and construct validity by a priori hypotheses (Spearman's- and Pearson correlation coefficient) were tested. RESULTS: A total of 116 patients, mean age (SD) 67.7 (8.3), were included and 63 patients responded to the test-retest assessment. The mean (SD) BBQ sum scores (range 9-45) were 29.8 (7.0) and 29.2 (6.7) for the test and retest respectively. The test-retest was acceptable with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.71 (95% CI, 0.54-0.82), SEM was 3.8 and MDC 10.5. Internal consistency with Cronbach's alpha was good (0.82) and acceptable construct validity was supported by the confirmation of 75% of the a priori hypotheses. CONCLUSION: The Norwegian version of the BBQ demonstrated acceptable test-retest reliability and good construct validity and can be used to assess pessimistic beliefs in elderly patients with back pain.

6.
BMJ ; 367: l5654, 2019 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619437

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of three months of antibiotic treatment compared with placebo in patients with chronic low back pain, previous disc herniation, and vertebral endplate changes (Modic changes). DESIGN: Double blind, parallel group, placebo controlled, multicentre trial. SETTING: Hospital outpatient clinics at six hospitals in Norway. PARTICIPANTS: 180 patients with chronic low back pain, previous disc herniation, and type 1 (n=118) or type 2 (n=62) Modic changes enrolled from June 2015 to September 2017. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were randomised to three months of oral treatment with either 750 mg amoxicillin or placebo three times daily. The allocation sequence was concealed by using a computer generated number on the prescription. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) score (range 0-24) at one year follow-up in the intention to treat population. The minimal clinically important between group difference in mean RMDQ score was predefined as 4. RESULTS: In the primary analysis of the total cohort at one year, the difference in the mean RMDQ score between the amoxicillin group and the placebo group was -1.6 (95% confidence interval -3.1 to 0.0, P=0.04). In the secondary analysis, the difference in the mean RMDQ score between the groups was -2.3 (-4.2 to-0.4, P=0.02) for patients with type 1 Modic changes and -0.1 (-2.7 to 2.6, P=0.95) for patients with type 2 Modic changes. Fifty patients (56%) in the amoxicillin group experienced at least one drug related adverse event compared with 31 (34%) in the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: In this study on patients with chronic low back pain and Modic changes at the level of a previous disc herniation, three months of treatment with amoxicillin did not provide a clinically important benefit compared with placebo. Secondary analyses and sensitivity analyses supported this finding. Therefore, our results do not support the use of antibiotic treatment for chronic low back pain and Modic changes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02323412.


Assuntos
Amoxicilina , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/complicações , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/complicações , Dor Lombar , Vértebras Lombares , Adulto , Amoxicilina/administração & dosagem , Amoxicilina/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Dor Crônica/diagnóstico , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Crônica/etiologia , Avaliação da Deficiência , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Dor Lombar/diagnóstico , Dor Lombar/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Lombar/etiologia , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Lombares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega , Medição da Dor/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Scand J Pain ; 20(1): 69-75, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527299

RESUMO

Background and aims Recovery in patients hospitalised with severe sciatica is unpredictable. Prognostic tools to aid clinicians in the early identification of patients at risk of developing chronic sciatic pain are warranted. Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) is a psychophysical measure of the endogenous pain modulatory pathways. Several studies have suggested CPM as a potentially important predictive biomarker for the development of chronic pain. The aim of the study was to determine whether CPM effect in patients still suffering from leg pain 6 weeks after hospital discharge for severe sciatica is associated with persistent leg pain at 12 months. A potential association would suggest that measuring CPM effect could be a valuable prognostic tool in the hospital management of sciatica. Methods A prospective cohort study in which CPM effect was measured 6 weeks after hospital discharge following an acute admission with sciatica as the main complaint. The impact of CPM effect on the outcome was analysed using logistic regression. The outcome measured was self-reported leg pain score of ≥1 in the past week on a 0-10 numeric rating scale (NRS) at 12 months post discharge. Results A total of 111 patients completed the entire study, 51 of whom received non-randomised surgical treatment. Crude and confounder adjusted analyses showed no significant association between CPM effect and leg-pain measured at 12 months, crude Odds Ratio 0.87, 95% CI 0.7-1.1, p = 0.23. Conclusions Our results suggest that CPM assessment has limited prognostic value for the long-term outcome in severe sciatica when measured 6 weeks after hospital discharge. Implications The present study adds important knowledge concerning the limited clinical use of late CPM testing in sciatica patients. The heterogeneity in patients, the wide range of treatments received and a generally favourable outcome are factors that may affect CPM's clinical value as a prognostic factor for severe sciatica.

8.
BMJ Open ; 9(8): e028743, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies from different Western countries have reported a rapid increase in spinal surgery rates, an increase that exceeds by far the growing incidence rates of spinal disorders in the general population. There are few studies covering all lumbar spine surgery and no previous studies from Norway. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate trends in all lumbar spine surgery in Norway over 15 years, including length of hospital stay, and rates of complications and reoperations. DESIGN: A longitudinal observational study over 15 years using hospital patient administrative data and sociodemographic data from the National Registry in Norway. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Patients aged ≥18 years discharged from Norwegian public hospitals between 1999 and 2013. OUTCOME MEASURES: Annual rates of simple (microsurgical discectomy, decompression) and complex surgical procedures (fusion, disc prosthesis) in the lumbar spine. RESULTS: The rate of lumbar spine surgery increased by 54%, from 78 (95% CI (75 to 80)) to 120 (107 to 113) per 100 000, from 1999 to 2013. More men had simple surgery whereas more women had complex surgery. Among elderly people over 75 years, lumbar surgery increased by a factor of five during the 15-year period. The rates of complications were low, but increased from 0.7% in 1999 to 2.4% in 2013. CONCLUSIONS: There was a substantial increase in lumbar spine surgery in Norway from 1999 to 2013, similar to trends in other Western world countries. The rise in lumbar surgery among elderly people represents a significant workload and challenge for health services, given our aging population.

9.
Phys Ther ; 99(11): 1551-1561, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pregnancy-related low back pain and pelvic girdle pain (LBP/PGP) are common and negatively impact the lives of many pregnant women. Several patient-based outcome instruments measure treatment effect, but there is no consensus about which measure to use with women who have these pain presentations. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to compare the responsiveness of 3 outcome measures in LBP/PGP: Oswestry Disability Index-version 2.0 (ODI), Pelvic Girdle Questionnaire (PGQ), and 0 to 10 numerical rating scale for pain severity (NRS); and to estimate a minimal important change (MIC) for these measures in pregnancy-related LBP/PGP. DESIGN: This was a methodology study using data from a pilot randomized controlled trial. METHODS: Women (N = 124) with pregnancy-related LBP/PGP were recruited to a pilot randomized controlled trial evaluating the benefit of adding acupuncture to standard care, of whom 90 completed an 8-week follow-up. Responsiveness was evaluated by examining correlation between change score and the external anchor (6-point global perceived effect scale) and by using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. MIC was estimated using anchor-based methods. RESULTS: All measures showed good responsiveness, with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve ranging from 0.77 to 0.90. The estimated MICs were 3.1, 11.0, 9.4, 13.3, and 1.3 for the ODI, PGQ-total, PGQ-activity, PGQ-symptoms, and NRS, respectively. All the measures, apart from ODI, had MICs larger than the measurement error. LIMITATIONS: The lack of an optimal "gold standard" or external criterion for assessing responsiveness and MIC was a limitation of this study. CONCLUSION: All 3 outcome measures demonstrated good responsiveness. MICs were derived for each instrument. The PGQ at 8 weeks postrandomization was identified as an appropriate outcome measure for pregnancy-related LBP/PGP because it is specific to these pain presentations and assesses both activity limitations and symptoms. The NRS is an efficient, shorter alternative.

10.
Int Urogynecol J ; 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346671

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) is internationally recommended for prevention and treatment of urinary incontinence (UI) and pelvic organ prolapse (POP). However, there is lack of knowledge about PFMT among pregnant Nepalese women. The objectives of this study were to develop a PFMT programme and to assess the feasibility of the programme. METHODS: A feasibility study was conducted to address aspects of the PFMT programme provided to pregnant women attending antenatal check-ups at Kathmandu University Dhulikhel Hospital. The women were recruited consecutively from June 2017 to April 2018. The PFMT programme consisted of attending a minimum of four supervised PFMT follow-up visits after inclusion to the programme and performing PFMT daily at home. Feasibility was assessed in terms of the recruitment capability, sample characteristics, data collection procedures, outcome measures, and acceptability (attendance to PFMT visits, PFMT adherence, participant experiences) of the programme. Data were collected using self-reported questionnaires. Educational material (video, leaflet, and exercise diary) was developed in Nepali. RESULTS: Among 253 women included, 144 (57%) attended four or more supervised PFMT visits. No significant differences were found in the symptoms of UI (0.89) and POP (0.44) between those attending and those not attending four PFMT visits. Half of the women adhered to 50-100% of PFMT daily at home. The supervised PFMT and the educational material motivated the women to daily PFMT. CONCLUSION: The PFMT programme was acceptable, at least to those living in the district of the study site. The results and experiences from the current study may guide implementation and future studies on the effectiveness of PFMT in Nepal.

11.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 247, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307421

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low back pain (LBP) and pelvic girdle pain (PGP) are commonly reported during pregnancy and are known to affect pregnant women's well-being. Still, these conditions are often considered to be a normal part of pregnancy. This study assesses the prevalence and severity of LBP and/or PGP among pregnant Nepalese women, as well as exploring factors associated with LBP and PGP. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with successive recruitment of pregnant women was conducted at two district hospitals in Nepal from May 2016 to May 2017. The data was collected using self-reported questionnaires. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to assess the associations between independent variables and LBP and/or PGP. RESULTS: A total of 1284 pregnant women were included in the study. The reported prevalence of pregnancy-related LBP and/or PGP was 34%. Pain intensity was high with a mean score (standard deviation) of 6 (2). The median (25th-75th percentiles) disability scores according to the total Pelvic Girdle Questionnaire and Oswestry Disability Index were 20 (10-32) and 30 (21-38), respectively. Even though only 52% of the women believed that the pain would disappear after delivery, concern about LBP and/or PGP was reported to be low (median 2 (0-4) (Numeric Rating Scale 0-10)). In the final model for women with LBP and/or PGP the adjusted odds ratios were for body mass index (20-24, 25-30, > 30) 0.7 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.44-1.21), 1.1 (95% CI, 0.66-1.83), and 1.5 (95% CI, 0.78-2.94) respectively, for pelvic organ prolapse symptoms 6.6 (95% CI, 4.93-8.95) and for women with educated husbands (primary or secondary, higher secondary or above) 1.1 (95% CI, 0.53-2.16) and 1.7 (95% CI, 0.84-3.47), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant Nepalese women commonly report LBP and/or PGP. The women experienced low disability despite severe pain intensity and poor beliefs in recovery after delivery.


Assuntos
Dor Lombar/epidemiologia , Dor da Cintura Pélvica/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Nepal/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
12.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 20(1): 31, 2019 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30658613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Assessment of outcomes for spinal surgeries is challenging, and an ideal measurement that reflects all aspects of importance for the patients does not exist. Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), EuroQol (EQ-5D) and Numeric Rating Scales (NRS) for leg pain and for back pain are commonly used patients reported outcome measurements (PROMs). Reporting the proportion of individuals with an outcome of clinical importance is recommended. Knowledge of the ability of PROMs to identify clearly improved patients is essential. The purpose of this study was to search cut-off criteria for PROMs that best reflect an improvement considered by the patients to be of clinical importance. METHODS: The Global Perceived Effect scale was utilized to evaluate a clinically important outcome 12 months after surgery. The cut-offs for the PROMs that most accurately distinguish those who reported 'completely recovered' or 'much improved' from those who reported 'slightly improved', unchanged', 'slightly worse', 'much worse', or 'worse than ever' were estimated. For each PROM, we evaluated three candidate response parameters: the (raw) follow-up score, the (numerical) change score, and the percentage change score. RESULTS: We analysed 3859 patients with Lumbar Spinal Stenosis [(LSS); mean age 66; female gender 50%] and 617 patients with Lumbar Degenerative Spondylolisthesis [(LDS); mean age 67; 72% female gender]. The accuracy of identifying 'completely recovered' and 'much better' patients was generally high, but lower for EQ-5D than for the other PROMs. For all PROMs the accuracy was lower for the change score than for the follow-up score and the percentage change score, especially among patients with low and high PROM scores at baseline. The optimal threshold for a clinically important outcome was ≤24 for ODI, ≥0.69 for EQ-5D, ≤3 for NRS leg pain, and ≤ 4 for NRS back pain, and, for the percentage change score, ≥30% for ODI, ≥40% for NRS leg pain, and ≥ 33% for NRS back pain. The estimated cut-offs were similar for LSS and for LDS. CONCLUSION: For estimating a 'success' rate assessed by a PROM, we recommend using the follow-up score or the percentage change score. These scores reflected a clinically important outcome better than the change score.


Assuntos
Vértebras Lombares/cirurgia , Medição da Dor/tendências , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Sistema de Registros , Estenose Espinal/cirurgia , Espondilolistese/cirurgia , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Medição da Dor/métodos , Estenose Espinal/diagnóstico , Estenose Espinal/epidemiologia , Espondilolistese/diagnóstico , Espondilolistese/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 44(6): E372-E378, 2019 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30234811

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective administrative database study. OBJECTIVE: To assess temporal and regional trends, and length of hospital stay, in lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) surgery in Norwegian public hospitals from 1999 to 2013. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Studies from several countries have reported increasing rates of LSS surgery over the last decades. No such data have been presented from Norway. METHODS: A database consisting of discharges from all Norwegian public hospitals was established. Inclusion criteria were discharges including a surgical procedure of lumbar spinal decompression and/or fusion in combination with an International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision diagnosis of Spinal Stenosis (M48.0) or Other Spondylosis with Radiculopathy (M47.2), and a patient age of 18 years or older. Discharges with diagnoses indicating deformity, that is, spondylolisthesis or scoliosis were not included. RESULTS: During the 15-year period, 19,543 discharges were identified. The annual rate of decompressions increased from 10.7 to 36.2 and fusions increased from 2.5 to 4.4 per 100,000 people of the general Norwegian population. The proportion of fusion surgery decreased from 19.3% to 10.9%. Among individuals older than 65 years, the annual rate of surgery per 10,000, including both decompressions and fusions, more than quadrupled from 40.2 to 170.3. The regional variation was modest, differing with a factor of 1.4 between the region with the highest and the lowest surgical rates. The mean length of hospital stay decreased from 11.0 (standard deviation 8.0) days in 1999 to 5.0 (4.6) days in 2013, but patients who received fusion surgery stayed on average 3.6 days longer than those who received decompression only. CONCLUSION: The rate of LSS surgery more than tripled in Norway from 1999 to 2013. The mean length of hospital stay was reduced from 11 to 5 days. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: N/A.


Assuntos
Descompressão Cirúrgica/tendências , Hospitais Públicos/tendências , Vértebras Lombares/cirurgia , Fusão Vertebral/tendências , Estenose Espinal/epidemiologia , Estenose Espinal/cirurgia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/tendências , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fusão Vertebral/métodos
15.
BMC Fam Pract ; 19(1): 71, 2018 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29788920

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cluster randomized controlled trials are often used in research in primary care but creates challenges regarding biases and confounders. We recently presented a study on low back pain from primary care in Norway with equal effects in the intervention and the control group. In order to understand the specific mechanisms that may produce biases in a cluster randomized trial we conducted a focus group study among the participating health care providers. The aim of this study was to understand how the participating providers themselves influenced on the study and thereby possibly on the results of the cluster randomized controlled trial. METHODS: The providers were invited to share their experiences from their participation in the COPE study, from recruitment of patients to accomplishment of either the intervention or control consultations. Six clinicians from the intervention group and four from the control group took part in the focus group interviews. The group discussions focused on feasibility of the study in primary care and particularly on identifying potential biases and confounders in the study. The audio-recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed according to a systematic text condensation. The themes for the analysis emerged from the group discussions. RESULTS: A personal interest for back pain, logistic factors at the clinics and an assessment of the patients' capacity to accomplish the study prior to their recruitment was reported. The providers were allowed to provide additional therapy to the intervention and it turned out that some of these could be regarded as opposed to the messages of the intervention. The providers seemed to select different items from the educational package according to personal beliefs and their perception of the patients' acceptance. CONCLUSION: The study disclosed several potential biases to the COPE study which may have impacted on the study results. Awareness of these is highly important when planning and conducting a cluster randomized controlled trial. Procedures in the recruitment of both providers and patients seem to be key factors and the providers should be aware of their role in a scientific study in order to standardize the provision of the intervention.


Assuntos
Dor Lombar/terapia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Adulto , Viés , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega , Seleção de Pacientes
18.
Phys Ther ; 98(2): 122-132, 2018 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29096009

RESUMO

Background: The Body Awareness Rating Questionnaire (BARQ) is a self-report questionnaire aimed at capturing how people with long-lasting musculoskeletal pain reflect on their own body awareness. Methods based on classical test theory were applied to the development of the instrument and resulted in 4 subscales. However, the scales were not correlated, and construct validity might be questioned. Objective: The primary purpose of this study was to explore the possibility of developing a unidimensional scale from items initially collected for the BARQ using Rasch analysis. A secondary purpose was to investigate the test-retest reliability of a revised version of the BARQ. Design: This was a methodological study. Methods: Rasch and reliability analyses were performed for 3 samples of participants with long-lasting musculoskeletal pain. The first Rasch analysis was carried out on 66 items generated for the original BARQ and scored by 300 participants. The items supported by the first analysis were scored by a new group of 127 participants and analyzed in a second Rasch analysis. For the test-retest reliability analysis, 48 participants scored the revised BARQ items twice within 1 week. Results: The 2-step Rasch analysis resulted in a unidimensional 12-item revised version of the BARQ with a 4-point response scale (scores from 0 to 36). It showed a good fit to the Rasch model, with acceptable internal consistency, satisfactory fit residuals, and no disordered thresholds. Test-retest reliability was high, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of .83 (95% CI = .71-.89) and a smallest detectable change of 6.3 points. Limitations: The small sample size in the second Rasch analysis was a study limitation. Conclusions: The revised BARQ is a unidimensional and feasible measurement of body awareness, recommended for use in the context of body-mind physical therapy approaches for musculoskeletal conditions.


Assuntos
Conscientização , Dor Musculoesquelética/psicologia , Autorrelato , Adulto , Dor Crônica/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
19.
Pain ; 159(3): 481-495, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29194127

RESUMO

To standardize outcome reporting in clinical trials of patients with nonspecific low back pain, an international multidisciplinary panel recommended physical functioning, pain intensity, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) as core outcome domains. Given the lack of a consensus on measurement instruments for these 3 domains in patients with low back pain, this study aimed to generate such consensus. The measurement properties of 17 patient-reported outcome measures for physical functioning, 3 for pain intensity, and 5 for HRQoL were appraised in 3 systematic reviews following the COSMIN methodology. Researchers, clinicians, and patients (n = 207) were invited in a 2-round Delphi survey to generate consensus (≥67% agreement among participants) on which instruments to endorse. Response rates were 44% and 41%, respectively. In round 1, consensus was achieved on the Oswestry Disability Index version 2.1a for physical functioning (78% agreement) and the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) for pain intensity (75% agreement). No consensus was achieved on any HRQoL instrument, although the Short Form 12 (SF12) approached the consensus threshold (64% agreement). In round 2, a consensus was reached on an NRS version with a 1-week recall period (96% agreement). Various participants requested 1 free-to-use instrument per domain. Considering all issues together, recommendations on core instruments were formulated: Oswestry Disability Index version 2.1a or 24-item Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire for physical functioning, NRS for pain intensity, and SF12 or 10-item PROMIS Global Health form for HRQoL. Further studies need to fill the evidence gaps on the measurement properties of these and other instruments.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/métodos , Dor Lombar/psicologia , Dor Lombar/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto , Técnica Delfos , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Qualidade de Vida , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
20.
Trials ; 18(1): 596, 2017 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29246188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A previous randomised controlled trial (RCT) of patients with chronic low back pain (LBP) and vertebral bone marrow (Modic) changes (MCs) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), reported that a 3-month, high-dose course of antibiotics had a better effect than placebo at 12 months' follow-up. The present study examines the effects of antibiotic treatment in chronic LBP patients with MCs at the level of a lumbar disc herniation, similar to the previous study. It also aims to assess the cost-effectiveness of the treatment, refine the MRI assessment of MCs, and further evaluate the impact of the treatment and the pathogenesis of MCs by studying genetic variability and the gene and protein expression of inflammatory biomarkers. METHODS/DESIGN: A double-blinded RCT is conducted at six hospitals in Norway, comparing orally administered amoxicillin 750 mg, or placebo three times a day, over a period of 100 days in patients with chronic LBP and type I or II MCs at the level of a MRI-confirmed lumbar disc herniation within the preceding 2 years. The inclusion will be stopped when at least 80 patients are included in each of the two MC type groups. In each MC type group, the study is designed to detect (ß = 0.1, α = 0.05) a mean difference of 4 (standard deviation 5) in the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire score between the two treatment groups (amoxicillin or placebo) at 1-year follow-up. The study includes cost-effectiveness measures. Blood samples are assessed for security measures and for possible inflammatory mediators and biomarkers at different time points. MCs are evaluated on MRI at baseline and after 12 months. A blinded intention-to-treat analysis of treatment effects will be performed in the total sample and in each MC type group. DISCUSSION: To ensure the appropriate use of antibiotic treatment, its effect in chronic LBP patients with MCs should be re-assessed. This study will investigate the effects and cost-effectiveness of amoxicillin in patients with chronic LBP and MCs at the level of a disc herniation. The study may also help to refine imaging and characterise the biomarkers of MCs. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT02323412 . Registered on 21 November 2014.


Assuntos
Amoxicilina/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Lombar/tratamento farmacológico , Vértebras Lombares/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Amoxicilina/efeitos adversos , Amoxicilina/economia , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos/economia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Medula Óssea/diagnóstico por imagem , Dor Crônica/diagnóstico por imagem , Dor Crônica/economia , Dor Crônica/fisiopatologia , Protocolos Clínicos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Avaliação da Deficiência , Método Duplo-Cego , Custos de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/economia , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/fisiopatologia , Dor Lombar/diagnóstico por imagem , Dor Lombar/economia , Dor Lombar/fisiopatologia , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Lombares/fisiopatologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega , Medição da Dor , Projetos de Pesquisa , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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