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2.
PLoS Genet ; 15(6): e1008202, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31194742

RESUMO

Polygenic risk scores (PRS) are designed to serve as single summary measures that are easy to construct, condensing information from a large number of genetic variants associated with a disease. They have been used for stratification and prediction of disease risk. The primary focus of this paper is to demonstrate how we can combine PRS and electronic health records data to better understand the shared and unique genetic architecture and etiology of disease subtypes that may be both related and heterogeneous. PRS construction strategies often depend on the purpose of the study, the available data/summary estimates, and the underlying genetic architecture of a disease. We consider several choices for constructing a PRS using data obtained from various publicly-available sources including the UK Biobank and evaluate their abilities to predict not just the primary phenotype but also secondary phenotypes derived from electronic health records (EHR). This study was conducted using data from 30,702 unrelated, genotyped patients of recent European descent from the Michigan Genomics Initiative (MGI), a longitudinal biorepository effort within Michigan Medicine. We examine the three most common skin cancer subtypes in the USA: basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma. Using these PRS for various skin cancer subtypes, we conduct a phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) within the MGI data to evaluate PRS associations with secondary traits. PheWAS results are then replicated using population-based UK Biobank data and compared across various PRS construction methods. We develop an accompanying visual catalog called PRSweb that provides detailed PheWAS results and allows users to directly compare different PRS construction methods.

3.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 3(5): 332-342, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30872112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germline variants in the melanocortin 1 receptor gene (MC1R) might increase the risk of childhood and adolescent melanoma, but a clear conclusion is challenging because of the low number of studies and cases. We assessed the association of MC1R variants with childhood and adolescent melanoma in a large study comparing the prevalence of MC1R variants in child or adolescent patients with melanoma to that in adult patients with melanoma and in healthy adult controls. METHODS: In this retrospective pooled analysis, we used the M-SKIP Project, the Italian Melanoma Intergroup, and other European groups (with participants from Australia, Canada, France, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Serbia, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, and the USA) to assemble an international multicentre cohort. We gathered phenotypic and genetic data from children or adolescents diagnosed with sporadic single-primary cutaneous melanoma at age 20 years or younger, adult patients with sporadic single-primary cutaneous melanoma diagnosed at age 35 years or older, and healthy adult individuals as controls. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) for childhood and adolescent melanoma associated with MC1R variants by multivariable logistic regression. Subgroup analysis was done for children aged 18 or younger and 14 years or younger. FINDINGS: We analysed data from 233 young patients, 932 adult patients, and 932 healthy adult controls. Children and adolescents had higher odds of carrying MC1R r variants than did adult patients (OR 1·54, 95% CI 1·02-2·33), including when analysis was restricted to patients aged 18 years or younger (1·80, 1·06-3·07). All investigated variants, except Arg160Trp, tended, to varying degrees, to have higher frequencies in young patients than in adult patients, with significantly higher frequencies found for Val60Leu (OR 1·60, 95% CI 1·05-2·44; p=0·04) and Asp294His (2·15, 1·05-4·40; p=0·04). Compared with those of healthy controls, young patients with melanoma had significantly higher frequencies of any MC1R variants. INTERPRETATION: Our pooled analysis of MC1R genetic data of young patients with melanoma showed that MC1R r variants were more prevalent in childhood and adolescent melanoma than in adult melanoma, especially in patients aged 18 years or younger. Our findings support the role of MC1R in childhood and adolescent melanoma susceptibility, with a potential clinical relevance for developing early melanoma detection and preventive strategies. FUNDING: SPD-Pilot/Project-Award-2015; AIRC-MFAG-11831.

4.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 28(4): 287-293, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30640205

RESUMO

To examine the association between red meat subtypes intake and risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) among Jewish and Arabs populations in a unique Mediterranean environment. The Molecular Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer study (n=10 026) is a prospective population-based case-control study in northern Israel. Participants were interviewed in-person about their dietary intake and lifestyle using a questionnaire that included a food-frequency questionnaire. Red meat consumption in Israel was found to be especially low in the Jewish population (1.29±1.45 servings/week), but higher in Arabs (3.0±1.98 servings/week) (P<0.001). Beef was the most commonly consumed red meat by Jews (1.15/1.29 servings/week, 89%) and proportionally less so by Arabs (2.00/3.00, 67%). Processed meat consumption (mostly pork free) was lower among Arabs (0.9±1.56 servings/week) compared with Jews (1.97±2.97 servings/week) (P<0.001). The adjusted odds of CRC per one serving/week of red meat were 1.05 (95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.08) in Jews and 0.94 (0.88-1.01) in Arabs. Compared with no consumption, beef consumption was associated with odds ratio (OR)=0.96 (0.86-1.07) in Jews and 0.94 (0.61-1.45) in Arabs, lamb consumption with OR=1.28 (1.10-1.5) and 1.01 (0.75-1.37), pork consumption with OR=1.44 (1.24-1.67) and 1.07 (0.73-1.56), and processed meat consumption with OR=1.22 (1.10-1.35) and 1.04 (0.82-1.33) in Jews and Arabs, respectively. Overall red meat consumption was associated weakly with CRC risk, significant only for lamb and pork, but not for beef, irrespective of tumor location. Processed meat was associated with mild CRC risk.

5.
Gastroenterology ; 156(5): 1455-1466, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30529582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have associated approximately 50 loci with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC)-nearly one third of these loci were initially associated with CRC in studies conducted in East Asian populations. We conducted a GWAS of East Asians to identify CRC risk loci and evaluate the generalizability of findings from GWASs of European populations to Asian populations. METHODS: We analyzed genetic data from 22,775 patients with CRC (cases) and 47,731 individuals without cancer (controls) from 14 studies in the Asia Colorectal Cancer Consortium. First, we performed a meta-analysis of 7 GWASs (10,625 cases and 34,595 controls) and identified 46,554 promising risk variants for replication by adding them to the Multi-Ethnic Global Array (MEGA) for genotype analysis in 6445 cases and 7175 controls. These data were analyzed, along with data from an additional 5705 cases and 5961 controls genotyped using the OncoArray. We also obtained data from 57,976 cases and 67,242 controls of European descent. Variants at identified risk loci were functionally annotated and evaluated in correlation with gene expression levels. RESULTS: A meta-analyses of all samples from people of Asian descent identified 13 loci and 1 new variant at a known locus (10q24.2) associated with risk of CRC at the genome-wide significance level of P < 5 × 10-8. We did not perform experiments to replicate these associations in additional individuals of Asian ancestry. However, the lead risk variant in 6 of these loci was also significantly associated with risk of CRC in European descendants. A strong association (44%-75% increase in risk per allele) was found for 2 low-frequency variants: rs201395236 at 1q44 (minor allele frequency, 1.34%) and rs77969132 at 12p11.21 (minor allele frequency, 1.53%). For 8 of the 13 associated loci, the variants with the highest levels of significant association were located inside or near the protein-coding genes L1TD1, EFCAB2, PPP1R21, SLCO2A1, HLA-G, NOTCH4, DENND5B, and GNAS. For other intergenic loci, we provided evidence for the possible involvement of the genes ALDH7A1, PRICKLE1, KLF5, WWOX, and GLP2R. We replicated findings for 41 of 52 previously reported risk loci. CONCLUSIONS: We showed that most of the risk loci previously associated with CRC risk in individuals of European descent were also associated with CRC risk in East Asians. Furthermore, we identified 13 loci significantly associated with risk for CRC in Asians. Many of these loci contained genes that regulate the immune response, Wnt signaling to ß-catenin, prostaglandin E2 catabolism, and cell pluripotency and proliferation. Further analyses of these genes and their variants is warranted, particularly for the 8 loci for which the lead CRC risk variants were not replicated in persons of European descent.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Loci Gênicos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Ásia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/etnologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Fenótipo , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
6.
Melanoma Res ; 29(5): 539-543, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30543563

RESUMO

The oncofetal mRNA-binding protein, IMP1 or insulin-like growth factor-2 mRNA-binding protein 1 (IGF2BP1), promotes the overexpression of several oncogenic proteins by binding to and stabilizing their mRNAs. IMP1 is frequently overexpressed in melanoma and is associated with a poor prognosis, but the full spectrum of IMP1 target transcripts remains unknown. Here, we report the identification of protein kinase C-α (PKCα), as a novel molecular target of IMP1. Overexpression of IMP1 resulted in increased levels of PKCα, while RNAi knockdown of IMP1 resulted in decreased PKCα mRNA stability, PKCα protein levels, and MAPK/ERK activation. In addition to IMP1 acting as a positive regulator of PKCα mRNA, we also report the identification of miR-340 as a negative regulator of PKCα mRNA. In melanoma cancer cells, inhibition of miR-340 led to increased PKCα protein levels. PKCα plays important roles in numerous signaling pathways including the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway. PKCα activates RAF1, which in turn activates MEK1, and activates downstream transcriptional targets of MAPK through activation of JNK signaling. Together, these pathways provide a way to activate MAPK signaling downstream of BRAF and MEK1 inhibitors, which are commonly used to treat melanoma. Analysis of 117 melanoma tumors samples showed that overexpression of PKCα is associated with poorer overall survival. In patients harboring BRAF or NRAS mutations, PKCα overexpression is associated with an 11-fold increased risk of death. Thus, PKCα mRNA is a novel target of IMP1, which is commonly overexpressed in melanoma and is linked to poorer overall survival.

8.
Nat Chem ; 10(8): 873-880, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29915346

RESUMO

The human DNA repair enzyme MUTYH excises mispaired adenine residues in oxidized DNA. Homozygous MUTYH mutations underlie the autosomal, recessive cancer syndrome MUTYH-associated polyposis. We report a MUTYH variant, p.C306W (c.918C>G), with a tryptophan residue in place of native cysteine, that ligates the [4Fe4S] cluster in a patient with colonic polyposis and family history of early age colon cancer. In bacterial MutY, the [4Fe4S] cluster is redox active, allowing rapid localization to target lesions by long-range, DNA-mediated signalling. In the current study, using DNA electrochemistry, we determine that wild-type MUTYH is similarly redox-active, but MUTYH C306W undergoes rapid oxidative degradation of its cluster to [3Fe4S]+, with loss of redox signalling. In MUTYH C306W, oxidative cluster degradation leads to decreased DNA binding and enzyme function. This study confirms redox activity in eukaryotic DNA repair proteins and establishes MUTYH C306W as a pathogenic variant, highlighting the essential role of redox signalling by the [4Fe4S] cluster.

9.
Matrix Biol ; 74: 52-61, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29885461

RESUMO

Metastatic melanoma is highly fatal. Within the tumor microenvironment, the role of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in melanoma metastasis and progression is relatively understudied. The matricellular protein CCN2 (formerly termed connective tissue growth factor, CTGF) is overexpressed, in a fashion independent of BRAF mutational status, by CAFs in melanoma. Herein, we find, in human melanoma patients, that CCN2 expression negatively correlates with survival and positively correlates with expression of neovascularization markers. To assess the role of CAFs in melanoma progression, we used C57BL/6 mice expressing a tamoxifen-dependent cre recombinase expressed under the control of a fibroblast-specific promoter/enhancer (COL1A2) to delete CCN2 postnatally in fibroblasts. Mice deleted or not for CCN2 in fibroblasts were injected subcutaneously with B16-F10 melanoma cells. Loss of CCN2 in CAFs resulted in reduced CAF activation, as detected by staining with anti-α-smooth muscle actin antibodies, and reduced tumor-induced neovascularization, as detected by micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and staining with anti-CD31 antibodies. CCN2-deficient B16(F10) cells were defective in a tubule formation/vasculogenic mimicry assay in vitro. Mice deleted for CCN2 in CAFs also showed impaired vasculogenic mimicry of subcutaneously-injected B16-F10 cells in vivo. Our results provide new insights into the cross-talk among different cell types in the tumor microenvironment and suggest CAFs play a heretofore unappreciated role by being essential for tumor neovascularization via the production of CCN2. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that activated CAFs are essential for melanoma metastasis and that, due to its role in this process, CCN2 is a therapeutic target for melanoma.

10.
J Invest Dermatol ; 138(11): 2398-2404, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29753029

RESUMO

BRAF and NRAS mutations arise early in melanoma development, but their associations with low-penetrance melanoma susceptibility loci remain unknown. In the Genes, Environment and Melanoma Study, 1,223 European-origin participants had their incident invasive primary melanomas screened for BRAF/NRAS mutations and germline DNA genotyped for 47 single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified as low-penetrant melanoma-risk variants. We used multinomial logistic regression to simultaneously examine each single-nucleotide polymorphism's relationship to BRAF V600E, BRAF V600K, BRAF other, and NRAS+ relative to BRAF-/NRAS- melanoma adjusted for study features. IRF4 rs12203592*T was associated with BRAF V600E (odds ratio [OR] = 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.43-0.79) and V600K (OR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.41-1.03), but not BRAF other or NRAS+ melanoma. A global test of etiologic heterogeneity (Pglobal = 0.001) passed false discovery (Pglobal = 0.0026). PLA2G6 rs132985*T was associated with BRAF V600E (OR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.05-1.67) and BRAF other (OR = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.11-2.98), but not BRAF V600K or NRAS+ melanoma. The test for etiologic heterogeneity (Pglobal) was 0.005. The IRF4 rs12203592 associations were slightly attenuated after adjustment for melanoma-risk phenotypes. The PLA2G6 rs132985 associations were independent of phenotypes. IRF4 and PLA2G6 inherited genotypes may influence melanoma BRAF/NRAS subtype development.

11.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(6): 1048-1061, 2018 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29779563

RESUMO

Health systems are stewards of patient electronic health record (EHR) data with extraordinarily rich depth and breadth, reflecting thousands of diagnoses and exposures. Measures of genomic variation integrated with EHRs offer a potential strategy to accurately stratify patients for risk profiling and discover new relationships between diagnoses and genomes. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether polygenic risk scores (PRS) for common cancers are associated with multiple phenotypes in a phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) conducted in 28,260 unrelated, genotyped patients of recent European ancestry who consented to participate in the Michigan Genomics Initiative, a longitudinal biorepository effort within Michigan Medicine. PRS for 12 cancer traits were calculated using summary statistics from the NHGRI-EBI catalog. A total of 1,711 synthetic case-control studies was used for PheWAS analyses. There were 13,490 (47.7%) patients with at least one cancer diagnosis in this study sample. PRS exhibited strong association for several cancer traits they were designed for, including female breast cancer, prostate cancer, melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and thyroid cancer. Phenome-wide significant associations were observed between PRS and many non-cancer diagnoses. To differentiate PRS associations driven by the primary trait from associations arising through shared genetic risk profiles, the idea of "exclusion PRS PheWAS" was introduced. Further analysis of temporal order of the diagnoses improved our understanding of these secondary associations. This comprehensive PheWAS used PRS instead of a single variant.

12.
Br J Cancer ; 118(12): 1639-1647, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29795306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Substantial evidence supports an association between use of menopausal hormone therapy and decreased colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, indicating a role of exogenous sex hormones in CRC development. However, findings on endogenous oestrogen exposure and CRC are inconsistent. METHODS: We used a Mendelian randomisation approach to test for a causal effect of age at menarche and age at menopause as surrogates for endogenous oestrogen exposure on CRC risk. Weighted genetic risk scores based on 358 single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with age at menarche and 51 single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with age at menopause were used to estimate the association with CRC risk using logistic regression in 12,944 women diagnosed with CRC and 10,741 women without CRC from three consortia. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to address pleiotropy and possible confounding by body mass index. RESULTS: Genetic risk scores for age at menarche (odds ratio per year 0.98, 95% confidence interval: 0.95-1.02) and age at menopause (odds ratio 0.98, 95% confidence interval: 0.94-1.01) were not significantly associated with CRC risk. The sensitivity analyses yielded similar results. CONCLUSIONS: Our study does not support a causal relationship between genetic risk scores for age at menarche and age at menopause and CRC risk.

13.
Transl Behav Med ; 8(1): 85-94, 2018 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29385580

RESUMO

Research on the communication of genetic test results has focused predominately on non-Hispanic White (NHW) mutation-positive families with high-risk hereditary cancer conditions. Little is known about this process for racially and ethnically diverse individuals or for those with mutations in moderate risk genes. The communication behaviors of study participants who carry a gene mutation were analyzed 3 months after disclosure of genetic test results. Participants were queried about communication of their results, as part of a prospective study of multi-gene panel genetic testing. The responses of particpants who tested positive were analyzed by race/ethnicity and by level of cancer risk (high vs. moderate). Of the 216 mutation-positive study participants, 136 (63%) responded. Self-reported race/ethnicity was 46% NHW, 41% Hispanic, 10% Asian, and 2% Black. The majority (99.0%, n = 135) had shared their results with someone and 96% had told a family member (n = 130). Hispanic respondents were less likely to have told a healthcare provider about their results than NHW (29% vs. 68%, p < .0001). Asian respondents were less likely than NHW to encourage family members to undergo testing (OR = 0.1, p = .03); but Asian family members were more likely to undergo testing (OR = 8.0, p = .03). There were no differences in communication between those with a mutation in a high- or moderate-risk gene. Three months post genetic testing, communication of results was very high; 30% reported a family member underwent genetic testing. Further studies are needed to better understand the communication process in individuals from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Comunicação em Saúde , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/psicologia , Comportamento Social , Família/etnologia , Família/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Neoplasias/etnologia
14.
Gastroenterology ; 154(8): 2152-2164.e19, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29458155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Guidelines for initiating colorectal cancer (CRC) screening are based on family history but do not consider lifestyle, environmental, or genetic risk factors. We developed models to determine risk of CRC, based on lifestyle and environmental factors and genetic variants, and to identify an optimal age to begin screening. METHODS: We collected data from 9748 CRC cases and 10,590 controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium and the Colorectal Transdisciplinary study, from 1992 through 2005. Half of the participants were used to develop the risk determination model and the other half were used to evaluate the discriminatory accuracy (validation set). Models of CRC risk were created based on family history, 19 lifestyle and environmental factors (E-score), and 63 CRC-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified in genome-wide association studies (G-score). We evaluated the discriminatory accuracy of the models by calculating area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values, adjusting for study, age, and endoscopy history for the validation set. We used the models to project the 10-year absolute risk of CRC for a given risk profile and recommend ages to begin screening in comparison to CRC risk for an average individual at 50 years of age, using external population incidence rates for non-Hispanic whites from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program registry. RESULTS: In our models, E-score and G-score each determined risk of CRC with greater accuracy than family history. A model that combined both scores and family history estimated CRC risk with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve value of 0.63 (95% confidence interval, 0.62-0.64) for men and 0.62 (95% confidence interval, 0.61-0.63) for women; area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values based on only family history ranged from 0.53 to 0.54 and those based only E-score or G-score ranged from 0.59 to 0.60. Although screening is recommended to begin at age 50 years for individuals with no family history of CRC, starting ages calculated based on combined E-score and G-score differed by 12 years for men and 14 for women, for individuals with the highest vs the lowest 10% of risk. CONCLUSIONS: We used data from 2 large international consortia to develop CRC risk calculation models that included genetic and environmental factors along with family history. These determine risk of CRC and starting ages for screening with greater accuracy than the family history only model, which is based on the current screening guideline. These scoring systems might serve as a first step toward developing individualized CRC prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Colonoscopia/normas , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/normas , Modelos Biológicos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Curva ROC , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores Sexuais
15.
PLoS One ; 13(1): e0190324, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29324747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An association between atrial fibrillation (AF) and risk of cancer has been suggested in several studies, including prospective cohort studies. However, the magnitude and the temporal nature of this association remain unclear. METHODS: Data from two large prospective population-based case-control studies, the Molecular Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer (MECC, n = 8,383) and the Breast Cancer in Northern Israel Study (BCINIS, n = 11,608), were used to better understand the nature and temporality of a possible association between cancer diagnosis and AF events before and after cancer diagnosis. A case-control study approach was employed to study prior AF as a risk factor for cancer, and a cohort study approach was employed to study incident cancer as a risk factor for AF. RESULTS: AF was associated with a significant reduced odds of cancer as reflected in the case-control approach, with an adjusted OR = 0.77 (95% CI, 0.65-0.91), while cancer was not found to be significantly associated with elevated risk of AF in the cohort approach, with an adjusted HR = 1.10 (0.98-1.23). The immediate period (90 days) after an AF event was associated with a 1.85 times increased risk of cancer, and the immediate period after the diagnosis of cancer was associated with a 3.4 fold increased risk of AF. These findings probably reflect both the effect of acute transient conditions associated with new cancer diagnosis and detection bias. Similar results were identified with colorectal and breast cancer cases. CONCLUSIONS: Atrial fibrillation of longer than 90 days duration is associated with reduced odds of new cancer diagnosis. The results of this study suggest that an association observed in prior research may be due to instances related to cancer diagnosis and detection bias rather than a causal relationship. However, there may be bias in the sampling and residual confounding that distort the associations.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Neoplasias/complicações , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
16.
Gastroenterology ; 154(4): 897-905.e1, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29146522

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in individuals younger than 50 years is increasing. We sought to ascertain the proportion of young CRC cases associated with genetic predisposition. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of individuals diagnosed with CRC at an age younger than 50 years, evaluated by the clinical genetics service at a single tertiary care cancer center from 1998 through 2015. We collected data on patient histories, tumor phenotypes, and results of germline DNA sequencing. For subjects with uninformative clinical evaluations, germline DNA samples were (re)sequenced using a research-based next-generation sequencing multigene panel. The primary outcome was identification of a pathogenic germline mutation associated with cancer predisposition. RESULTS: Of 430 young CRC cases, 111 (26%) had a first-degree relative with CRC. Forty-one of the subjects with CRC (10%) had tumors with histologic evidence for mismatch repair deficiency. Of 315 subjects who underwent clinical germline sequencing, 79 had mutations associated with a hereditary cancer syndrome and 21 had variants of uncertain significance. Fifty-six subjects had pathogenic variants associated with Lynch syndrome (25 with mutations in MSH2, 24 with mutations in MLH1, 5 with mutations in MSH6, and 2 with mutations in PMS2) and 10 subjects had pathogenic variants associated with familial adenomatous polyposis. Thirteen subjects had mutations in other cancer-associated genes (8 in MUTYH, 2 in SMAD4, 1 in BRCA1, 1 in TP53, and 1 in CHEK2), all identified through multigene panel tests. Among 117 patients with uninformative clinical evaluations, next-generation sequence analysis using a multigene panel detected actionable germline variants in 6 patients (5%). Only 43 of the 85 subjects with germline mutations associated with a hereditary cancer syndrome (51%) reported a CRC diagnosis in a first-degree relative. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 1 in 5 individuals diagnosed with CRC at age younger than 50 years carries a germline mutation associated with cancer; nearly half of these do not have clinical histories typically associated with the identified syndrome. Germline testing with multigene cancer panels should be considered for all young patients with CRC.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hereditariedade , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adulto Jovem
17.
Pigment Cell Melanoma Res ; 31(2): 287-296, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28990310

RESUMO

Evidence on the relationship between the vitamin D pathway and outcomes in melanoma is growing, although it is not always clear. We investigated the impact of measured levels of sun exposure at diagnosis on associations of vitamin D receptor gene (VDR) polymorphisms and melanoma death in 3336 incident primary melanoma cases. Interactions between six SNPs and a common 3'-end haplotype were significant (p < .05). These SNPs, and a haplotype, had a statistically significant association with survival among subjects exposed to high UVB in multivariable regression models and exerted their effect in the opposite direction among those with low UVB. SNPs rs1544410/BsmI and rs731236/TaqI remained significant after adjustment for multiple testing. These results suggest that the association between VDR and melanoma-specific survival is modified by sun exposure around diagnosis, and require validation in an independent study. Whether the observed effects are dependent or independent of vitamin D activation remains to be determined.

18.
Oncotarget ; 8(55): 93450-93463, 2017 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29212164

RESUMO

The underlying genetic cause of colorectal cancer (CRC) can be identified for 5-10% of all cases, while at least 20% of CRC cases are thought to be due to inherited genetic factors. Screening for highly penetrant mutations in genes associated with Mendelian cancer syndromes using next-generation sequencing (NGS) can be prohibitively expensive for studies requiring large samples sizes. The aim of the study was to identify rare single nucleotide variants and small indels in 40 established or candidate CRC susceptibility genes in 1,046 familial CRC cases (including both MSS and MSI-H tumor subtypes) and 1,006 unrelated controls from the Colon Cancer Family Registry Cohort using a robust and cost-effective DNA pooling NGS strategy. We identified 264 variants in 38 genes that were observed only in cases, comprising either very rare (minor allele frequency <0.001) or not previously reported (n=90, 34%) in reference databases, including six stop-gain, three frameshift, and 255 non-synonymous variants predicted to be damaging. We found novel germline mutations in established CRC genes MLH1, APC, and POLE, and likely pathogenic variants in cancer susceptibility genes BAP1, CDH1, CHEK2, ENG, and MSH3. For the candidate CRC genes, we identified likely pathogenic variants in the helicase domain of POLQ and in the LRIG1, SH2B3, and NOS1 genes and present their clinicopathological characteristics. Using a DNA pooling NGS strategy, we identified novel germline mutations in established CRC susceptibility genes in familial CRC cases. Further studies are required to support the role of POLQ, LRIG1, SH2B3 and NOS1 as CRC susceptibility genes.

20.
J Invest Dermatol ; 137(12): 2588-2598, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28842324

RESUMO

Associations of MC1R with BRAF mutations in melanoma have been inconsistent between studies. We sought to determine for 1,227 participants in the international population-based Genes, Environment, and Melanoma (GEM) study whether MC1R and phenotypes were associated with melanoma BRAF/NRAS subtypes. We used logistic regression adjusted by age, sex, and study design features and examined effect modifications. BRAF+ were associated with younger age, blond/light brown hair, increased nevi, and less freckling, and NRAS+ with older age relative to the wild type (BRAF-/NRAS-) melanomas (all P < 0.05). Comparing specific BRAF subtypes to the wild type, BRAF V600E was associated with younger age, blond/light brown hair, and increased nevi and V600K with increased nevi and less freckling (all P < 0.05). MC1R was positively associated with BRAF V600E cases but only among individuals with darker phototypes or darker hair (Pinteraction < 0.05) but inversely associated with BRAF V600K (Ptrend = 0.006) with no significant effect modification by phenotypes. These results support distinct etiologies for BRAF V600E, BRAF V600K, NRAS+, and wild-type melanomas. MC1R's associations with BRAF V600E cases limited to individuals with darker phenotypes indicate that MC1R genotypes specifically provide information about BRAF V600E melanoma risk in those not considered high risk based on phenotype. Our results also suggest that melanin pathways deserve further study in BRAF V600E melanomagenesis.


Assuntos
GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/genética , Melanoma/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Receptor Tipo 1 de Melanocortina/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Fenótipo , Estados Unidos
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