Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 64
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(8): 87002, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393794

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The sperm DNA methylation landscape is unique and critical for offspring health. If gamete-derived DNA methylation escapes reprograming in early embryos, epigenetic defects in sperm may be transmitted to the next generation. Current techniques to assess sperm DNA methylation show bias toward CpG-dense regions and do not target areas of dynamic methylation, those predicted to be environmentally sensitive and tunable regulatory elements. OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to assess variation in human sperm DNA methylation and design a targeted capture panel to interrogate the human sperm methylome. METHODS: To characterize variation in sperm DNA methylation, we performed whole genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) on an equimolar pool of sperm DNA from a wide cross section of 30 men varying in age, fertility status, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genotype, and exposures. With our targeted capture panel, in individual samples, we examined the effect of MTHFR genotype ([Formula: see text] 677CC, [Formula: see text] 677TT), as well as high-dose folic acid supplementation ([Formula: see text], per genotype, before and after supplementation). RESULTS: Through WGBS we discovered nearly 1 million CpGs possessing intermediate methylation levels (20-80%), termed dynamic sperm CpGs. These dynamic CpGs, along with 2 million commonly assessed CpGs, were used to customize a capture panel for targeted interrogation of the human sperm methylome and test its ability to detect effects of altered folate metabolism. As compared with MTHFR 677CC men, those with the 677TT genotype (50% decreased MTHFR activity) had both hyper- and hypomethylation in their sperm. High-dose folic acid supplement treatment exacerbated hypomethylation in MTHFR 677TT men compared with 677CC. In both cases, [Formula: see text] of altered methylation was found in dynamic sperm CpGs, uniquely measured by our assay. DISCUSSION: Our sperm panel allowed the discovery of differential methylation following conditions affecting folate metabolism in novel dynamic sperm CpGs. Improved ability to examine variation in sperm DNA methylation can facilitate comprehensive studies of environment-epigenome interactions. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4812.

2.
J Bone Miner Res ; 34(10): 1824-1836, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170332

RESUMO

In bone, sclerostin is mainly osteocyte-derived and plays an important local role in adaptive responses to mechanical loading. Whether circulating levels of sclerostin also play a functional role is currently unclear, which we aimed to examine by two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR). A genetic instrument for circulating sclerostin, derived from a genomewide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of serum sclerostin in 10,584 European-descent individuals, was examined in relation to femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD; n = 32,744) in GEFOS and estimated bone mineral density (eBMD) by heel ultrasound (n = 426,824) and fracture risk (n = 426,795) in UK Biobank. Our GWAS identified two novel serum sclerostin loci, B4GALNT3 (standard deviation [SD]) change in sclerostin per A allele (ß = 0.20, p = 4.6 × 10-49 ) and GALNT1 (ß = 0.11 per G allele, p = 4.4 × 10-11 ). B4GALNT3 is an N-acetyl-galactosaminyltransferase, adding a terminal LacdiNAc disaccharide to target glycocoproteins, found to be predominantly expressed in kidney, whereas GALNT1 is an enzyme causing mucin-type O-linked glycosylation. Using these two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as genetic instruments, MR revealed an inverse causal relationship between serum sclerostin and femoral neck BMD (ß = -0.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.20 to -0.05) and eBMD (ß = -0.12, 95% CI -0.14 to -0.10), and a positive relationship with fracture risk (ß = 0.11, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.21). Colocalization analysis demonstrated common genetic signals within the B4GALNT3 locus for higher sclerostin, lower eBMD, and greater B4GALNT3 expression in arterial tissue (probability >99%). Our findings suggest that higher sclerostin levels are causally related to lower BMD and greater fracture risk. Hence, strategies for reducing circulating sclerostin, for example by targeting glycosylation enzymes as suggested by our GWAS results, may prove valuable in treating osteoporosis. © 2019 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

4.
JCI Insight ; 4(8)2019 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30996144

RESUMO

Multiple reports of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression have established its presence in human epicardial adipose tissue (eAT). Its functional relevance to eAT, however, remains largely unknown. In a recent study, we reported that adrenergic stimulation of eAT was associated with downregulation of secreted proteins involved in oxidative stress-related and immune-related pathways. Here, we explored the UCP1-associated features of human eAT using next-generation deep sequencing. Paired biopsies of eAT, mediastinal adipose tissue (mAT), and subcutaneous adipose tissue (sAT) obtained from cardiac surgery patients, with specific criteria of high and low expression of UCP1 in eAT, were subjected to RNA sequencing. Although eAT exhibited a depot-specific upregulation in the immune-related pathways relative to mAT and sAT, high UCP1 expression in eAT was specifically associated with differential gene expression that functionally corresponded with downregulation in the production of reactive oxygen species and immune responses, including T cell homeostasis. Our data indicate that UCP1 and adaptive immunity share a reciprocal relationship at the whole-transcriptome level, thereby supporting a plausible role for UCP1 in maintaining tissue homeostasis in human eAT.

6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1209, 2019 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30872577

RESUMO

Sparse profiling of CpG methylation in blood by microarrays has identified epigenetic links to common diseases. Here we apply methylC-capture sequencing (MCC-Seq) in a clinical population of ~200 adipose tissue and matched blood samples (Ntotal~400), providing high-resolution methylation profiling (>1.3 M CpGs) at regulatory elements. We link methylation to cardiometabolic risk through associations to circulating plasma lipid levels and identify lipid-associated CpGs with unique localization patterns in regulatory elements. We show distinct features of tissue-specific versus tissue-independent lipid-linked regulatory regions by contrasting with parallel assessments in ~800 independent adipose tissue and blood samples from the general population. We follow-up on adipose-specific regulatory regions under (1) genetic and (2) epigenetic (environmental) regulation via integrational studies. Overall, the comprehensive sequencing of regulatory element methylomes reveals a rich landscape of functional variants linked genetically as well as epigenetically to plasma lipid traits.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Epigênese Genética , Doenças Metabólicas/genética , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico/genética , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Epigenômica/métodos , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/sangue , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
7.
Nat Genet ; 51(2): 258-266, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30598549

RESUMO

Osteoporosis is a common aging-related disease diagnosed primarily using bone mineral density (BMD). We assessed genetic determinants of BMD as estimated by heel quantitative ultrasound in 426,824 individuals, identifying 518 genome-wide significant loci (301 novel), explaining 20% of its variance. We identified 13 bone fracture loci, all associated with estimated BMD (eBMD), in ~1.2 million individuals. We then identified target genes enriched for genes known to influence bone density and strength (maximum odds ratio (OR) = 58, P = 1 × 10-75) from cell-specific features, including chromatin conformation and accessible chromatin sites. We next performed rapid-throughput skeletal phenotyping of 126 knockout mice with disruptions in predicted target genes and found an increased abnormal skeletal phenotype frequency compared to 526 unselected lines (P < 0.0001). In-depth analysis of one gene, DAAM2, showed a disproportionate decrease in bone strength relative to mineralization. This genetic atlas provides evidence linking associated SNPs to causal genes, offers new insight into osteoporosis pathophysiology, and highlights opportunities for drug development.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Osteoporose/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
8.
J Bone Miner Res ; 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30320955

RESUMO

We aimed to report the first genomewide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-derived hip shape, which is thought to be related to the risk of both hip osteoarthritis and hip fracture. Ten hip shape modes (HSMs) were derived by statistical shape modeling using SHAPE software, from hip DXA scans in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; adult females), TwinsUK (mixed sex), Framingham Osteoporosis Study (FOS; mixed), Osteoporotic Fractures in Men study (MrOS), and Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF; females) (total N = 15,934). Associations were adjusted for age, sex, and ancestry. Five genomewide significant (p < 5 × 10-9 , adjusted for 10 independent outcomes) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were associated with HSM1, and three SNPs with HSM2. One SNP, in high linkage disequilibrium with rs2158915 associated with HSM1, was associated with HSM5 at genomewide significance. In a look-up of previous GWASs, three of the identified SNPs were associated with hip osteoarthritis, one with hip fracture, and five with height. Seven SNPs were within 200 kb of genes involved in endochondral bone formation, namely SOX9, PTHrP, RUNX1, NKX3-2, FGFR4, DICER1, and HHIP. The SNP adjacent to DICER1 also showed osteoblast cis-regulatory activity of GSC, in which mutations have previously been reported to cause hip dysplasia. For three of the lead SNPs, SNPs in high LD (r2 > 0.5) were identified, which intersected with open chromatin sites as detected by ATAC-seq performed on embryonic mouse proximal femora. In conclusion, we identified eight SNPs independently associated with hip shape, most of which were associated with height and/or mapped close to endochondral bone formation genes, consistent with a contribution of processes involved in limb growth to hip shape and pathological sequelae. These findings raise the possibility that genetic studies of hip shape might help in understanding potential pathways involved in hip osteoarthritis and hip fracture. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

9.
Nat Genet ; 49(10): 1468-1475, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28869591

RESUMO

Osteoporosis is a common disease diagnosed primarily by measurement of bone mineral density (BMD). We undertook a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 142,487 individuals from the UK Biobank to identify loci associated with BMD as estimated by quantitative ultrasound of the heel. We identified 307 conditionally independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that attained genome-wide significance at 203 loci, explaining approximately 12% of the phenotypic variance. These included 153 previously unreported loci, and several rare variants with large effect sizes. To investigate the underlying mechanisms, we undertook (1) bioinformatic, functional genomic annotation and human osteoblast expression studies; (2) gene-function prediction; (3) skeletal phenotyping of 120 knockout mice with deletions of genes adjacent to lead independent SNPs; and (4) analysis of gene expression in mouse osteoblasts, osteocytes and osteoclasts. The results implicate GPC6 as a novel determinant of BMD, and also identify abnormal skeletal phenotypes in knockout mice associated with a further 100 prioritized genes.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/genética , Calcâneo/patologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Osteoporose/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Fêmur/química , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Glipicanas/deficiência , Glipicanas/genética , Glipicanas/fisiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteocondrodisplasias/congênito , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Osteócitos/metabolismo , Osteoporose/patologia , Fenótipo
10.
Genome Biol ; 18(1): 50, 2017 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28283040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The functional impact of genetic variation has been extensively surveyed, revealing that genetic changes correlated to phenotypes lie mostly in non-coding genomic regions. Studies have linked allele-specific genetic changes to gene expression, DNA methylation, and histone marks but these investigations have only been carried out in a limited set of samples. RESULTS: We describe a large-scale coordinated study of allelic and non-allelic effects on DNA methylation, histone mark deposition, and gene expression, detecting the interrelations between epigenetic and functional features at unprecedented resolution. We use information from whole genome and targeted bisulfite sequencing from 910 samples to perform genotype-dependent analyses of allele-specific methylation (ASM) and non-allelic methylation (mQTL). In addition, we introduce a novel genotype-independent test to detect methylation imbalance between chromosomes. Of the ~2.2 million CpGs tested for ASM, mQTL, and genotype-independent effects, we identify ~32% as being genetically regulated (ASM or mQTL) and ~14% as being putatively epigenetically regulated. We also show that epigenetically driven effects are strongly enriched in repressed regions and near transcription start sites, whereas the genetically regulated CpGs are enriched in enhancers. Known imprinted regions are enriched among epigenetically regulated loci, but we also observe several novel genomic regions (e.g., HOX genes) as being epigenetically regulated. Finally, we use our ASM datasets for functional interpretation of disease-associated loci and show the advantage of utilizing naïve T cells for understanding autoimmune diseases. CONCLUSIONS: Our rich catalogue of haploid methylomes across multiple tissues will allow validation of epigenome association studies and exploration of new biological models for allelic exclusion in the human genome.


Assuntos
Alelos , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Epigenômica , Variação Genética , Genoma Humano , Efeitos da Posição Cromossômica , Ilhas de CpG , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Epigenômica/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas
11.
J Lipid Res ; 57(12): 2176-2184, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27729386

RESUMO

Cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) variants influence fasting lipids and risk of metabolic syndrome, but their impact on postprandial lipids, an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is unclear. We determined the effects of SNPs within a ∼410 kb region encompassing CD36 and its proximal and distal promoters on chylomicron (CM) remnants and LDL particles at fasting and at 3.5 and 6 h following a high-fat meal (Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network study, n = 1,117). Five promoter variants associated with CMs, four with delayed TG clearance and five with LDL particle number. To assess mechanisms underlying the associations, we queried expression quantitative trait loci, DNA methylation, and ChIP-seq datasets for adipose and heart tissues that function in postprandial lipid clearance. Several SNPs that associated with higher serum lipids correlated with lower adipose and heart CD36 mRNA and aligned to active motifs for PPARγ, a major CD36 regulator. The SNPs also associated with DNA methylation sites that related to reduced CD36 mRNA and higher serum lipids, but mixed-model analyses indicated that the SNPs and methylation independently influence CD36 mRNA. The findings support contributions of CD36 SNPs that reduce adipose and heart CD36 RNA expression to inter-individual variability of postprandial lipid metabolism and document changes in CD36 DNA methylation that influence both CD36 expression and lipids.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD36/genética , Remanescentes de Quilomícrons/sangue , Lipoproteínas LDL/sangue , Adulto , Ilhas de CpG , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Frequência do Gene , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Especificidade de Órgãos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Triglicerídeos/sangue
12.
Genome Biol ; 16: 290, 2015 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26699896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CpG methylation variation is involved in human trait formation and disease susceptibility. Analyses within populations have been biased towards CpG-dense regions through the application of targeted arrays. We generate whole-genome bisulfite sequencing data for approximately 30 adipose and blood samples from monozygotic and dizygotic twins for the characterization of non-genetic and genetic effects at single-site resolution. RESULTS: Purely invariable CpGs display a bimodal distribution with enrichment of unmethylated CpGs and depletion of fully methylated CpGs in promoter and enhancer regions. Population-variable CpGs account for approximately 15-20 % of total CpGs per tissue, are enriched in enhancer-associated regions and depleted in promoters, and single nucleotide polymorphisms at CpGs are a frequent confounder of extreme methylation variation. Differential methylation is primarily non-genetic in origin, with non-shared environment accounting for most of the variance. These non-genetic effects are mainly tissue-specific. Tobacco smoking is associated with differential methylation in blood with no evidence of this exposure impacting cell counts. Opposite to non-genetic effects, genetic effects of CpG methylation are shared across tissues and thus limit inter-tissue epigenetic drift. CpH methylation is rare, and shows similar characteristics of variation patterns as CpGs. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights the utility of low pass whole-genome bisulfite sequencing in identifying methylome variation beyond promoter regions, and suggests that targeting the population dynamic methylome of tissues requires assessment of understudied intergenic CpGs distal to gene promoters to reveal the full extent of inter-individual variation.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Variação Genética , Genoma Humano , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Sangue/metabolismo , Ilhas de CpG , Feminino , Humanos , Fumar/genética , Gêmeos Dizigóticos , Gêmeos Monozigóticos
14.
RNA ; 21(8): 1433-43, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26078267

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important post-transcriptional regulators that have recently introduced an additional level of intricacy to our understanding of gene regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate miRNA-mRNA interactions that may be relevant for bone metabolism by assessing correlations and interindividual variability in miRNA levels as well as global correlations between miRNA and mRNA levels in a large cohort of primary human osteoblasts (HOBs) obtained during orthopedic surgery in otherwise healthy individuals. We identified differential expression (DE) of 24 miRNAs, and found 9 miRNAs exhibiting DE between males and females. We identified hsa-miR-29b, hsa-miR-30c2, and hsa-miR-125b and their target genes as important modulators of bone metabolism. Further, we used an integrated analysis of global miRNA-mRNA correlations, mRNA-expression profiling, DE, bioinformatics analysis, and functional studies to identify novel target genes for miRNAs with the potential to regulate osteoblast differentiation and extracellular matrix production. Functional studies by overexpression and knockdown of miRNAs showed that, the differentially expressed miRNAs hsa-miR-29b, hsa-miR-30c2, and hsa-miR-125b target genes highly relevant to bone metabolism, e.g., collagen, type I, α1 (COL1A1), osteonectin (SPARC), Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), osteocalcin (BGLAP), and frizzled-related protein (FRZB). These miRNAs orchestrate the activities of key regulators of osteoblast differentiation and extracellular matrix proteins by their convergent action on target genes and pathways to control the skeletal gene expression.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Osteoblastos/citologia , Osteogênese , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Células Cultivadas , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
16.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 136(5): 1240-6.e1-8, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26025128

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term intermittent oral corticosteroid (OCS) use in children with asthma leads to significant decreases in bone mineral accretion (BMA). OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify genetic factors influencing OCS dose effects on BMA in children with asthma. METHODS: We first performed a gene-by-OCS interaction genome-wide association study (GWAS) of BMA in 489 white participants in the Childhood Asthma Management Program trial who took short-term oral prednisone bursts when they experienced acute asthma exacerbations. We selected the top-ranked 2000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the GWAS and determined whether these SNPs also had cis-regulatory effects on dexamethasone-induced gene expression in osteoblasts. RESULTS: We identified 2 SNPs (rs9896933 and rs2074439) associated with decreased BMA and related to the tubulin γ pathway. The rs9896933 variant met the criteria for genome-wide significance (P = 3.15 × 10(-8) in the GWAS) and is located on the intron of tubulin folding cofactor D (TBCD) gene. The rs2074439 variant (P = 2.74 × 10(-4) in the GWAS) showed strong cis-regulatory effects on dexamethasone-induced tubulin γ gene expression in osteoblasts (P = 8.64 × 10(-4)). Interestingly, we found that BMA worsened with increasing prednisone dose as the number of mutant alleles of the 2 SNPs increased. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified 2 novel tubulin γ pathway SNPs, rs9896933 and rs2074439, showing independent interactive effects with cumulative corticosteroid dose on BMA in children with asthma receiving multiple OCS bursts.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Densidade Óssea/genética , Calcificação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Calcificação Fisiológica/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Prednisona/efeitos adversos , Administração Oral , Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Desenvolvimento Ósseo/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Osteoblastos/fisiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prednisona/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Risco , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo
17.
Nat Commun ; 6: 7211, 2015 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26021296

RESUMO

Most genome-wide methylation studies (EWAS) of multifactorial disease traits use targeted arrays or enrichment methodologies preferentially covering CpG-dense regions, to characterize sufficiently large samples. To overcome this limitation, we present here a new customizable, cost-effective approach, methylC-capture sequencing (MCC-Seq), for sequencing functional methylomes, while simultaneously providing genetic variation information. To illustrate MCC-Seq, we use whole-genome bisulfite sequencing on adipose tissue (AT) samples and public databases to design AT-specific panels. We establish its efficiency for high-density interrogation of methylome variability by systematic comparisons with other approaches and demonstrate its applicability by identifying novel methylation variation within enhancers strongly correlated to plasma triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol, including at CD36. Our more comprehensive AT panel assesses tissue methylation and genotypes in parallel at ∼4 and ∼3 M sites, respectively. Our study demonstrates that MCC-Seq provides comparable accuracy to alternative approaches but enables more efficient cataloguing of functional and disease-relevant epigenetic and genetic variants for large-scale EWAS.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Antígenos CD36/genética , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Antígenos CD36/metabolismo , HDL-Colesterol/genética , Ilhas de CpG , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Genômica , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Triglicerídeos/genética
18.
Nat Commun ; 6: 5681, 2015 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25743335

RESUMO

Normal thyroid function is essential for health, but its genetic architecture remains poorly understood. Here, for the heritable thyroid traits thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4), we analyse whole-genome sequence data from the UK10K project (N=2,287). Using additional whole-genome sequence and deeply imputed data sets, we report meta-analysis results for common variants (MAF≥1%) associated with TSH and FT4 (N=16,335). For TSH, we identify a novel variant in SYN2 (MAF=23.5%, P=6.15 × 10(-9)) and a new independent variant in PDE8B (MAF=10.4%, P=5.94 × 10(-14)). For FT4, we report a low-frequency variant near B4GALT6/SLC25A52 (MAF=3.2%, P=1.27 × 10(-9)) tagging a rare TTR variant (MAF=0.4%, P=2.14 × 10(-11)). All common variants explain ≥20% of the variance in TSH and FT4. Analysis of rare variants (MAF<1%) using sequence kernel association testing reveals a novel association with FT4 in NRG1. Our results demonstrate that increased coverage in whole-genome sequence association studies identifies novel variants associated with thyroid function.


Assuntos
Sinapsinas/metabolismo , Glândula Tireoide/fisiologia , Tireotropina/metabolismo , Tiroxina/metabolismo , 3',5'-AMP Cíclico Fosfodiesterases/genética , 3',5'-AMP Cíclico Fosfodiesterases/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Metilação de DNA/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Sinapsinas/genética , Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Tireotropina/genética , Tiroxina/genética , Reino Unido
19.
Nature ; 520(7549): 670-674, 2015 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25707804

RESUMO

Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a central mediator of allergic (atopic) inflammation. Therapies directed against IgE can alleviate hay fever and allergic asthma. Genetic association studies have not yet identified novel therapeutic targets or pathways underlying IgE regulation. We therefore surveyed epigenetic associations between serum IgE concentrations and methylation at loci concentrated in CpG islands genome wide in 95 nuclear pedigrees, using DNA from peripheral blood leukocytes. We validated positive results in additional families and in subjects from the general population. Here we show replicated associations--with a meta-analysis false discovery rate less than 10(-4)--between IgE and low methylation at 36 loci. Genes annotated to these loci encode known eosinophil products, and also implicate phospholipid inflammatory mediators, specific transcription factors and mitochondrial proteins. We confirmed that methylation at these loci differed significantly in isolated eosinophils from subjects with and without asthma and high IgE levels. The top three loci accounted for 13% of IgE variation in the primary subject panel, explaining the tenfold higher variance found compared with that derived from large single-nucleotide polymorphism genome-wide association studies. This study identifies novel therapeutic targets and biomarkers for patient stratification for allergic diseases.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Asma/sangue , Asma/genética , Criança , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Eosinófilos/citologia , Eosinófilos/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Linhagem , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adulto Jovem
20.
Epigenetics ; 9(10): 1382-96, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25424692

RESUMO

Smoking is a major risk factor in many diseases. Genome wide association studies have linked genes for nicotine dependence and smoking behavior to increased risk of cardiovascular, pulmonary, and malignant diseases. We conducted an epigenome wide association study in peripheral-blood DNA in 464 individuals (22 current smokers and 263 ex-smokers), using the Human Methylation 450 K array. Upon replication in an independent sample of 356 twins (41 current and 104 ex-smokers), we identified 30 probes in 15 distinct loci, all of which reached genome-wide significance in the combined analysis P < 5 × 10(-8). All but one probe (cg17024919) remained significant after adjusting for blood cell counts. We replicated all 9 known loci and found an independent signal at CPOX near GPR15. In addition, we found 6 new loci at PRSS23, AVPR1B, PSEN2, LINC00299, RPS6KA2, and KIAA0087. Most of the lead probes (13 out of 15) associated with cigarette smoking, overlapped regions of open chromatin (FAIRE and DNaseI hypersensitive sites) or/and H3K27Ac peaks (ENCODE data set), which mark regulatory elements. The effect of smoking on DNA methylation was partially reversible upon smoking cessation for longer than 3 months. We report the first statistically significant interaction between a SNP (rs2697768) and cigarette smoking on DNA methylation (cg03329539). We provide evidence that the metSNP for cg03329539 regulates expression of the CHRND gene located circa 95 Kb downstream of the methylation site. Our findings suggest the existence of dynamic, reversible site-specific methylation changes in response to cigarette smoking , which may contribute to the extended health risks associated with cigarette smoking.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ilhas de CpG , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Análise de Sequência de RNA
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA