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1.
Epigenetics ; : 1-12, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570667

RESUMO

Cigarette smoking is associated with epigenetic changes that may be reversible following smoking cessation. Whole blood DNA methylation was evaluated in Framingham Heart Study Offspring (n = 169) and Third Generation (n = 30) cohort participants at two study visits 6 years apart and in Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study (n = 222) participants at two study visits 20 years apart. Changes in DNA methylation (delta ß values) at 483,565 cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites and differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were compared between participants who were current, former, or never smokers at both visits (current-current, former-former, never-never, respectively), versus those who quit in the interim (current-former). Interim quitters had more hypermethylation at four CpGs annotated to AHRR, one CpG annotated to F2RL3, and one intergenic CpG (cg21566642) compared with current-current smokers (FDR < 0.02 for all), and two significant DMRs were identified. While there were no significant differentially methylated CpGs in the comparison of interim quitters and former-former smokers, 106 DMRs overlapping with small nucleolar RNA were identified. As compared with all non-smokers, current-current smokers additionally had more hypermethylation at two CpG sites annotated to HIVEP3 and TMEM126A, respectively, and another intergenic CpG (cg14339116). Gene transcripts associated with smoking cessation were implicated in immune responses, cell homoeostasis, and apoptosis. Smoking cessation is associated with early reversion of blood DNA methylation changes at CpG sites annotated to AHRR and F2RL3 towards those of never smokers. Associated gene expression suggests a role of longitudinal smoking-related DNA methylation changes in immune response processes.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542373

RESUMO

This study investigated whether the concentrations of four metals [lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), and aluminum (Al)] are correlated in cord blood and childhood blood samples from Jamaican children. Cord blood samples were obtained from 21 pregnant women enrolled in the second Jamaican Birth Cohort Study from July 1, 2011 to September 30, 2011, and blood samples were drawn from their children who participated in a follow up study when the children were 4-8 years old. Correlations were assessed by the Pearson or the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. The mean ages of children at the childhood visit and their mother at the child's birth were 5.5 years and 29.8 years, respectively. About 47.6% of children were male. Statistically significant correlations between cord blood and childhood blood concentrations of Pb (rSpearman =0.45; P = 0.04) and Mn (rPearson=0.48; P = 0.03) were found, and these remained significant when adjusted for the child's sex, age, or both. For Al and Hg, rSpearman=0.29 and 0.08, respectively, but the correlations were not statistically significant (both P ≥ 0.20). A significant correlation between cord blood and childhood blood Pb concentrations for children 4-8 years old has not been previously reported.

3.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415308

RESUMO

We conducted cohort- and race-specific epigenome-wide association analyses of mtDNA copy number (mtDNA CN) measured in whole blood from participants of African and European origins in five cohorts (n = 6182, mean age 57-67 years, 65% women). In the meta-analysis of all the participants, we discovered 21 mtDNA CN-associated CpG sites (p < 1 x 10-7), with a 0.7 to 3.0 standard deviation increase (3 CpGs) or decrease (18 CpGs) in mtDNA CN corresponding to a 1% increase in DNA methylation. Several significant CpGs have been reported to be associated with at least two risk factors (e.g. chronological age or smoking) for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Five genes (PRDM16, NR1H3, XRCC3, POLK, and PDSS2), which harbor nine significant CpGs, are known to be involved in mitochondrial biosynthesis and functions. For example, NR1H3 encodes a transcription factor that is differentially expressed during an adipose tissue transition. The methylation level of cg09548275 in NR1H3 was negatively associated with mtDNA CN (effect size = -1.71, p = 4 x 10-8) and positively associated with the NR1H3 expression level (effect size = 0.43, p = 0.0003), which indicates that the methylation level in NR1H3 may underlie the relationship between mtDNA CN, the NR1H3 transcription factor, and energy expenditure. In summary, the study results suggest that mtDNA CN variation in whole blood is associated with DNA methylation levels in genes that are involved in a wide range of mitochondrial activities. These findings will help reveal molecular mechanisms between mtDNA CN and CVD.

4.
Gut ; 2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34127525

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Tryptophan can be catabolised to various metabolites through host kynurenine and microbial indole pathways. We aimed to examine relationships of host and microbial tryptophan metabolites with incident type 2 diabetes (T2D), host genetics, diet and gut microbiota. METHOD: We analysed associations between circulating levels of 11 tryptophan metabolites and incident T2D in 9180 participants of diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds from five cohorts. We examined host genome-wide variants, dietary intake and gut microbiome associated with these metabolites. RESULTS: Tryptophan, four kynurenine-pathway metabolites (kynurenine, kynurenate, xanthurenate and quinolinate) and indolelactate were positively associated with T2D risk, while indolepropionate was inversely associated with T2D risk. We identified multiple host genetic variants, dietary factors, gut bacteria and their potential interplay associated with these T2D-relaetd metabolites. Intakes of fibre-rich foods, but not protein/tryptophan-rich foods, were the dietary factors most strongly associated with tryptophan metabolites. The fibre-indolepropionate association was partially explained by indolepropionate-associated gut bacteria, mostly fibre-using Firmicutes. We identified a novel association between a host functional LCT variant (determining lactase persistence) and serum indolepropionate, which might be related to a host gene-diet interaction on gut Bifidobacterium, a probiotic bacterium significantly associated with indolepropionate independent of other fibre-related bacteria. Higher milk intake was associated with higher levels of gut Bifidobacterium and serum indolepropionate only among genetically lactase non-persistent individuals. CONCLUSION: Higher milk intake among lactase non-persistent individuals, and higher fibre intake were associated with a favourable profile of circulating tryptophan metabolites for T2D, potentially through the host-microbial cross-talk shifting tryptophan metabolism toward gut microbial indolepropionate production.

5.
Alzheimers Dement ; 17(10): 1663-1674, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34002480

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is increasing interest in plasma amyloid beta (Aß) as an endophenotype of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Identifying the genetic determinants of plasma Aß levels may elucidate important biological processes that determine plasma Aß measures. METHODS: We included 12,369 non-demented participants from eight population-based studies. Imputed genetic data and measured plasma Aß1-40, Aß1-42 levels and Aß1-42/Aß1-40 ratio were used to perform genome-wide association studies, and gene-based and pathway analyses. Significant variants and genes were followed up for their association with brain positron emission tomography Aß deposition and AD risk. RESULTS: Single-variant analysis identified associations with apolipoprotein E (APOE) for Aß1-42 and Aß1-42/Aß1-40 ratio, and BACE1 for Aß1-40. Gene-based analysis of Aß1-40 additionally identified associations for APP, PSEN2, CCK, and ZNF397. There was suggestive evidence for interaction between a BACE1 variant and APOE ε4 on brain Aß deposition. DISCUSSION: Identification of variants near/in known major Aß-processing genes strengthens the relevance of plasma-Aß levels as an endophenotype of AD.

6.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 321(1): L130-L143, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33909500

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified regions associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). GWASs of other diseases have shown an approximately 10-fold overrepresentation of nonsynonymous variants, despite limited exonic coverage on genotyping arrays. We hypothesized that a large-scale analysis of coding variants could discover novel genetic associations with COPD, including rare variants with large effect sizes. We performed a meta-analysis of exome arrays from 218,399 controls and 33,851 moderate-to-severe COPD cases. All exome-wide significant associations were present in regions previously identified by GWAS. We did not identify any novel rare coding variants with large effect sizes. Within GWAS regions on chromosomes 5q, 6p, and 15q, four coding variants were conditionally significant (P < 0.00015) when adjusting for lead GWAS single-nucleotide polymorphisms A common gasdermin B (GSDMB) splice variant (rs11078928) previously associated with a decreased risk for asthma was nominally associated with a decreased risk for COPD [minor allele frequency (MAF) = 0.46, P = 1.8e-4]. Two stop variants in coiled-coil α-helical rod protein 1 (CCHCR1), a gene involved in regulating cell proliferation, were associated with COPD (both P < 0.0001). The SERPINA1 Z allele was associated with a random-effects odds ratio of 1.43 for COPD (95% confidence interval = 1.17-1.74), though with marked heterogeneity across studies. Overall, COPD-associated exonic variants were identified in genes involved in DNA methylation, cell-matrix interactions, cell proliferation, and cell death. In conclusion, we performed the largest exome array meta-analysis of COPD to date and identified potential functional coding variants. Future studies are needed to identify rarer variants and further define the role of coding variants in COPD pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Exoma/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto
7.
Am J Epidemiol ; 190(10): 1977-1992, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861317

RESUMO

Genotype-phenotype association studies often combine phenotype data from multiple studies to increase statistical power. Harmonization of the data usually requires substantial effort due to heterogeneity in phenotype definitions, study design, data collection procedures, and data-set organization. Here we describe a centralized system for phenotype harmonization that includes input from phenotype domain and study experts, quality control, documentation, reproducible results, and data-sharing mechanisms. This system was developed for the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program, which is generating genomic and other -omics data for more than 80 studies with extensive phenotype data. To date, 63 phenotypes have been harmonized across thousands of participants (recruited in 1948-2012) from up to 17 studies per phenotype. Here we discuss challenges in this undertaking and how they were addressed. The harmonized phenotype data and associated documentation have been submitted to National Institutes of Health data repositories for controlled access by the scientific community. We also provide materials to facilitate future harmonization efforts by the community, which include 1) the software code used to generate the 63 harmonized phenotypes, enabling others to reproduce, modify, or extend these harmonizations to additional studies, and 2) the results of labeling thousands of phenotype variables with controlled vocabulary terms.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Fenômica/métodos , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Agregação de Dados , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação , National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.) , Fenótipo , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Estados Unidos
8.
Eur Heart J ; 42(18): 1742-1756, 2021 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33748830

RESUMO

AIMS: Inflammation plays an important role in cardiovascular disease (CVD) development. The NOD-like receptor protein-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome contributes to the development of atherosclerosis in animal models. Components of the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway such as interleukin-1ß can therapeutically be targeted. Associations of genetically determined inflammasome-mediated systemic inflammation with CVD and mortality in humans are unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: We explored the association of genetic NLRP3 variants with prevalent CVD and cardiovascular mortality in 538 167 subjects on the individual participant level in an explorative gene-centric approach without performing multiple testing. Functional relevance of single-nucleotide polymorphisms on NLRP3 inflammasome activation has been evaluated in monocyte-enriched peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Genetic analyses identified the highly prevalent (minor allele frequency 39.9%) intronic NLRP3 variant rs10754555 to affect NLRP3 gene expression. rs10754555 carriers showed significantly higher C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A plasma levels. Carriers of the G allele showed higher NLRP3 inflammasome activation in isolated human PBMCs. In carriers of the rs10754555 variant, the prevalence of coronary artery disease was significantly higher as compared to non-carriers with a significant interaction between rs10754555 and age. Importantly, rs10754555 carriers had significantly higher risk for cardiovascular mortality during follow-up. Inflammasome inducers (e.g. urate, triglycerides, apolipoprotein C3) modulated the association between rs10754555 and mortality. CONCLUSION: The NLRP3 intronic variant rs10754555 is associated with increased systemic inflammation, inflammasome activation, prevalent coronary artery disease, and mortality. This study provides evidence for a substantial role of genetically driven systemic inflammation in CVD and highlights the NLRP3 inflammasome as a therapeutic target.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Inflamassomos , Inflamação , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR , Humanos , Inflamassomos/genética , Inflamação/genética , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546147

RESUMO

We investigated interactive roles of three metabolic glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes (GSTP1, GSTT1, and GSTM1) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) status in relation to blood Hg concentrations (BHC) of Jamaican children. We used data from 266 children (2-8 years) with ASD and their 1:1 age- and sex-matched typically developing (TD) controls. After adjusting General Linear Models for child's age, socioeconomic status, consumption of leafy vegetables, fried plantain, canned fish, and the interaction between GSTP1 and GSTT1, we found significant interactions between GSTP1 and ASD status in relation to BHC either in a co-dominant or dominant genetic model for GSTP1(P < 0.001, P = 0.007, respectively). In the co-dominant model for the Ile105Val GSTP1 polymorphism, geometric mean (GM) BHC in ASD cases with genotype Ile/Ile were significantly higher than in cases with the Ile/Val genotype (0.73 vs. 0.48 µg/L, P = 0.01). In contrast, in TD controls with the Ile/Val genotype GM BHC were significantly higher than in those with the Ile/Ile genotype (0.72 vs. 0.49 µg/L, P = 0.03) or the Val/Val genotype (0.72 vs. 0.51 µg/L, P = 0.04). Although our findings are consistent with the role of GSTP1 in detoxification of Hg, replication in other populations is warranted.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Mercúrio , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Glutationa S-Transferase pi/genética , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo Genético , Fatores de Risco
10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 654, 2021 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33510174

RESUMO

Low muscle strength is an important heritable indicator of poor health linked to morbidity and mortality in older people. In a genome-wide association study meta-analysis of 256,523 Europeans aged 60 years and over from 22 cohorts we identify 15 loci associated with muscle weakness (European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People definition: n = 48,596 cases, 18.9% of total), including 12 loci not implicated in previous analyses of continuous measures of grip strength. Loci include genes reportedly involved in autoimmune disease (HLA-DQA1 p = 4 × 10-17), arthritis (GDF5 p = 4 × 10-13), cell cycle control and cancer protection, regulation of transcription, and others involved in the development and maintenance of the musculoskeletal system. Using Mendelian randomization we report possible overlapping causal pathways, including diabetes susceptibility, haematological parameters, and the immune system. We conclude that muscle weakness in older adults has distinct mechanisms from continuous strength, including several pathways considered to be hallmarks of ageing.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Debilidade Muscular/genética , Sarcopenia/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Fator 5 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/genética , Cadeias alfa de HLA-DQ/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular/genética , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Debilidade Muscular/fisiopatologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sarcopenia/fisiopatologia
11.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 51(6): 1953-1965, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892263

RESUMO

Using data from 266 age- and sex-matched pairs of Jamaican children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typically developing (TD) controls (2-8 years), we investigated whether glutathione S-transferase theta 1 (GSTT1) modifies the association between blood manganese concentrations (BMC) and ASD. After adjusting conditional logistic regression models for socioeconomic status and the interaction between GSTT1 and GSTP1 (glutathione S-transferase pi 1), using a recessive genetic model for GSTT1 and either a co-dominant or dominant model for GSTP1, the interaction between GSTT1 and BMC was significant (P = 0.02, P = 0.01, respectively). Compared to controls, ASD cases with GSTT1-DD genotype had 4.33 and 4.34 times higher odds of BMC > 12 vs. ≤ 8.3 µg/L, respectively. Replication in other populations is warranted.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/sangue , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Manganês/sangue , Afro-Americanos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Glutationa S-Transferase pi , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo Genético
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193808

RESUMO

Background: Exposure to many environmental chemicals, including metals, often does not occur in isolation, hence requires assessment of the associations between exposure to mixtures of chemicals and human health. Objectives: To investigate associations of a metal mixture of lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn), and aluminum (Al) in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), additively or interactively with each of three glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes (GSTP1, GSTT1, and GSTM1). Method: Using data from 266 case-control pairs of Jamaican children (2-8 years old), we fitted negative and positive generalized weighted quantile sum (gWQS) regression models to assess the aforementioned associations. Results: Based on additive and interactive negative gWQS models adjusted for maternal age, parental education, child's parish, and seafood consumption, we found inverse associations of the overall mixture score with ASD [MOR (95% CI): 0.70 (0.49, 0.99); P < 0.05) and [MOR (95%CI): 0.46 (0.25, 0.84); P = 0.01], respectively. In an unadjusted negative gWQS model, we found a marginally significant interaction between GSTP1 and a mixture of three metals (Pb, Hg, and Mn) (P = 0.07) while the association was no longer significant after adjustment for the same covariates (P = 0.24). Conclusions: Differences in diet between ASD and control groups may play a role in the inverse associations we found. The possible interactive association between Mn and GSTP1 in ASD based on gWQS is consistent with our previous reports. However, possible interaction of GSTP1 with Pb and Hg in ASD requires further investigation and replication.

14.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(5): 849-863, 2020 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031748

RESUMO

Variation in levels of the human metabolome reflect changes in homeostasis, providing a window into health and disease. The genetic impact on circulating metabolites in Hispanics, a population with high cardiometabolic disease burden, is largely unknown. We conducted genome-wide association analyses on 640 circulating metabolites in 3,926 Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos participants. The estimated heritability for 640 metabolites ranged between 0%-54% with a median at 2.5%. We discovered 46 variant-metabolite pairs (p value < 1.2 × 10-10, minor allele frequency ≥ 1%, proportion of variance explained [PEV] mean = 3.4%, PEVrange = 1%-22%) with generalized effects in two population-based studies and confirmed 301 known locus-metabolite associations. Half of the identified variants with generalized effect were located in genes, including five nonsynonymous variants. We identified co-localization with the expression quantitative trait loci at 105 discovered and 151 known loci-metabolites sets. rs5855544, upstream of SLC51A, was associated with higher levels of three steroid sulfates and co-localized with expression levels of SLC51A in several tissues. Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis identified several metabolites associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) and type 2 diabetes. For example, two variants located in or near CYP4F2 (rs2108622 and rs79400241, respectively), involved in vitamin E metabolism, were associated with the levels of octadecanedioate and vitamin E metabolites (gamma-CEHC and gamma-CEHC glucuronide); MR analysis showed that genetically high levels of these metabolites were associated with lower odds of CHD. Our findings document the genetic architecture of circulating metabolites in an underrepresented Hispanic/Latino community, shedding light on disease etiology.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma Humano , Metaboloma/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Adulto , Cromanos/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Doença das Coronárias/diagnóstico , Doença das Coronárias/etnologia , Doença das Coronárias/metabolismo , Família 4 do Citocromo P450/genética , Família 4 do Citocromo P450/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Propionatos/metabolismo , Saúde Pública , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Vitamina E/metabolismo
15.
Epigenomics ; 12(17): 1483-1499, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901515

RESUMO

Aim: We conducted a methylome-wide association study to examine associations between DNA methylation in whole blood and central adiposity and body fat distribution, measured as waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and waist-to-height ratio adjusted for body mass index, in 2684 African-American adults in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. Materials & methods: We validated significantly associated cytosine-phosphate-guanine methylation sites (CpGs) among adults using the Women's Health Initiative and Framingham Heart Study participants (combined n = 5743) and generalized associations in adolescents from The Raine Study (n = 820). Results & conclusion: We identified 11 CpGs that were robustly associated with one or more central adiposity trait in adults and two in adolescents, including CpG site associations near TXNIP, ADCY7, SREBF1 and RAP1GAP2 that had not previously been associated with obesity-related traits.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/genética , Metilação de DNA , Sistema Endócrino/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Epigenômica , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Ilhas de CpG , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Epigenômica/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo
16.
Genome Med ; 12(1): 84, 2020 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNA-CN) has been associated with a variety of aging-related diseases, including all-cause mortality. However, the mechanism by which mtDNA-CN influences disease is not currently understood. One such mechanism may be through regulation of nuclear gene expression via the modification of nuclear DNA (nDNA) methylation. METHODS: To investigate this hypothesis, we assessed the relationship between mtDNA-CN and nDNA methylation in 2507 African American (AA) and European American (EA) participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. To validate our findings, we assayed an additional 2528 participants from the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) (N = 533) and Framingham Heart Study (FHS) (N = 1995). We further assessed the effect of experimental modification of mtDNA-CN through knockout of TFAM, a regulator of mtDNA replication, via CRISPR-Cas9. RESULTS: Thirty-four independent CpGs were associated with mtDNA-CN at genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10- 8). Meta-analysis across all cohorts identified six mtDNA-CN-associated CpGs at genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10- 8). Additionally, over half of these CpGs were associated with phenotypes known to be associated with mtDNA-CN, including coronary heart disease, cardiovascular disease, and mortality. Experimental modification of mtDNA-CN demonstrated that modulation of mtDNA-CN results in changes in nDNA methylation and gene expression of specific CpGs and nearby transcripts. Strikingly, the "neuroactive ligand receptor interaction" KEGG pathway was found to be highly overrepresented in the ARIC cohort (P = 5.24 × 10- 12), as well as the TFAM knockout methylation (P = 4.41 × 10- 4) and expression (P = 4.30 × 10- 4) studies. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that changes in mtDNA-CN influence nDNA methylation at specific loci and result in differential expression of specific genes that may impact human health and disease via altered cell signaling.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Ilhas de CpG , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Metilação de DNA , DNA Mitocondrial , Mitocôndrias/genética , Estudos Transversais , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Razão de Chances , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prognóstico , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661462

RESUMO

Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine (OC) pesticides are suspected to play a role in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Objectives: To investigate associations of PCBs and OC pesticides with ASD in Jamaican children and explore possible interaction between PCBs or OC pesticides with glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes (GSTT1, GSTM1, GSTP1) in relation to ASD. Methods: Participants included n=169 age- and sex-matched case-control pairs of Jamaican children 2-8 years old. Socioeconomic status and food frequency data were self-reported by the parents/guardians. Blood from each participant was analyzed for 100 PCB congeners and 17 OC pesticides and genotyped for three GST genes. PCBs and OC pesticides concentrations below the limit of detection (LoD) were replaced with (LoD/√2). We used conditional logistic regression (CLR) models to assess associations of PCBs and OC pesticides with ASD, individually or interactively with GST genes (GSTT1, GSTM1, GSTP1). Results: We found inverse associations of PCB-153 [adjusted MOR (95% CI) = 0.44 (0.23-0.86)] and PCB-180 [adjusted MOR (95% CI) = 0.52 (0.28-0.95)] with ASD. When adjusted for covariates in a CLR the interaction between GSTM1 and PCB-153 became significant (P < 0.01). Discussion: Differences in diet between ASD and typically developing control groups may play a role in the observed findings of lower concentrations of PCB-153 and PCB-180 in individuals with ASD than in controls. Considering the limited sample size and high proportion of concentrations below the LoD, these results should be interpreted with caution but warrant further investigation into associations of PCBs and OC pesticides with ASD.

19.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(1): 57-65, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic or pharmacological inhibition of de novo sphingolipid synthases prevented diabetes in animal studies. OBJECTIVES: We sought to evaluate prospective associations of serum sphingolipids with incident diabetes in a population-based cohort. METHODS: We included 2010 participants of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) aged 18-74 y who were free of diabetes and other major chronic diseases at baseline (2008-2011). Metabolomic profiling of fasting serum was performed using a global, untargeted approach. A total of 43 sphingolipids were quantified and, considering subclasses and chemical structures of individual species, 6 sphingolipid scores were constructed. Diabetes status was assessed using standard procedures including blood tests. Multivariable survey Poisson regressions were applied to estimate RR and 95% CI of incident diabetes associated with individual sphingolipids or sphingolipid scores. RESULTS: There were 224 incident cases of diabetes identified during, on average, 6 y of follow-up. After adjustment for socioeconomic and lifestyle factors, a ceramide score (RR Q4 versus Q1 = 2.40; 95% CI: 1.24, 4.65; P-trend = 0.003) and a score of sphingomyelins with fully saturated sphingoid-fatty acid pairs (RR Q4 versus Q1 = 3.15; 95% CI: 1.75, 5.67; P-trend <0.001) both were positively associated with risk of diabetes, whereas scores of glycosylceramides, lactosylceramides, or other unsaturated sphingomyelins (even if having an SFA base) were not associated with risk of diabetes. After additional adjustment for numerous traditional risk factors (especially triglycerides), both associations were attenuated and only the saturated-sphingomyelin score remained associated with risk of diabetes (RR Q4 versus Q1 = 1.98; 95% CI: 1.09, 3.59; P-trend = 0.031). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that a cluster of saturated sphingomyelins may be associated with elevated risk of diabetes beyond traditional risk factors, which needs to be verified in other population studies. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02060344.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/etnologia , Esfingolipídeos/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Hum Mol Genet ; 29(11): 1922-1932, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32436959

RESUMO

Hundreds of loci have been associated with blood pressure (BP) traits from many genome-wide association studies. We identified an enrichment of these loci in aorta and tibial artery expression quantitative trait loci in our previous work in ~100 000 Genetic Epidemiology Research on Aging study participants. In the present study, we sought to fine-map known loci and identify novel genes by determining putative regulatory regions for these and other tissues relevant to BP. We constructed maps of putative cis-regulatory elements (CREs) using publicly available open chromatin data for the heart, aorta and tibial arteries, and multiple kidney cell types. Variants within these regions may be evaluated quantitatively for their tissue- or cell-type-specific regulatory impact using deltaSVM functional scores, as described in our previous work. We aggregate variants within these putative CREs within 50 Kb of the start or end of 'expressed' genes in these tissues or cell types using public expression data and use deltaSVM scores as weights in the group-wise sequence kernel association test to identify candidates. We test for association with both BP traits and expression within these tissues or cell types of interest and identify the candidates MTHFR, C10orf32, CSK, NOV, ULK4, SDCCAG8, SCAMP5, RPP25, HDGFRP3, VPS37B and PPCDC. Additionally, we examined two known QT interval genes, SCN5A and NOS1AP, in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, as a positive control, and observed the expected heart-specific effect. Thus, our method identifies variants and genes for further functional testing using tissue- or cell-type-specific putative regulatory information.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/genética , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico/genética , Aorta/fisiopatologia , Aterosclerose/fisiopatologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Cromatina , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Rim/fisiopatologia , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Artérias da Tíbia/fisiopatologia
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