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1.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727850

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: GSTM1 encodes glutathione S-transferase µ-1 (GSTM1), which belongs to a superfamily of phase 2 antioxidant enzymes. The highly prevalent GSTM1 deletion variant is associated with kidney disease progression in human cohorts: the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension and the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. METHODS: We generated a Gstm1 knockout mouse line to study its role in a CKD model (involving subtotal nephrectomy) and a hypertension model (induced by angiotensin II). We examined the effect of intake of cruciferous vegetables and GSTM1 genotypes on kidney disease in mice as well as in human ARIC study participants. We also examined the importance of superoxide in the mediating pathways and of hematopoietic GSTM1 on renal inflammation. RESULTS: Gstm1 knockout mice displayed increased oxidative stress, kidney injury, and inflammation in both models. The central mechanism for kidney injury is likely mediated by oxidative stress, because treatment with Tempol, an superoxide dismutase mimetic, rescued kidney injury in knockout mice without lowering BP. Bone marrow crosstransplantation revealed that Gstm1 deletion in the parenchyma, and not in bone marrow-derived cells, drives renal inflammation. Furthermore, supplementation with cruciferous broccoli powder rich in the precursor to antioxidant-activating sulforaphane significantly ameliorated kidney injury in Gstm1 knockout, but not wild-type mice. Similarly, among humans (ARIC study participants), high consumption of cruciferous vegetables was associated with fewer kidney failure events compared with low consumption, but this association was observed primarily in participants homozygous for the GSTM1 deletion variant. CONCLUSIONS: Our data support a role for the GSTM1 enzyme in the modulation of oxidative stress, inflammation, and protective metabolites in CKD.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630168

RESUMO

Methylation levels measured at defined sites across the genome have recently been shown to be correlated with an individual's chronological age. Age acceleration, or the difference between age estimated from DNA methylation status and chronological age, has been proposed as a novel biomarker of aging. In this study, the cross-sectional association between two different measures of age acceleration and cognitive function was investigated using whole blood samples from 2,157 African-American participants 47-70 years of age in the population-based Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Cognition was evaluated using three domain-specific tests. A significant inverse association between a one-year increase in age acceleration calculated using a blood-based age predictor and scores on the Word Fluency Test was found using a general linear model adjusted for chronological age, gender, and years of education (ß = -0.140 words; p = 0.001) and after adding other potential confounding variables (ß = -0.104 words, p = 0.023). The results were replicated in 1,670 European participants in the Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (fully adjusted model: ß = -0.199 words; p = 0.034). A significant association was also identified in a trans-ethnic meta-analysis across cohorts that included an additional 708 European American ARIC study participants (fully adjusted model: ß = -0.110 words, p = 0.003). There were no associations found using an estimate of age acceleration derived from multiple tissues. These findings provide evidence that age acceleration is a correlate of performance on a test of verbal fluency in middle-aged adults.

3.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538260

RESUMO

Mode of delivery, preterm birth, and low birth weight (LBW) are hypothesized to be associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the offspring. Using data from 343 ASD cases (2-8 years) and their age- and sex-matched typically developing controls in Jamaica we investigated these hypotheses. Our statistical analyses revealed that the parish of residence could modify the association between cesarean delivery and ASD, with a difference found in this relationship in Kingston parish [matched odds ratio (MOR) (95% confidence interval (CI)) 2.30 (1.17-4.53)] and other parishes [MOR (95% CI) 0.87 (0.48-1.59)]. Although the associations of LBW and preterm birth with ASD were not significant, we observed a significant interaction between LBW and the household socioeconomic status. These findings require replication.

4.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0221957, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532792

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension (HTN) disproportionately affects African Americans (AAs), who respond better to thiazide diuretics than other antihypertensives. Variants of the APOL1 gene found in AAs are associated with a higher rate of kidney disease and play a complex role in cardiovascular disease. METHODS: AA subjects from four HTN trials (n = 961) (GERA1, GERA2, PEAR1, and PEAR2) were evaluated for blood pressure (BP) response based on APOL1 genotype after 4-9 weeks of monotherapy with thiazides, beta blockers, or candesartan. APOL1 G1 and G2 variants were determined by direct sequencing or imputation. RESULTS: Baseline systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) levels did not differ based on APOL1 genotype. Subjects with 1-2 APOL1 risk alleles had a greater SBP response to candesartan (-12.2 +/- 1.2 vs -7.5 +/- 1.8 mmHg, p = 0.03; GERA2), and a greater decline in albuminuria with candesartan (-8.3 +/- 3.1 vs +3.7 +/- 4.3 mg/day, p = 0.02). APOL1 genotype did not associate with BP response to thiazides or beta blockers. GWAS was performed to determine associations with BP response to candesartan depending on APOL1 genotype. While no SNPs reached genome wide significance, SNP rs10113352, intronic in CSMD1, predicted greater office SBP response to candesartan (p = 3.7 x 10-7) in those with 1-2 risk alleles, while SNP rs286856, intronic in DPP6, predicted greater office SBP response (p = 3.2 x 10-7) in those with 0 risk alleles. CONCLUSIONS: Hypertensive AAs without overt kidney disease who carry 1 or more APOL1 risk variants have a greater BP and albuminuria reduction in response to candesartan therapy. BP response to thiazides or beta blockers did not differ by APOL1 genotype. Future studies confirming this initial finding in an independent cohort are required.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261817

RESUMO

Environmental exposure to lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn), and aluminum (Al) has been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We conducted a pilot study during May 2015-May 2107 to estimate blood concentrations of six metals (Pb, Hg, As, Cd, Mn, and Al) and identify their associated factors for children with ASD or suspected of having ASD in Romania. Sixty children, age 2-8 years, were administered versions of ADOS or ADI-R translated from English to Romanian. After assessment, 2-3 mL of blood was obtained and analyzed for the concentrations of the six metals. The mean age of children was 51.9 months and about 90% were male. More than half (65%) of the children were born in Bucharest. Over 90% of concentrations of As and Cd were below limits of detection. Geometric mean concentrations of Pb, Mn, Al, and Hg were 1.14 µg/dL, 10.84 µg/L, 14.44 µg/L, and 0.35 µg/L, respectively. Multivariable linear regression analysis revealed that children who were female, had less educated parents, exhibited pica, and ate cold breakfast (e.g., cereal), watermelon, and lamb had significantly higher concentrations of Pb compared to their respective referent categories (all p < 0.05 except for eating lamb, which was marginally significant, p = 0.053). Although this is the first study that provides data on concentrations of the six metals for Romanian children with ASD, the findings from this study could be useful for designing future epidemiologic studies for investigating the role of these six metals in ASD in Romanian children.

6.
Biom J ; 61(4): 934-954, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31058353

RESUMO

A weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression has been used to assess the associations between environmental exposures and health outcomes. However, the currently available WQS approach, which is based on additive effects, does not allow exploring for potential interactions of exposures with other covariates in relation to a health outcome. In addition, the current WQS cannot account for clustering, thus it may not be valid for analysis of clustered data. We propose a generalized WQS approach that can assess interactions by estimating stratum-specific weights of exposures in a mixture, while accounting for potential clustering effect of matched pairs of cases and controls as well as censored exposure data due to being below the limits of detection. The performance of the proposed method in identifying interactions is evaluated through simulations based on various scenarios of correlation structures among the exposures and with an outcome. We also assess how well the proposed method performs in the presence of the varying levels of censoring in exposures. Our findings from the simulation study show that the proposed method outperforms the traditional WQS, as indicated by higher power of detecting interactions. We also find no strong evidence that the proposed method falsely identifies interactions when there are no true interactive effects. We demonstrate application of the proposed method to real data from the Epidemiological Research on Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in Jamaica (ERAJ) by examining interactions between exposure to manganese and glutathione S-transferase family gene, GSTP1 in relation to ASD.

7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(22): 10636-10645, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068470

RESUMO

The rationale for genome-wide association study (GWAS) results is sequence variation in cis-regulatory elements (CREs) modulating a target gene's expression as the major cause of trait variation. To understand the complete molecular landscape of one of these GWAS loci, we performed in vitro reporter screens in cardiomyocyte cell lines for CREs overlapping nearly all common variants associated with any of five independent QT interval (QTi)-associated GWAS hits at the SCN5A-SCN10A locus. We identified 13 causal CRE variants using allelic reporter activity, cardiomyocyte nuclear extract-based binding assays, overlap with human cardiac tissue DNaseI hypersensitive regions, and predicted impact of sequence variants on DNaseI sensitivity. Our analyses identified at least one high-confidence causal CRE variant for each of the five sentinel hits that could collectively predict SCN5A cardiac gene expression and QTi association. Although all 13 variants could explain SCN5A gene expression, the highest statistical significance was obtained with seven variants (inclusive of the five above). Thus, multiple, causal, mutually associated CRE variants can underlie GWAS signals.

8.
Hum Mol Genet ; 28(7): 1212-1224, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30624610

RESUMO

Interpretation of genetic association results is difficult because signals often lack biological context. To generate hypotheses of the functional genetic etiology of complex cardiometabolic traits, we estimated the genetically determined component of gene expression from common variants using PrediXcan (1) and determined genes with differential predicted expression by trait. PrediXcan imputes tissue-specific expression levels from genetic variation using variant-level effect on gene expression in transcriptome data. To explore the value of imputed genetically regulated gene expression (GReX) models across different ancestral populations, we evaluated imputed expression levels for predictive accuracy genome-wide in RNA sequence data in samples drawn from European-ancestry and African-ancestry populations and identified substantial predictive power using European-derived models in a non-European target population. We then tested the association of GReX on 15 cardiometabolic traits including blood lipid levels, body mass index, height, blood pressure, fasting glucose and insulin, RR interval, fibrinogen level, factor VII level and white blood cell and platelet counts in 15 755 individuals across three ancestry groups, resulting in 20 novel gene-phenotype associations reaching experiment-wide significance across ancestries. In addition, we identified 18 significant novel gene-phenotype associations in our ancestry-specific analyses. Top associations were assessed for additional support via query of S-PrediXcan (2) results derived from publicly available genome-wide association studies summary data. Collectively, these findings illustrate the utility of transcriptome-based imputation models for discovery of cardiometabolic effect genes in a diverse dataset.


Assuntos
Previsões/métodos , Metaboloma/genética , Metaboloma/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Transcriptoma/genética
9.
Hypertension ; 73(1): 68-74, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30571559

RESUMO

H63D has been identified as a novel locus associated with the development of hypertension. The quantitative risks for hypertension, cardiac remodeling, and adverse events are not well studied. We analyzed white participants from the ARIC study (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) with H63D genotyping (N=10 902). We related genotype status to prevalence of hypertension at each of 5 study visits and risk for adverse cardiovascular events. Among visit 5 participants (N=4507), we related genotype status to echocardiographic features. Frequencies of wild type (WT)/WT, H63D/WT, and H63D/H63D were 73%, 24.6%, and 2.4%. The average age at baseline was 54.9±5.7 years and 47% were men. Participants carrying the H63D variant had higher systolic blood pressure ( P=0.004), diastolic blood pressure (0.012), and more frequently had hypertension ( P<0.001). Compared with WT/WT, H63D/WT and H63D/H63D participants had a 2% to 4% and 4% to 7% absolute increase in hypertension risk at each visit, respectively. The population attributable risk of H63D for hypertension among individuals aged 45 to 64 was 3.2% (95% CI, 1.3-5.1%) and 1.3% (95% CI, 0.0-2.4%) among individuals >65 years. After 25 years of follow-up, there was no relationship between genotype status and any outcome ( P>0.05). H63D/WT and H63D/H63D genotypes were associated with small differences in cardiac remodeling. In conclusion, the HFE H63D variant confers an increased risk for hypertension per allele and, given its frequency, accounts for a significant number of cases of hypertension. However, there was no increased risk for adverse cardiovascular events or substantial left ventricular remodeling.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Proteína da Hemocromatose/genética , Hipertensão , Remodelação Ventricular/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Ecocardiografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Polimorfismo Genético , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Wellcome Open Res ; 3: 4, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30175238

RESUMO

Background: Over 90 regions of the genome have been associated with lung function to date, many of which have also been implicated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Methods: We carried out meta-analyses of exome array data and three lung function measures: forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and the ratio of FEV 1 to FVC (FEV 1/FVC). These analyses by the SpiroMeta and CHARGE consortia included 60,749 individuals of European ancestry from 23 studies, and 7,721 individuals of African Ancestry from 5 studies in the discovery stage, with follow-up in up to 111,556 independent individuals. Results: We identified significant (P<2·8x10 -7) associations with six SNPs: a nonsynonymous variant in RPAP1, which is predicted to be damaging, three intronic SNPs ( SEC24C, CASC17 and UQCC1) and two intergenic SNPs near to LY86 and FGF10. Expression quantitative trait loci analyses found evidence for regulation of gene expression at three signals and implicated several genes, including TYRO3 and PLAU. Conclusions: Further interrogation of these loci could provide greater understanding of the determinants of lung function and pulmonary disease.

11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(33): e11865, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30113482

RESUMO

Rare variants, in particular renal salt handling genes, contribute to monogenic forms of hypertension and hypotension syndromes with electrolyte abnormalities. A study by Ji et al (2008) demonstrated this effect for rare loss-of-function coding variants in SLC12A3 (NCCT), SLC12A1 (NKCC2), and KCNJ1 (ROMK) that led to reduction of ∼6 mm Hg for SBP and ∼3 mm Hg for DBP among carriers in 2492 European ancestry Framingham Heart Study (FHS) subjects. These findings support a potentially large role for these variants in interindividual variation in systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP) in the population. The present study focuses on replicating the analyses completed by Ji et al to identify effects of rare variants in the population-based Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study.We attempted to replicate the findings by Ji et al by applying their criteria to identify putative loss-of-function variants with allele frequency <0.001 and complete conservation across a set of orthologs, to exome sequencing data from 7444 European ancestry participants of the ARIC study.Although we failed to replicate the previous findings when applying their methods to the ARIC study data, we observed a similar effect when we restricted analyses to the subset of variants they observed.These results simultaneously support the utility of exome sequencing data for studying extremely rare coding variants in hypertension and underscore the need for improved filtering methods for identifying functional variants in human sequences.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/genética , Hipotensão/genética , Canais de Potássio Corretores do Fluxo de Internalização/genética , Membro 1 da Família 12 de Carreador de Soluto/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Membro 3 da Família 12 de Carreador de Soluto/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
12.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 356: 44-53, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30031762

RESUMO

Anthracyclines, such as doxorubicin, are highly effective chemotherapeutic agents, yet are associated with increased risk of cardiotoxicity. The genes and pathways involved in the development of heart damage following doxorubicin exposure in humans remain elusive. Our objective was to explore time- and dose-dependent changes in gene expression via RNA sequence (RNAseq) that mediate doxorubicin response in human iPSC-cardiomyocytes following 50, 150, or 450 nM exposure for 2, 7, or 12 days. Clustering and differential expression analyses were conducted to identify genes with altered expression. Samples clustered in dose and time-dependent manners, and MCM5, PRC1, NUSAP1, CENPF, CCNB1, MELK, AURKB, and RACGAP1 were consistently significantly differentially expressed between untreated and treated conditions. These genes were also significantly downregulated in pairwise analyses, which was validated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Pathway analysis identified the top canonical pathways involved in response, implicating DNA damage repair response and the cell cycle as having roles in the development of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in the human cardiomyocyte.

13.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 48(8): 2766-2778, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29549549

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with poorly understood etiology. Many maternal exposures during pregnancy and breastfeeding potentially interfere with neurodevelopment. Using data from two age- and sex-matched case-control studies in Jamaica (n = 298 pairs), results of conditional logistic regression analyses suggest that maternal exposures to fever or infection (matched odds ratio (MOR) = 3.12, 95% CI 1.74-5.60), physical trauma (MOR 2.02, 95% CI 1.01-4.05), and oil-based paints (MOR 1.99, 95% CI 1.14-3.46) may be associated with ASD. Additionally, maternal exposure to oil-based paints may modify the relationship between maternal exposure to pesticides and ASD, which deepens our understanding of the association between pesticides and ASD.

14.
J Clin Invest ; 128(3): 1106-1124, 2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29457790

RESUMO

Intake of hemoglobin by the hemoglobin-haptoglobin receptor CD163 leads to a distinct alternative non-foam cell antiinflammatory macrophage phenotype that was previously considered atheroprotective. Here, we reveal an unexpected but important pathogenic role for these macrophages in atherosclerosis. Using human atherosclerotic samples, cultured cells, and a mouse model of advanced atherosclerosis, we investigated the role of intraplaque hemorrhage on macrophage function with respect to angiogenesis, vascular permeability, inflammation, and plaque progression. In human atherosclerotic lesions, CD163+ macrophages were associated with plaque progression, microvascularity, and a high level of HIF1α and VEGF-A expression. We observed irregular vascular endothelial cadherin in intraplaque microvessels surrounded by CD163+ macrophages. Within these cells, activation of HIF1α via inhibition of prolyl hydroxylases promoted VEGF-mediated increases in intraplaque angiogenesis, vascular permeability, and inflammatory cell recruitment. CD163+ macrophages increased intraplaque endothelial VCAM expression and plaque inflammation. Subjects with homozygous minor alleles of the SNP rs7136716 had elevated microvessel density, increased expression of CD163 in ruptured coronary plaques, and a higher risk of myocardial infarction and coronary heart disease in population cohorts. Thus, our findings highlight a nonlipid-driven mechanism by which alternative macrophages promote plaque angiogenesis, leakiness, inflammation, and progression via the CD163/HIF1α/VEGF-A pathway.

15.
Biol Res Nurs ; 20(2): 168-176, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29298497

RESUMO

Depressive symptoms independently contribute to major adverse coronary events (MACEs), with the biological immune response to depression being a likely mediator of this relationship. To determine whether genetic- and/or gender-specific phenotypic differences contribute to associations among depressive symptoms, inflammatory response, and risk of MACE in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), we conducted a prospective study of 1,117 ACS patients to test a gender-specific model in which depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory-II [BDI-II]) are associated with risk of MACE. Cox proportional hazards models were used to model time to incident MACE and determine whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in specific inflammatory protein-coding genes and depressive symptoms interact to influence levels of inflammatory proteins or risk of MACE. Females had significantly higher high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 levels. Depression status differed by gender (29.9% of females and 21.1% of males had BDI-II scores indicative of depression [ p = .0014]). Depressive symptoms were associated with MACE; however, the interaction between these symptoms and gender was not significant. SNPs and depressive symptoms did not interact to influence inflammation or MACE. More females than males had BDI-II scores indicative of depression, yet the association between positive depressive symptom status and MACE did not vary by gender. Nor did the SNPs interact with depressive symptoms to influence inflammation or MACE. It remains of interest to identify a high-risk subgroup of ACS patients with genetic polymorphisms that result in immunoinflammatory dysregulation in the presence of depressive symptoms.

16.
Hum Genet ; 137(1): 85-94, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29264654

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to identify microRNA (miRNA) related polymorphism, including single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in mature miRNA-encoding sequences or in miRNA-target sites, and their association with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in African-American population. To achieve our objective, we examined 1900 African-Americans from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study using SNVs identified from whole-genome sequencing data. A total of 971 SNVs found in 726 different mature miRNA-encoding sequences and 16,057 SNVs found in the three prime untranslated region (3'UTR) of 3647 protein-coding genes were identified and interrogated their associations with 17 CVD risk factors. Using single-variant-based approach, we found 5 SNVs in miRNA-encoding sequences to be associated with serum Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], high-density lipoprotein (HDL) or triglycerides, and 2 SNVs in miRNA-target sites to be associated with Lp(a) and HDL, all with false discovery rates of 5%. Using a gene-based approach, we identified 3 pairs of associations between gene NSD1 and platelet count, gene HSPA4L and cardiac troponin T, and gene AHSA2 and magnesium. We successfully validated the association between a variant specific to African-American population, NR_039880.1:n.18A>C, in mature hsa-miR-4727-5p encoding sequence and serum HDL level in an independent sample of 2135 African-Americans. Our study provided candidate miRNAs and their targets for further investigation of their potential contribution to ethnic disparities in CVD risk factors.

17.
Atherosclerosis ; 268: 12-18, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29169030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Results from prospective studies evaluating the relationship between elevated lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) activity and incident peripheral arterial disease (PAD) have been mixed. We investigated whether higher Lp-PLA2 levels are associated with increased risk of incident PAD and whether PLA2G7 gene variants, which result in lower Lp-PLA2 levels, are associated with reduced risk of incident PAD. METHODS: Our analysis included 9922 participants (56% female; 21% African-American; mean age 63 years) without baseline PAD at ARIC Visit 4 (1996-1998), who had Lp-PLA2 activity measured and were subsequently followed for the development of PAD, defined by occurrence of a PAD-related hospitalization, through 2012. Cox proportional hazard models were performed to determine the association of Lp-PLA2 levels and PLA2G7 gene variants with incident PAD. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 14.9 years, we identified 756 incident cases of PAD. In analyses adjusting for age, race, and sex, each standard deviation increment in Lp-PLA2 activity (62 nmol/ml/min) was associated with a higher risk of developing PAD (hazard ratio (HR) 1.17; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09, 1.26). This association remained significant after additional adjustment for risk factors, other cardiovascular disease, and medication use, but was strongly attenuated (HR: 1.09; 95% CI 1.00, 1.20). PLA2G7 variants were not associated with a lower risk of PAD in both white carriers (HR: 1.21; 95% CI: 0.17-8.56) and African-American carriers (HR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.41-1.67), although statistical power was quite limited for this analysis, particularly in whites. CONCLUSIONS: While higher Lp-PLA2 activity was associated with an increased risk for incident PAD, it is likely a risk marker largely represented by traditional risk factors.

18.
Circ Cardiovasc Genet ; 10(5)2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29030403

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have recently identified >400 loci that harbor DNA sequence variants that influence blood pressure (BP). Our earlier studies identified and validated 56 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) associated with BP from meta-analyses of exome chip genotype data. An additional 100 variants yielded suggestive evidence of association. METHODS AND RESULTS: Here, we augment the sample with 140 886 European individuals from the UK Biobank, in whom 77 of the 100 suggestive SNVs were available for association analysis with systolic BP or diastolic BP or pulse pressure. We performed 2 meta-analyses, one in individuals of European, South Asian, African, and Hispanic descent (pan-ancestry, ≈475 000), and the other in the subset of individuals of European descent (≈423 000). Twenty-one SNVs were genome-wide significant (P<5×10-8) for BP, of which 4 are new BP loci: rs9678851 (missense, SLC4A1AP), rs7437940 (AFAP1), rs13303 (missense, STAB1), and rs1055144 (7p15.2). In addition, we identified a potentially independent novel BP-associated SNV, rs3416322 (missense, SYNPO2L) at a known locus, uncorrelated with the previously reported SNVs. Two SNVs are associated with expression levels of nearby genes, and SNVs at 3 loci are associated with other traits. One SNV with a minor allele frequency <0.01, (rs3025380 at DBH) was genome-wide significant. CONCLUSIONS: We report 4 novel loci associated with BP regulation, and 1 independent variant at an established BP locus. This analysis highlights several candidate genes with variation that alter protein function or gene expression for potential follow-up.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Loci Gênicos , Antiporters/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais/genética , Bases de Dados Factuais , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores de Retorno de Linfócitos/genética
19.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2(11): 1247-1255, 2017 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29049454

RESUMO

Importance: Mitochondrial dysfunction is a core component of the aging process and may play a key role in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNA-CN), which represents the number of mitochondria per cell and number of mitochondrial genomes per mitochondrion, is an indirect biomarker of mitochondrial function. Objective: To determine whether mtDNA-CN, measured in an easily accessible tissue (buffy coat/circulating leukocytes), can improve risk classification for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and help guide initiation of statin therapy for primary prevention of CVD. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective, population-based cohort analysis including 21 870 participants (20 163 free from CVD at baseline) from 3 studies: Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS), Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC), and Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). The mean follow-up was 13.5 years. The study included 11 153 participants from ARIC, 4830 from CHS, and 5887 from MESA. Analysis of the data was conducted from March 10, 2014, to January 29, 2017. Exposures: Mitochondrial DNA-CN measured from buffy coat/circulating leukocytes. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incident CVD, which combines coronary heart disease, defined as the first incident myocardial infarction or death owing to coronary heart disease, and stroke, defined as the first nonfatal stroke or death owing to stroke. Results: Of the 21 870 participants, the mean age was 62.4 years (ARIC, 57.9 years; MESA, 62.4 years; and CHS, 72.5 years), and 54.7% of participants were women. The hazard ratios for incident coronary heart disease, stroke, and CVD associated with a 1-SD decrease in mtDNA-CN were 1.29 (95% CI, 1.24-1.33), 1.11 (95% CI, 1.06-1.16), and 1.23 (95% CI, 1.19-1.26). The associations persisted after adjustment for traditional CVD risk factors. Addition of mtDNA-CN to the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Pooled Cohorts Equations for estimating 10-year hard atherosclerosis CVD risk was associated with improved risk classification (continuous net reclassification index, 0.194; 95% CI, 0.130-0.258; P < .001). Mitochondrial DNA-CN further improved sensitivity and specificity for the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association recommendations on initiating statin therapy for primary prevention of ASCVD (net 221 individuals appropriately downclassified and net 15 individuals appropriately upclassified). Conclusions and Relevance: Mitochondrial DNA-CN was independently associated with incident CVD in 3 large prospective studies and may have potential clinical utility in improving CVD risk classification.

20.
Eur Heart J ; 38(46): 3443-3448, 2017 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29020391

RESUMO

Aims: Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a major public health burden. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in a wide range of cardiovascular diseases including cardiomyopathy, heart failure, and arrhythmias, but it is unknown if it also contributes to SCD risk. We sought to examine the prospective association between mtDNA copy number (mtDNA-CN), a surrogate marker of mitochondrial function, and SCD risk. Methods and results: We measured baseline mtDNA-CN in 11 093 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. mtDNA copy number was calculated from probe intensities of mitochondrial single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on the Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 6.0. Sudden cardiac death was defined as a sudden pulseless condition presumed due to a ventricular tachyarrhythmia in a previously stable individual without evidence of a non-cardiac cause of cardiac arrest. Sudden cardiac death cases were reviewed and adjudicated by an expert committee. During a median follow-up of 20.4 years, we observed 361 SCD cases. After adjusting for age, race, sex, and centre, the hazard ratio for SCD comparing the 1st to the 5th quintiles of mtDNA-CN was 2.24 (95% confidence interval 1.58-3.19; P-trend <0.001). When further adjusting for traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors, prevalent coronary heart disease, heart rate, QT interval, and QRS duration, the association remained statistically significant. Spline regression models showed that the association was approximately linear over the range of mtDNA-CN values. No apparent interaction by race or by sex was detected. Conclusion: In this community-based prospective study, mtDNA-CN in peripheral blood was inversely associated with the risk of SCD.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/fisiologia , DNA Mitocondrial/fisiologia , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/etiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
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