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1.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492941

RESUMO

Based on the discovery by the Resilience Project (Chen R. et al. Nat Biotechnol 34:531-538, 2016) of rare variants that confer resistance to Mendelian disease, and protective alleles for some complex diseases, we posited the existence of genetic variants that promote resilience to highly heritable polygenic disorders1,0 such as schizophrenia. Resilience has been traditionally viewed as a psychological construct, although our use of the term resilience refers to a different construct that directly relates to the Resilience Project, namely: heritable variation that promotes resistance to disease by reducing the penetrance of risk loci, wherein resilience and risk loci operate orthogonal to one another. In this study, we established a procedure to identify unaffected individuals with relatively high polygenic risk for schizophrenia, and contrasted them with risk-matched schizophrenia cases to generate the first known "polygenic resilience score" that represents the additive contributions to SZ resistance by variants that are distinct from risk loci. The resilience score was derived from data compiled by the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, and replicated in three independent samples. This work establishes a generalizable framework for finding resilience variants for any complex, heritable disorder.

2.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(7): 1066-1074, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209380

RESUMO

Cannabis is the most frequently used illicit psychoactive substance worldwide; around one in ten users become dependent. The risk for cannabis use disorder (CUD) has a strong genetic component, with twin heritability estimates ranging from 51 to 70%. Here we performed a genome-wide association study of CUD in 2,387 cases and 48,985 controls, followed by replication in 5,501 cases and 301,041 controls. We report a genome-wide significant risk locus for CUD (P = 9.31 × 10-12) that replicates in an independent population (Preplication = 3.27 × 10-3, Pmeta-analysis = 9.09 × 10-12). The index variant (rs56372821) is a strong expression quantitative trait locus for cholinergic receptor nicotinic α2 subunit (CHRNA2); analyses of the genetically regulated gene expression identified a significant association of CHRNA2 expression with CUD in brain tissue. At the polygenic level, analyses revealed a significant decrease in the risk of CUD with increased load of variants associated with cognitive performance. The results provide biological insights and inform on the genetic architecture of CUD.


Assuntos
Abuso de Maconha/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/fisiologia , Receptores Nicotínicos/fisiologia , Idade de Início , Alelos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cromossomos Humanos Par 8/genética , Cognição/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Fatores de Confusão (Epidemiologia) , Dinamarca , Escolaridade , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Islândia , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/biossíntese , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Receptores Nicotínicos/biossíntese , Receptores Nicotínicos/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Fumar/genética , Transcriptoma
4.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116379

RESUMO

Importance: Anxiety and stress-related disorders are among the most common mental disorders. Although family and twin studies indicate that both genetic and environmental factors play an important role underlying their etiology, the genetic underpinnings of anxiety and stress-related disorders are poorly understood. Objectives: To estimate the single-nucleotide polymorphism-based heritability of anxiety and stress-related disorders; to identify novel genetic risk variants, genes, or biological pathways; to test for pleiotropic associations with other psychiatric traits; and to evaluate the association of psychiatric comorbidities with genetic findings. Design, Setting, Participants: This genome-wide association study included individuals with various anxiety and stress-related diagnoses and controls derived from the population-based Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research (iPSYCH) study. Lifetime diagnoses of anxiety and stress-related disorders were obtained through the national Danish registers. Genes of interest were further evaluated in mice exposed to chronic social defeat. The study was conducted between June 2016 and November 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: Diagnoses of a relatively broad diagnostic spectrum of anxiety and stress-related disorders. Results: The study sample included 12 655 individuals with various anxiety and stress-related diagnoses and 19 225 controls. Overall, 17 740 study participants (55.6%) were women. A total of 7308 participants (22.9%) were born between 1981-1985, 8840 (27.7%) between 1986-1990, 8157 (25.6%) between 1991-1995, 5918 (18.6%) between 1996-2000, and 1657 (5.2%) between 2001-2005. Standard association analysis revealed variants in PDE4B to be associated with anxiety and stress-related disorder (rs7528604; P = 5.39 × 10-11; odds ratio = 0.89; 95% CI, 0.86-0.92). A framework of sensitivity analyses adjusting for mental comorbidity supported this result showing consistent association of PDE4B variants with anxiety and stress-related disorder across analytical scenarios. In mouse models, alterations in Pde4b expression were observed in those mice displaying anxiety-like behavior after exposure to chronic stress in the prefrontal cortex (P = .002; t = -3.33) and the hippocampus (P = .001; t = -3.72). We also found a single-nucleotide polymorphism heritability of 28% (standard error = 0.027) and that the genetic signature of anxiety and stress-related overlapped with psychiatric traits, educational outcomes, obesity-related phenotypes, smoking, and reproductive success. Conclusions and Relevance: This study highlights anxiety and stress-related disorders as complex heritable phenotypes with intriguing genetic correlations not only with psychiatric traits, but also with educational outcomes and multiple obesity-related phenotypes. Furthermore, we highlight the candidate gene PDE4B as a robust risk locus pointing to the potential of PDE4B inhibitors in treatment of these disorders.

5.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 374(1770): 20180120, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30966880

RESUMO

There is great interest in the role epigenetic variation induced by non-genetic exposures may play in the context of health and disease. In particular, DNA methylation has previously been shown to be highly dynamic during the earliest stages of development and is influenced by in utero exposures such as maternal smoking and medication. In this study we sought to identify the specific DNA methylation differences in blood associated with prenatal and birth factors, including birth weight, gestational age and maternal smoking. We quantified neonatal methylomic variation in 1263 infants using DNA isolated from a unique collection of archived blood spots taken shortly after birth (mean = 6.08 days; s.d. = 3.24 days). An epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) of gestational age and birth weight identified 4299 and 18 differentially methylated positions (DMPs) respectively, at an experiment-wide significance threshold of p < 1 × 10-7. Our EWAS of maternal smoking during pregnancy identified 110 DMPs in neonatal blood, replicating previously reported genomic loci, including AHRR. Finally, we tested the hypothesis that DNA methylation mediates the relationship between maternal smoking and lower birth weight, finding evidence that methylomic variation at three DMPs may link exposure to outcome. These findings complement an expanding literature on the epigenomic consequences of prenatal exposures and obstetric factors, confirming a link between the maternal environment and gene regulation in neonates. This article is part of the theme issue 'Developing differences: early-life effects and evolutionary medicine'.

6.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 431-444, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804558

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly heritable and heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental phenotypes diagnosed in more than 1% of children. Common genetic variants contribute substantially to ASD susceptibility, but to date no individual variants have been robustly associated with ASD. With a marked sample-size increase from a unique Danish population resource, we report a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 18,381 individuals with ASD and 27,969 controls that identified five genome-wide-significant loci. Leveraging GWAS results from three phenotypes with significantly overlapping genetic architectures (schizophrenia, major depression, and educational attainment), we identified seven additional loci shared with other traits at equally strict significance levels. Dissecting the polygenic architecture, we found both quantitative and qualitative polygenic heterogeneity across ASD subtypes. These results highlight biological insights, particularly relating to neuronal function and corticogenesis, and establish that GWAS performed at scale will be much more productive in the near term in ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dinamarca , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco
7.
Neurobiol Dis ; 124: 479-488, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30590179

RESUMO

Genetic and molecular studies have implicated the Bromodomain containing 1 (BRD1) gene in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Accordingly, mice heterozygous for a targeted deletion of Brd1 (Brd1+/- mice) show behavioral phenotypes with broad translational relevance to psychiatric disorders. BRD1 encodes a scaffold protein that affects the expression of many genes through modulation of histone acetylation. BRD1 target genes have been identified in cell lines; however the impact of reduced Brd1 levels on the brain proteome is largely unknown. In this study, we applied label-based quantitative mass spectrometry to profile the frontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum proteome and synaptosomal proteome of female Brd1+/- mice. We successfully quantified between 1537 and 2196 proteins and show widespread changes in protein abundancies and compartmentalization. By integrative analysis of human genetic data, we find that the differentially abundant proteins in frontal cortex and hippocampus are enriched for schizophrenia risk further linking the actions of BRD1 to psychiatric disorders. Affected proteins were further enriched for proteins involved in processes known to influence neuronal and dendritic spine morphology e.g. regulation of cytoskeleton dynamics and mitochondrial function. Directly prompted in these findings, we investigated dendritic spine morphology of pyramidal neurons in anterior cingulate cortex and found them significantly altered, including reduced size of small dendritic spines and decreased number of the mature mushroom type. Collectively, our study describes known as well as new mechanisms related to BRD1 dysfunction and its role in psychiatric disorders, and provides evidence for the molecular and cellular dysfunctions underlying altered neurosignalling and cognition in Brd1+/- mice.

8.
Nat Genet ; 2018 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30478444

RESUMO

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly heritable childhood behavioral disorder affecting 5% of children and 2.5% of adults. Common genetic variants contribute substantially to ADHD susceptibility, but no variants have been robustly associated with ADHD. We report a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 20,183 individuals diagnosed with ADHD and 35,191 controls that identifies variants surpassing genome-wide significance in 12 independent loci, finding important new information about the underlying biology of ADHD. Associations are enriched in evolutionarily constrained genomic regions and loss-of-function intolerant genes and around brain-expressed regulatory marks. Analyses of three replication studies: a cohort of individuals diagnosed with ADHD, a self-reported ADHD sample and a meta-analysis of quantitative measures of ADHD symptoms in the population, support these findings while highlighting study-specific differences on genetic overlap with educational attainment. Strong concordance with GWAS of quantitative population measures of ADHD symptoms supports that clinical diagnosis of ADHD is an extreme expression of continuous heritable traits.

9.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 74: 61-69, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30287268

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic factors contribute to anorexia nervosa (AN); and the first genome-wide significant locus has been identified. We describe methods and procedures for the Anorexia Nervosa Genetics Initiative (ANGI), an international collaboration designed to rapidly recruit 13,000 individuals with AN and ancestrally matched controls. We present sample characteristics and the utility of an online eating disorder diagnostic questionnaire suitable for large-scale genetic and population research. METHODS: ANGI recruited from the United States (US), Australia/New Zealand (ANZ), Sweden (SE), and Denmark (DK). Recruitment was via national registers (SE, DK); treatment centers (US, ANZ, SE, DK); and social and traditional media (US, ANZ, SE). All cases had a lifetime AN diagnosis based on DSM-IV or ICD-10 criteria (excluding amenorrhea). Recruited controls had no lifetime history of disordered eating behaviors. To assess the positive and negative predictive validity of the online eating disorder questionnaire (ED100K-v1), 109 women also completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID), Module H. RESULTS: Blood samples and clinical information were collected from 13,363 individuals with lifetime AN and from controls. Online diagnostic phenotyping was effective and efficient; the validity of the questionnaire was acceptable. CONCLUSIONS: Our multi-pronged recruitment approach was highly effective for rapid recruitment and can be used as a model for efforts by other groups. High online presence of individuals with AN rendered the Internet/social media a remarkably effective recruitment tool in some countries. ANGI has substantially augmented Psychiatric Genomics Consortium AN sample collection. ANGI is a registered clinical trial: clinicaltrials.govNCT01916538; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01916538?cond=Anorexia+Nervosa&draw=1&rank=3.

10.
Nat Genet ; 50(5): 668-681, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29700475

RESUMO

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common illness accompanied by considerable morbidity, mortality, costs, and heightened risk of suicide. We conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis based in 135,458 cases and 344,901 controls and identified 44 independent and significant loci. The genetic findings were associated with clinical features of major depression and implicated brain regions exhibiting anatomical differences in cases. Targets of antidepressant medications and genes involved in gene splicing were enriched for smaller association signal. We found important relationships of genetic risk for major depression with educational attainment, body mass, and schizophrenia: lower educational attainment and higher body mass were putatively causal, whereas major depression and schizophrenia reflected a partly shared biological etiology. All humans carry lesser or greater numbers of genetic risk factors for major depression. These findings help refine the basis of major depression and imply that a continuous measure of risk underlies the clinical phenotype.

11.
Transl Psychiatry ; 8(1): 35, 2018 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29527006

RESUMO

Empathy is the ability to recognize and respond to the emotional states of other individuals. It is an important psychological process that facilitates navigating social interactions and maintaining relationships, which are important for well-being. Several psychological studies have identified difficulties in both self-report and performance-based measures of empathy in a range of psychiatric conditions. To date, no study has systematically investigated the genetic architecture of empathy using genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Here we report the results of the largest GWAS of empathy to date using a well-validated self-report measure of empathy, the Empathy Quotient (EQ), in 46,861 research participants from 23andMe, Inc. We identify 11 suggestive loci (P < 1 × 10-6), though none were significant at P < 2.5 × 10-8 after correcting for multiple testing. The most significant SNP was identified in the non-stratified analysis (rs4882760; P = 4.29 × 10-8), and is an intronic SNP in TMEM132C. The EQ had a modest but significant narrow-sense heritability (0.11 ± 0.014; P = 1.7 × 10-14). As predicted, based on earlier work, we confirmed a significant female advantage on the EQ (P < 2 × 10-16, Cohen's d = 0.65). We identified similar SNP heritability and high genetic correlation between the sexes. Also, as predicted, we identified a significant negative genetic correlation between autism and the EQ (rg = -0.27 ± 0.07, P = 1.63 × 10-4). We also identified a significant positive genetic correlation between the EQ and risk for schizophrenia (rg = 0.19 ± 0.04; P = 1.36 × 10-5), risk for anorexia nervosa (rg = 0.32 ± 0.09; P = 6 × 10-4), and extraversion (rg = 0.45 ± 0.08; 5.7 × 10-8). This is the first GWAS of self-reported empathy. The results suggest that the genetic variations associated with empathy also play a role in psychiatric conditions and psychological traits.

12.
Genome Med ; 10(1): 19, 2018 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29587883

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social communication and restricted, repetitive behaviors, interests, or activities. The etiology of ASD involves both inherited and environmental risk factors, with epigenetic processes hypothesized as one mechanism by which both genetic and non-genetic variation influence gene regulation and pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to identify DNA methylation biomarkers of ASD detectable at birth. METHODS: We quantified neonatal methylomic variation in 1263 infants-of whom ~ 50% went on to subsequently develop ASD-using DNA isolated from archived blood spots taken shortly after birth. We used matched genotype data from the same individuals to examine the molecular consequences of ASD-associated genetic risk variants, identifying methylomic variation associated with elevated polygenic burden for ASD. In addition, we performed DNA methylation quantitative trait loci (mQTL) mapping to prioritize target genes from ASD GWAS findings. RESULTS: We identified robust epigenetic signatures of gestational age and prenatal tobacco exposure, confirming the utility of DNA methylation data generated from neonatal blood spots. Although we did not identify specific loci showing robust differences in neonatal DNA methylation associated with later ASD, there was a significant association between increased polygenic burden for autism and methylomic variation at specific loci. Each unit of elevated ASD polygenic risk score was associated with a mean increase in DNA methylation of - 0.14% at two CpG sites located proximal to a robust GWAS signal for ASD on chromosome 8. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the largest analysis of DNA methylation in ASD undertaken and the first to integrate genetic and epigenetic variation at birth. We demonstrate the utility of using a polygenic risk score to identify molecular variation associated with disease, and of using mQTL to refine the functional and regulatory variation associated with ASD risk variants.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Parto , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tabaco/efeitos adversos
13.
Nat Genet ; 50(3): 381-389, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29483656

RESUMO

Schizophrenia is a debilitating psychiatric condition often associated with poor quality of life and decreased life expectancy. Lack of progress in improving treatment outcomes has been attributed to limited knowledge of the underlying biology, although large-scale genomic studies have begun to provide insights. We report a new genome-wide association study of schizophrenia (11,260 cases and 24,542 controls), and through meta-analysis with existing data we identify 50 novel associated loci and 145 loci in total. Through integrating genomic fine-mapping with brain expression and chromosome conformation data, we identify candidate causal genes within 33 loci. We also show for the first time that the common variant association signal is highly enriched among genes that are under strong selective pressures. These findings provide new insights into the biology and genetic architecture of schizophrenia, highlight the importance of mutation-intolerant genes and suggest a mechanism by which common risk variants persist in the population.

14.
J Neurosci Methods ; 296: 93-98, 2018 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29287746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dendritic spine morphology is heterogeneous and highly dynamic. To study the changing or aberrant morphology in test setups, often spines from several neurons from a few experimental units e.g. mice or primary neuronal cultures are measured. This strategy results in a multilevel data structure, which, when not properly addressed, has a high risk of producing false positive and false negative findings. METHODS: We used mixed-effects models to deal with data with a multilevel data structure and compared this method to analyses at each level. We apply these statistical tests to a dataset of dendritic spine morphology parameters to illustrate advantages of multilevel mixed-effects model, and disadvantages of other models. RESULTS: We present an application of mixed-effects models for analyzing dendritic spine morphology datasets while correcting for the data structure. COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHODS: We further show that analyses at spine level and aggregated levels do not adequately account for the data structure, and that they may lead to erroneous results. CONCLUSION: We highlight the importance of data structure in dendritic spine morphology analyses and highly recommend the use of mixed-effects models or other appropriate statistical methods to deal with multilevel datasets. Mixed-effects models are easy to use and superior to commonly used methods by including the data structure and the addition of other explanatory variables, for example sex, and age, etc., as well as interactions between variables or between variables and level identifiers.

15.
Nature ; 548(7665): 87-91, 2017 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28746312

RESUMO

Hundreds of thousands of human genomes are now being sequenced to characterize genetic variation and use this information to augment association mapping studies of complex disorders and other phenotypic traits. Genetic variation is identified mainly by mapping short reads to the reference genome or by performing local assembly. However, these approaches are biased against discovery of structural variants and variation in the more complex parts of the genome. Hence, large-scale de novo assembly is needed. Here we show that it is possible to construct excellent de novo assemblies from high-coverage sequencing with mate-pair libraries extending up to 20 kilobases. We report de novo assemblies of 150 individuals (50 trios) from the GenomeDenmark project. The quality of these assemblies is similar to those obtained using the more expensive long-read technology. We use the assemblies to identify a rich set of structural variants including many novel insertions and demonstrate how this variant catalogue enables further deciphering of known association mapping signals. We leverage the assemblies to provide 100 completely resolved major histocompatibility complex haplotypes and to resolve major parts of the Y chromosome. Our study provides a regional reference genome that we expect will improve the power of future association mapping studies and hence pave the way for precision medicine initiatives, which now are being launched in many countries including Denmark.


Assuntos
Variação Genética/genética , Genética Populacional/normas , Genoma Humano/genética , Genômica/normas , Análise de Sequência de DNA/normas , Adulto , Alelos , Criança , Cromossomos Humanos Y/genética , Dinamarca , Feminino , Haplótipos/genética , Humanos , Complexo Principal de Histocompatibilidade/genética , Masculino , Idade Materna , Taxa de Mutação , Idade Paterna , Mutação Puntual/genética , Padrões de Referência
16.
Nat Genet ; 49(7): 978-985, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28504703

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk is influenced by common polygenic and de novo variation. We aimed to clarify the influence of polygenic risk for ASD and to identify subgroups of ASD cases, including those with strongly acting de novo variants, in which polygenic risk is relevant. Using a novel approach called the polygenic transmission disequilibrium test and data from 6,454 families with a child with ASD, we show that polygenic risk for ASD, schizophrenia, and greater educational attainment is over-transmitted to children with ASD. These findings hold independent of proband IQ. We find that polygenic variation contributes additively to risk in ASD cases who carry a strongly acting de novo variant. Lastly, we show that elements of polygenic risk are independent and differ in their relationship with phenotype. These results confirm that the genetic influences on ASD are additive and suggest that they create risk through at least partially distinct etiologic pathways.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Variação Genética , Herança Multifatorial , Adulto , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Escolaridade , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genética Comportamental , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Inteligência/genética , Masculino , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco , Esquizofrenia/genética , Deleção de Sequência
17.
Biol Psychiatry ; 81(4): 325-335, 2017 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27519822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a disabling mood disorder, and despite a known heritable component, a large meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies revealed no replicable genetic risk variants. Given prior evidence of heterogeneity by age at onset in MDD, we tested whether genome-wide significant risk variants for MDD could be identified in cases subdivided by age at onset. METHODS: Discovery case-control genome-wide association studies were performed where cases were stratified using increasing/decreasing age-at-onset cutoffs; significant single nucleotide polymorphisms were tested in nine independent replication samples, giving a total sample of 22,158 cases and 133,749 control subjects for subsetting. Polygenic score analysis was used to examine whether differences in shared genetic risk exists between earlier and adult-onset MDD with commonly comorbid disorders of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Alzheimer's disease, and coronary artery disease. RESULTS: We identified one replicated genome-wide significant locus associated with adult-onset (>27 years) MDD (rs7647854, odds ratio: 1.16, 95% confidence interval: 1.11-1.21, p = 5.2 × 10-11). Using polygenic score analyses, we show that earlier-onset MDD is genetically more similar to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder than adult-onset MDD. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that using additional phenotype data previously collected by genetic studies to tackle phenotypic heterogeneity in MDD can successfully lead to the discovery of genetic risk factor despite reduced sample size. Furthermore, our results suggest that the genetic susceptibility to MDD differs between adult- and earlier-onset MDD, with earlier-onset cases having a greater genetic overlap with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Adulto , Idade de Início , Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia/genética , Adulto Jovem
18.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 26(9): 1522-1526, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27424800

RESUMO

Despite the identification of numerous schizophrenia-associated genetic variants, few have been examined functionally to identify and characterize the causal variants. To mitigate this, we aimed at identifying functional variants affecting miRNA function. Using data from a large-scale genome-wide association study of schizophrenia, we looked for schizophrenia risk variants altering either miRNA binding sites, miRNA genes, promoters for miRNA genes, or variants that were expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) for miRNA genes. We hereby identified several potentially functional variants relating to miRNA function with our top finding being a schizophrenia protective allele that disrupts miR-206׳s binding to NT5C2 thus leading to increased expression of this gene. A subsequent experimental follow-up of the variant using a luciferase-based reporter assay confirmed that the allele disrupts the binding. Our study therefore suggests that miR-206 may contribute to schizophrenia risk through allele-dependent regulation of the genome-wide significant gene NT5C2.


Assuntos
5'-Nucleotidase/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Esquizofrenia/genética , Esquizofrenia/metabolismo , 5'-Nucleotidase/genética , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Biologia Computacional , Seguimentos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Ligação Proteica/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas
19.
Stat Appl Genet Mol Biol ; 15(4): 349-61, 2016 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27269897

RESUMO

In many areas of science it is custom to perform many, potentially millions, of tests simultaneously. To gain statistical power it is common to group tests based on a priori criteria such as predefined regions or by sliding windows. However, it is not straightforward to choose grouping criteria and the results might depend on the chosen criteria. Methods that summarize, or aggregate, test statistics or p-values, without relying on a priori criteria, are therefore desirable. We present a simple method to aggregate a sequence of stochastic variables, such as test statistics or p-values, into fewer variables without assuming a priori defined groups. We provide different ways to evaluate the significance of the aggregated variables based on theoretical considerations and resampling techniques, and show that under certain assumptions the FWER is controlled in the strong sense. Validity of the method was demonstrated using simulations and real data analyses. Our method may be a useful supplement to standard procedures relying on evaluation of test statistics individually. Moreover, by being agnostic and not relying on predefined selected regions, it might be a practical alternative to conventionally used methods of aggregation of p-values over regions. The method is implemented in Python and freely available online (through GitHub, see the Supplementary information).


Assuntos
Modelos Teóricos , Software , Algoritmos , Simulação por Computador , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Internet , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
20.
Genome Med ; 8(1): 53, 2016 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27142060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The bromodomain containing 1 (BRD1) gene has been implicated with transcriptional regulation, brain development, and susceptibility to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. To advance the understanding of BRD1 and its role in mental disorders, we characterized the protein and chromatin interactions of the BRD1 isoforms, BRD1-S and BRD1-L. METHODS: Stable human cell lines expressing epitope tagged BRD1-S and BRD1-L were generated and used as discovery systems for identifying protein and chromatin interactions. Protein-protein interactions were identified using co-immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometry and chromatin interactions were identified using chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by next generation sequencing. Gene expression profiles and differentially expressed genes were identified after upregulating and downregulating BRD1 expression using microarrays. The presented functional molecular data were integrated with human genomic and transcriptomic data using available GWAS, exome-sequencing datasets as well as spatiotemporal transcriptomic datasets from the human brain. RESULTS: We present several novel protein interactions of BRD1, including isoform-specific interactions as well as proteins previously implicated with mental disorders. By BRD1-S and BRD1-L chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by next generation sequencing we identified binding to promoter regions of 1540 and 823 genes, respectively, and showed correlation between BRD1-S and BRD1-L binding and regulation of gene expression. The identified BRD1 interaction network was found to be predominantly co-expressed with BRD1 mRNA in the human brain and enriched for pathways involved in gene expression and brain function. By interrogation of large datasets from genome-wide association studies, we further demonstrate that the BRD1 interaction network is enriched for schizophrenia risk. CONCLUSION: Our results show that BRD1 interacts with chromatin remodeling proteins, e.g. PBRM1, as well as histone modifiers, e.g. MYST2 and SUV420H1. We find that BRD1 primarily binds in close proximity to transcription start sites and regulates expression of numerous genes, many of which are involved with brain development and susceptibility to mental disorders. Our findings indicate that BRD1 acts as a regulatory hub in a comprehensive schizophrenia risk network which plays a role in many brain regions throughout life, implicating e.g. striatum, hippocampus, and amygdala at mid-fetal stages.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas/métodos , Proteoma/metabolismo , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Linhagem Celular , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Proteoma/genética
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