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1.
Hypertension ; 74(2): 295-304, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291149

RESUMO

Subendocardial damage is among the first cardiac manifestations of hypertension and is already present in asymptomatic disease states. Accordingly, markers of subendocardial impairment may facilitate early detection of cardiac damages and risk stratification under these conditions. This study aimed to investigate the impact of subendocardial damage on myocardial microstructure and function to elucidate early pathophysiologic processes and to identify corresponding diagnostic measures. Mice (n=38) were injected with isoproterenol to induce isolated subendocardial scarring or saline as corresponding control. Cardiac function and myocardial deformation were determined by high-frequency echocardiography. The cardiac stress response was assessed in a graded exercise test and during dobutamine stress echocardiography. Myocardial microstructure was studied ex vivo by 7 T diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging at a spatial resolution of 100×100×100 µm 3 . Results were correlated with histology and biomarker expression. Subendocardial fibrosis was accompanied by diastolic dysfunction, impaired longitudinal deformation (global peak longitudinal strain [LS]: -12.5±0.5% versus -15.6±0.5%; P<0.001) and elevated biomarker expression (ANP [atrial natriuretic peptide], Galectin-3, and ST2). Systolic function and cardiac stress response remained preserved. Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging revealed a left-shift in helix angle towards lower values in isoproterenol-treated animals, which was mainly determined by subepicardial myofibers (mean helix angle: 2.2±0.8° versus 5.9±1.0°; P<0.01). Longitudinal strain and subepicardial helix angle were highly predictive for subendocardial fibrosis (sensitivity, 82%-92% and specificity, 89%-90%). The results indicate that circumscribed subendocardial damage alone can cause several hallmarks observed in cardiovascular high-risk patients. Microstructural remodeling under these conditions involves also remote regions, and corresponding changes in longitudinal strain and helix angle might serve as diagnostic markers.

2.
Cardiovasc Ultrasound ; 17(1): 7, 2019 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31010431

RESUMO

Echocardiography is the most commonly applied technique for non-invasive assessment of cardiac function in small animals. Manual tracing of endocardial borders is time consuming and varies with operator experience. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate a novel automated two-dimensional software algorithm (Auto2DE) for small animals and compare it to the standard use of manual 2D-echocardiographic assessment (2DE). We hypothesized that novel Auto2DE will provide rapid and robust data sets, which are in agreement with manually assessed data of animals.2DE and Auto2DE were carried out using a high-resolution imaging-system for small animals. First, validation cohorts of mouse and rat cine loops were used to compare Auto2DE against 2DE. These data were stratified for image quality by a blinded expert in small animal imaging. Second, we evaluated 2DE and Auto2DE in four mouse models and four rat models with different cardiac pathologies.Automated assessment of LV function by 2DE was faster than conventional 2DE analysis and independent of operator experience levels. The accuracy of Auto2DE-assessed data in healthy mice was dependent on cine loop quality, with excellent agreement between Auto2DE and 2DE in cine loops with adequate quality. Auto2DE allowed for valid detection of impaired cardiac function in animal models with pronounced cardiac phenotypes, but yielded poor performance in diabetic animal models independent of image quality.Auto2DE represents a novel automated analysis tool for rapid assessment of LV function, which is suitable for data acquisition in studies with good and very good echocardiographic image quality, but presents systematic problems in specific pathologies.

4.
Cardiovasc Ultrasound ; 16(1): 10, 2018 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29966517

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The assessment of ventricular volumes using conventional echocardiography methods is limited with regards to the need of geometrical assumptions. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate a novel commercial system for three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) in preclinical models by direct comparison with conventional 1D- and 2D-echocardiography (1DE; 2DE) and the gold-standard technique magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Further, we provide a standard operating protocol for image acquisition and analysis with 3DE. METHODS: 3DE was carried out using a 30 MHz center frequency transducer coupled to a Vevo®3100 Imaging System. We evaluated under different experimental conditions: 1) in vitro phantom measurements served as controlled setting in which boundaries were clearly delineated; 2) a validation cohort composed of healthy C57BL/6 J mice and New Zealand Obese (NZO) mice was used in order to validate 3DE against cardiac MRI; 3) a standard mouse model of pressure overload induced-heart failure was investigated to estimate the value of 3DE. RESULTS: First, in vitro volumetry revealed good agreement between 3DE assessed volumes and the MRI-assessed volumes. Second, cardiac volume determination with 3DE showed smaller mean differences compared to cardiac MRI than conventional 1DE and 2DE. Third, 3DE was suitable to detect reduced ejection fractions in heart failure mice. Fourth, inter- and intra-observer variability of 3DE showed good to excellent agreement regarding absolute volumes in healthy mice, whereas agreement rates for the relative metrics ejection fraction and stroke volume demonstrated good to moderate observer variabilities. CONCLUSIONS: 3DE provides a novel method for accurate volumetry in small animals without the need for spatial assumptions, demonstrating a technique for an improved analysis of ventricular function. Further validation work and highly standardized image analyses are required to increase reproducibility of this approach.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia Tridimensional , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Volume Sistólico , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ecocardiografia , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
5.
Hypertension ; 71(4): 599-608, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29437893

RESUMO

Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) reduce morbidity and mortality in chronic heart failure. Novel nonsteroidal MRAs are currently developed and need to be pharmacologically characterized in comparison to classical steroidal MRAs. A mouse model of cardiac fibrosis induced by short-term isoproterenol injection was used to compare the nonsteroidal MRA finerenone and the steroidal MRA eplerenone in equi-efficient systemic MR blocking dosages. Molecular mechanisms were studied in MR-expressing H9C2/MR+ cardiomyocytes and in MR transcriptional cofactor binding assays. Both MRAs significantly inhibited an isoproterenol-mediated increase of left ventricular mass. Isoproterenol-induced cardiac fibrosis and macrophage invasion were potently blocked by finerenone, whereas eplerenone had no significant effect. Speckle tracking echocardiography revealed a significant improvement of global longitudinal peak strain by finerenone, an effect less prominent with eplerenone. Antifibrotic actions of finerenone were accompanied by a significant inhibition of profibrotic cardiac TNX (tenascin-X) expression, a regulation absent with eplerenone. Finally, we show a higher potency/efficacy and inverse agonism of finerenone versus eplerenone in MR transcriptional cofactor binding assays indicating differential MR cofactor modulation by steroidal and nonsteroidal MRAs. This study demonstrates that the nonsteroidal MRA finerenone potently prevents cardiac fibrosis and improves strain parameters in mice. Cardiac antifibrotic actions of finerenone may result from the inhibition of profibrotic TNX gene expression mediated by differential MR cofactor binding. Selective MR cofactor modulation provides a molecular basis for distinct (pre)-clinical actions of nonsteroidal and steroidal MRAs.

6.
PLoS Genet ; 14(1): e1007171, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29320510

RESUMO

Adipose tissue lipolysis occurs during the development of heart failure as a consequence of chronic adrenergic stimulation. However, the impact of enhanced adipose triacylglycerol hydrolysis mediated by adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) on cardiac function is unclear. To investigate the role of adipose tissue lipolysis during heart failure, we generated mice with tissue-specific deletion of ATGL (atATGL-KO). atATGL-KO mice were subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC) to induce pressure-mediated cardiac failure. The cardiac mouse lipidome and the human plasma lipidome from healthy controls (n = 10) and patients with systolic heart failure (HFrEF, n = 13) were analyzed by MS-based shotgun lipidomics. TAC-induced increases in left ventricular mass (LVM) and diastolic LV inner diameter were significantly attenuated in atATGL-KO mice compared to wild type (wt) -mice. More importantly, atATGL-KO mice were protected against TAC-induced systolic LV failure. Perturbation of lipolysis in the adipose tissue of atATGL-KO mice resulted in the prevention of the major cardiac lipidome changes observed after TAC in wt-mice. Profound changes occurred in the lipid class of phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) in which multiple PE-species were markedly induced in failing wt-hearts, which was attenuated in atATGL-KO hearts. Moreover, selected heart failure-induced PE species in mouse hearts were also induced in plasma samples from patients with chronic heart failure. TAC-induced cardiac PE induction resulted in decreased PC/ PE-species ratios associated with increased apoptotic marker expression in failing wt-hearts, a process absent in atATGL-KO hearts. Perturbation of adipose tissue lipolysis by ATGL-deficiency ameliorated pressure-induced heart failure and the potentially deleterious cardiac lipidome changes that accompany this pathological process, namely the induction of specific PE species. Non-cardiac ATGL-mediated modulation of the cardiac lipidome may play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic heart failure.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Hipertensão/complicações , Lipase/fisiologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Células Cultivadas , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/genética , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Lipase/genética , Lipase/metabolismo , Masculino , Metaboloma/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/genética , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/metabolismo , Remodelação Ventricular
7.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 30(12): 1239-1250.e2, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29066223

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The subendocardium is highly vulnerable to damage and is thus affected even in subclinical disease stages. Therefore, methods reflecting subendocardial status are of great clinical relevance for the early detection of cardiac damage and the prevention of functional impairment. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential ability of myocardial strain parameters to evaluate changes within the subendocardium. METHODS: Male 129/Sv mice were injected with isoproterenol (ISO; n = 32) to induce isolated subendocardial fibrotic lesions or saline as appropriate control (n = 15). Transthoracic echocardiography was performed using a 30-MHz linear-frequency transducer coupled to a high-resolution imaging system, and acquired images were analyzed for conventional and strain parameters. The degree of collagen content within the different cardiac layers was quantified by histologic analysis and serum levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, a biomarker for fibrosis, were assessed. RESULTS: ISO treatment induced a marked increase in subendocardial collagen content in response to cell loss (control vs ISO, 0.6 ± 0.3% vs 5.8 ± 0.9%; P < .001) and resulted in a moderate increase in left ventricular wall thickness with preserved systolic function. Global longitudinal peak strain (LS) and longitudinal strain rate were significantly decreased in ISO-treated animals (LS, -15.49% vs -11.49% [P = .001]; longitudinal strain rate, -4.81 vs -3.88 sec-1 [P < .05]), whereas radial and circumferential strain values remained unchanged. Global LS was associated with subendocardial collagen content (r = 0.46, P = .01) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 serum level (r = 0.52, P < .05). Further statistical analyses identified global LS as a superior predictor for the presence of subendocardial fibrosis (sensitivity, 84%; specificity, 80%; cutoff value, -14.4%). CONCLUSION: Assessment of LS may provide a noninvasive method for the detection of subendocardial damage and may consequently improve early diagnosis of cardiac diseases.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia/métodos , Endocárdio/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Camundongos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
8.
BMC Med Imaging ; 17(1): 51, 2017 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28835220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance feature tracking (CMR-FT) is a novel tissue tracking technique developed for noninvasive assessment of myocardial motion and deformation. This preliminary study aimed to evaluate the observer's reproducibility of CMR-FT in a small animal (mouse) model and define sample size calculation for future trials. METHODS: Six C57BL/6 J mice were selected from the ongoing experimental mouse model onsite and underwent CMR with a 3 Tesla small animal MRI scanner. Myocardial deformation was analyzed using dedicated software (TomTec, Germany) by two observers. Left ventricular (LV) longitudinal, circumferential and radial strain (EllLAX, EccSAX and ErrSAX) were calculated. To assess intra-observer agreement data analysis was repeated after 4 weeks. The sample size required to detect a relative change in strain was calculated. RESULTS: In general, EccSAX and EllLAX demonstrated highest inter-observer reproducibility (ICC 0.79 (0.46-0.91) and 0.73 (0.56-0.83) EccSAX and EllLAX respectively). In contrast, at the intra-observer level EllLAX was more reproducible than EccSAX (ICC 0.83 (0.73-0.90) and 0.74 (0.49-0.87) EllLAX and EccSAX respectively). The reproducibility of ErrSAX was weak at both observer levels. Preliminary sample size calculation showed that a small study sample (e.g. ten animals to detect a relative 10% change in EccSAX) could be sufficient to detect changes if parameter variability is low. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study demonstrates good to excellent inter- and intra-observer reproducibility of CMR-FT technique in small animal model. The most reproducible measures are global circumferential and global longitudinal strain, whereas reproducibility of radial strain is weak. Furthermore, sample size calculation demonstrates that a small number of animals could be sufficient for future trials.


Assuntos
Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Projetos Piloto , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tamanho da Amostra , Software
9.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 485(2): 312-318, 2017 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28232185

RESUMO

Monocyte migration is a key element in atherosclerosis. LDL-C facilitates monocyte migration via induction of CCR2. PCSK9 regulates cell surface expression of the LDL-R and is expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The present study was done to investigate the regulation of PCSK9 in VSMCs and its impact on monocyte function. METHODS AND RESULTS: PCSK9 mRNA and protein levels were upregulated in VSMCs by the TLR-4 ligand LPS, whereas TGF-ß or angiotensin II had no effect. Induction of PCSK9 was selectively inhibited by TLR-4 blockade and further downstream by the SAPK/JNK-inhibitor SP600125, whereas inhibitors of ERK1/2, p38 or PI3-kinase pathways had no effect. Incubation of monocytes in conditioned media from LPS-stimulated VSMCs resulted in a significant reduction of LDL-R levels on monocytes, comparable to the effects of recombinant PCSK9. LDL-C increased monocyte CCR2 expression, which augmented monocyte migration towards MCP-1. This LDL-C dependent monocyte chemotaxis was inhibited by supernatants from LPS-stimulated VSMCs, similar to recombinant PCSK9 and a specific LDL-R blocking antibody. CONCLUSION: PCSK9 is regulated in VSMCs by TLR-4 - SAPK/JNK signaling, a pathway important in inflammation and metabolism. VSMC-derived PCSK9 reduces monocyte LDL-R expression, affecting LDL-C/LDL-R-mediated CCR2-expression on monocytes, which is crucial to cell motility and atherogenesis.


Assuntos
Monócitos/imunologia , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/imunologia , Receptores CCR2/imunologia , Animais , Aterosclerose/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Células Cultivadas , Quimiotaxia de Leucócito , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Masculino , Monócitos/citologia , Músculo Liso Vascular/citologia , Músculo Liso Vascular/imunologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores CCR2/análise , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/imunologia
10.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol ; 67(5): 402-11, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26859196

RESUMO

Pharmacological blockade of mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) is known as an efficacious therapy in chronic heart failure. Therapy with steroidal MR antagonists such as spironolactone or eplerenone (EPL) is often limited because of side effects. Recently, a new highly selective and potent, nonsteroidal MR antagonist, finerenone (FIN), has been developed. To investigate the effects of FIN on pressure-induced cardiac hypertrophy, the transverse aortic constriction (TAC) model was used in C57BL/6 mice treated with FIN (10 mg·kg·d), EPL (200 mg·kg·d) or vehicle (VEH). First, we analyzed cardiac gene expression 4 weeks after TAC using a pathway-focused quantitative polymerase chain reaction array. FIN caused a distinct cardiac gene expression profile compared to VEH and EPL, including differential expression of BNP (brain natriuretic peptide) and Tnnt2 (troponin T type 2). FIN treatment led to a significant reduction of TAC-induced left ventricular (LV) wall thickening assessed by echocardiography. In accordance, FIN-treated mice showed a significant lower increase of calculated left ventricular mass compared with VEH- and EPL-treated mice (FIN: 28.4 ± 3.7 mg; EPL: 38.4 ± 4.3 mg; VEH: 39.3 ± 3.1 mg; P < 0.05). These data show beneficial effects of nonsteroidal MR antagonism by FIN on left ventricular mass development in pressure overload associated with a distinct cardiac gene expression profile.


Assuntos
Cardiomegalia/tratamento farmacológico , Cardiomegalia/fisiopatologia , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/farmacologia , Naftiridinas/farmacologia , Espironolactona/análogos & derivados , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eplerenona , Expressão Gênica , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/metabolismo , Espironolactona/farmacologia , Troponina T/metabolismo , Remodelação Ventricular/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
J Biol Chem ; 290(39): 23603-15, 2015 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26260790

RESUMO

Endurance exercise training induces substantial adaptive cardiac modifications such as left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Simultaneously to the development of LVH, adipose tissue (AT) lipolysis becomes elevated upon endurance training to cope with enhanced energy demands. In this study, we investigated the impact of adipose tissue lipolysis on the development of exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Mice deficient for adipose triglyceride lipase (Atgl) in AT (atATGL-KO) were challenged with chronic treadmill running. Exercise-induced AT lipolytic activity was significantly reduced in atATGL-KO mice accompanied by the absence of a plasma fatty acid (FA) increase. These processes were directly associated with a prominent attenuation of myocardial FA uptake in atATGL-KO and a significant reduction of the cardiac hypertrophic response to exercise. FA serum profiling revealed palmitoleic acid (C16:1n7) as a new molecular co-mediator of exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy by inducing nonproliferative cardiomyocyte growth. In parallel, serum FA analysis and echocardiography were performed in 25 endurance athletes. In consonance, the serum C16:1n7 palmitoleate level exhibited a significantly positive correlation with diastolic interventricular septum thickness in those athletes. No correlation existed between linoleic acid (18:2n6) and diastolic interventricular septum thickness. Collectively, our data provide the first evidence that adipose tissue lipolysis directly promotes the development of exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy involving the lipokine C16:1n7 palmitoleate as a molecular co-mediator. The identification of a lipokine involved in physiological cardiac growth may help to develop future lipid-based therapies for pathological LVH or heart failure.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Cardiomegalia/etiologia , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/metabolismo , Lipólise , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Animais , Cardiomegalia/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout
12.
BMC Genomics ; 15: 537, 2014 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24973960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Segmental duplications (SDs) are not evenly distributed along chromosomes. The reasons for this biased susceptibility to SD insertion are poorly understood. Accumulation of SDs is associated with increased genomic instability, which can lead to structural variants and genomic disorders such as the Williams-Beuren syndrome. Despite these adverse effects, SDs have become fixed in the human genome. Focusing on chromosome 7, which is particularly rich in interstitial SDs, we have investigated the distribution of SDs in the context of evolution and the three dimensional organisation of the chromosome in order to gain insights into the mutual relationship of SDs and chromatin topology. RESULTS: Intrachromosomal SDs preferentially accumulate in those segments of chromosome 7 that are homologous to marmoset chromosome 2. Although this formerly compact segment has been re-distributed to three different sites during primate evolution, we can show by means of public data on long distance chromatin interactions that these three intervals, and consequently the paralogous SDs mapping to them, have retained their spatial proximity in the nucleus. Focusing on SD clusters implicated in the aetiology of the Williams-Beuren syndrome locus we demonstrate by cross-species comparison that these SDs have inserted at the borders of a topological domain and that they flank regions with distinct DNA conformation. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests a link of nuclear architecture and the propagation of SDs across chromosome 7, either by promoting regional SD insertion or by contributing to the establishment of higher order chromatin organisation themselves. The latter could compensate for the high risk of structural rearrangements and thus may have contributed to their evolutionary fixation in the human genome.


Assuntos
Cromatina/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 7 , Duplicações Segmentares Genômicas , Acetilação , Cromatina/metabolismo , Cromossomos Humanos Par 2 , Epistasia Genética , Evolução Molecular , Loci Gênicos , Genômica , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Transcrição Genética , Síndrome de Williams/genética
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