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2.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(5): 57012, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to air pollution has been associated with childhood respiratory disease and other adverse outcomes. Epigenetics is a suggested link between exposures and health outcomes. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate associations between prenatal exposure to particulate matter (PM) with diameter [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) or [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) and DNA methylation in newborns and children. METHODS: We meta-analyzed associations between exposure to [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) and [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) at maternal home addresses during pregnancy and newborn DNA methylation assessed by Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip in nine European and American studies, with replication in 688 independent newborns and look-up analyses in 2,118 older children. We used two approaches, one focusing on single cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites and another on differentially methylated regions (DMRs). We also related PM exposures to blood mRNA expression. RESULTS: Six CpGs were significantly associated [false discovery rate (FDR) [Formula: see text]] with prenatal [Formula: see text] and 14 with [Formula: see text] exposure. Two of the [Formula: see text] CpGs mapped to FAM13A (cg00905156) and NOTCH4 (cg06849931) previously associated with lung function and asthma. Although these associations did not replicate in the smaller newborn sample, both CpGs were significant ([Formula: see text]) in 7- to 9-y-olds. For cg06849931, however, the direction of the association was inconsistent. Concurrent [Formula: see text] exposure was associated with a significantly higher NOTCH4 expression at age 16 y. We also identified several DMRs associated with either prenatal [Formula: see text] and or [Formula: see text] exposure, of which two [Formula: see text] DMRs, including H19 and MARCH11, replicated in newborns. CONCLUSIONS: Several differentially methylated CpGs and DMRs associated with prenatal PM exposure were identified in newborns, with annotation to genes previously implicated in lung-related outcomes. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4522.

3.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 49(9): 1225-1234, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187518

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Response to inhaled corticosteroids is highly variable, and the association between DNA methylation and treatment response is not known. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between peripheral blood DNA methylation and inhaled corticosteroid response in children with persistent asthma. METHODS: Epigenome-wide DNA methylation was analysed in individuals on inhaled corticosteroids in three independent and ethnically diverse cohorts-Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP); Children, Allergy, Milieu, Stockholm, Epidemiology (BAMSE); and Genetic Epidemiology of Asthma in Costa Rica Study (GACRS). Treatment response was evaluated using two definitions, the absence of emergency department visits and/or hospitalizations and the absence oral corticosteroid use while on inhaled corticosteroid therapy. CpG sites meeting nominal significance (P < 0.05) for each outcome were combined in a three-cohort meta-analysis with adjustment for multiple testing. DNA methylation was correlated with gene expression using Pearson and partial correlations. RESULTS: In 154 subjects from CAMP, 72 from BAMSE, and 168 from GACRS, relative hypomethylation of cg00066816 (171 bases upstream of IL12B) was associated with the absence of emergency department visits and/or hospitalizations (Q = 0.03) in all cohorts and lower IL12B expression (ρ = 0.34, P = 0.01) in BAMSE. Relative hypermethylation of cg04256470 (688 bases upstream of CORT) was associated with the absence of oral corticosteroid use (Q = 0.04) in all cohorts and higher CORT expression (ρ = 0.20, P = 0.045) in CAMP. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Differential DNA methylation of IL12B and CORT are associated with inhaled corticosteroid treatment response in persistent childhood asthmatics. Pharmaco-methylation can identify novel markers of treatment sensitivity in asthma.

4.
Health Place ; 57: 200-203, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100656

RESUMO

The present study investigated whether associations between greenness and birth outcomes can be detected in children belonging to a Swedish birth cohort (BAMSE). Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) within a 500 m buffer zone around maternal address was used as estimate of greenness. Ordinary least squares and quantile regression models were performed to investigate associations between neighbourhood NDVI and birthweight (n = 2619), birth length (n = 2490) and head circumference (n = 2243). Logistic regression analyses were used to detect the association between NDVI and odds of being born as "small-" or "large-for-gestational-age". There were no clear associations between NDVI and birth weight in the total sample. However, in a suburban sub-sample, increased NDVI levels were significantly associated with elevated birthweight of small new-borns (ß2nd percentile = 276 g, 95% CI 61 to 492, p = 0.012), and significantly reduced the odds ratio (OR) for children being born as small-for-gestational-age (OR = 0.31 95% CI 0.1 to 1, p = 0.049). No significant associations were found between NDVI and birth length or head circumference. In conclusion, neighbourhood greenness appears not to be associated with birthweight as such, but rather decrease the odds of being born underweight, in particular in suburban areas.

6.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 222(5): 824-830, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036481

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to traffic noise has been associated with hypertension in adults but the evidence in adolescents is limited. We investigated long-term road traffic noise exposure, maternal occupational noise during pregnancy and other factors in relation to blood pressure and prehypertension at 16 years of age. METHODS: Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured in 2597 adolescents from the Swedish BAMSE birth cohort. Levels of road traffic noise were estimated at home addresses during lifetime and for the mother during pregnancy as well as maternal occupational noise exposure during pregnancy. Exposure to NOx from local sources was also assessed. Associations between noise or NOx exposure and blood pressure or prehypertension were analysed using linear and logistic regression. RESULTS: The prevalence of prehypertension was higher among males and in those with overweight, low physical activity or overweight mothers. No strong or consistent associations were observed between pre- or postnatal exposure to road traffic noise and blood pressure at 16 years of age. However, inverse associations were suggested for systolic or diastolic blood pressure and prehypertension, which reached statistical significance among males (OR 0.80 per 10 dB Lden, 95% CI 0.65-0.99) and those with maternal occupational noise exposure ≥ 70 dB LAeq8h (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.41-0.87). On the other hand, occupational noise exposure during pregnancy tended to increase systolic blood pressure and prehypertension risk in adolescence. No associations were seen for NOx exposure. CONCLUSION: No conclusive associations were observed between pre- or postnatal noise exposure and blood pressure or prehypertension in adolescents.

7.
Eur Respir J ; 53(5)2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30923181

RESUMO

Early allergic sensitisation (atopy) is the first step in the development of allergic diseases such as atopic asthma later in life. Genes and pathways associated with atopy and atopic asthma in children and adolescents have not been well characterised.A transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) of atopy and atopic asthma in white blood cells (WBCs) or whole blood was conducted in a cohort of 460 Puerto Ricans aged 9-20 years (EVA-PR study) and in a cohort of 250 Swedish adolescents (BAMSE study). Pathway enrichment and network analyses were conducted to further assess top findings, and classification models of atopy and atopic asthma were built using expression levels for the top differentially expressed genes (DEGs).In a meta-analysis of the study cohorts, both previously implicated genes (e.g. IL5RA and IL1RL1) and genes not previously reported in TWASs (novel) were significantly associated with atopy and/or atopic asthma. Top novel genes for atopy included SIGLEC8 (p=8.07×10-13), SLC29A1 (p=7.07×10-12) and SMPD3 (p=1.48×10-11). Expression quantitative trait locus analyses identified multiple asthma-relevant genotype-expression pairs, such as rs2255888/ALOX15 Pathway enrichment analysis uncovered 16 significantly enriched pathways at adjusted p<0.01, including those relevant to T-helper cell type 1 (Th1) and Th2 immune responses. Classification models built using the top DEGs and a few demographic/parental history variables accurately differentiated subjects with atopic asthma from nonatopic control subjects (area under the curve 0.84).We have identified genes and pathways for atopy and atopic asthma in children and adolescents, using transcriptome-wide data from WBCs and whole blood samples.

8.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(6): 2062-2074, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30579849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epigenetic mechanisms, including methylation, can contribute to childhood asthma. Identifying DNA methylation profiles in asthmatic patients can inform disease pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify differential DNA methylation in newborns and children related to childhood asthma. METHODS: Within the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics consortium, we performed epigenome-wide meta-analyses of school-age asthma in relation to CpG methylation (Illumina450K) in blood measured either in newborns, in prospective analyses, or cross-sectionally in school-aged children. We also identified differentially methylated regions. RESULTS: In newborns (8 cohorts, 668 cases), 9 CpGs (and 35 regions) were differentially methylated (epigenome-wide significance, false discovery rate < 0.05) in relation to asthma development. In a cross-sectional meta-analysis of asthma and methylation in children (9 cohorts, 631 cases), we identified 179 CpGs (false discovery rate < 0.05) and 36 differentially methylated regions. In replication studies of methylation in other tissues, most of the 179 CpGs discovered in blood replicated, despite smaller sample sizes, in studies of nasal respiratory epithelium or eosinophils. Pathway analyses highlighted enrichment for asthma-relevant immune processes and overlap in pathways enriched both in newborns and children. Gene expression correlated with methylation at most loci. Functional annotation supports a regulatory effect on gene expression at many asthma-associated CpGs. Several implicated genes are targets for approved or experimental drugs, including IL5RA and KCNH2. CONCLUSION: Novel loci differentially methylated in newborns represent potential biomarkers of risk of asthma by school age. Cross-sectional associations in children can reflect both risk for and effects of disease. Asthma-related differential methylation in blood in children was substantially replicated in eosinophils and respiratory epithelium.

9.
Environ Res ; 169: 362-367, 2018 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30513507

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that traffic noise exposure is associated with adiposity among adults but data in children are limited. OBJECTIVE: This longitudinal study examined whether pre- and postnatal noise exposure is associated with body mass index (BMI) between birth and adolescence or with adverse birth outcomes. METHODS: The study was conducted using data from the BAMSE birth cohort, which included 4089 children born in Stockholm County, Sweden. Data on BMI from birth to adolescence were collected via questionnaires, clinical examinations and health care records. A national register provided information on birth outcomes. Road traffic noise levels at the most exposed façade were estimated for all residences of the children during follow-up, as well as of their mothers during pregnancy, and time-weighted average exposure was calculated for different time windows. Maternal occupational noise exposure was obtained from a job-exposure-matrix. Logistic- and quantile regression models were used to estimate associations between noise exposure and health outcomes. RESULTS: We found residential road traffic noise exposure to be associated with increases in BMI from school age to adolescence, but not at earlier ages. In the age groups 8-11 years and 12-16 years the BMI increments were 0.11 kg/m2 per 10 dB Lden (95% CI 0.08-0.13) and 0.20 kg/m2 per 10 dB Lden (95% CI 0.17-0.22), respectively. Maternal noise exposure during pregnancy was generally unrelated to adverse birth outcomes and BMI from birth to adolescence in the children, however, traffic noise exposure was associated with a decreased risk of preterm birth CONCLUSION: Residential road traffic noise exposure was associated with BMI increases from school age to adolescence, but not at earlier ages. Maternal occupational noise exposure or exposure from road traffic during pregnancy were not consistently related to birth outcomes or BMI from birth to adolescence.

10.
Environ Health Perspect ; 126(4): 047005, 2018 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29664587

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of tobacco smoke exposure in the development and persistence of asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis through childhood into adolescence is unclear. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the associations of parental smoking from fetal life through adolescence with asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis during childhood and adolescence. METHODS: We analyzed data for 10,860 participants of five European birth cohort studies from the Mechanisms of the Development of Allergy (MeDALL) consortium. Parental smoking habits and health outcomes (early transient, persistent, and adolescent-onset asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis) were based on questionnaires covering the period from pregnancy to 14-16 y of age. Data were combined and analyzed using a one-stage and two-stage individual participant data meta-analysis. RESULTS: Overall, any maternal smoking during pregnancy tended to be associated with an increased odds of prevalent asthma [adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=1.19 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.43)], but not prevalent rhinoconjunctivitis [aOR=1.05 (95% CI: 0.90, 1.22)], during childhood and adolescence. In analyses with phenotypes related to age of onset and persistence of disease, any maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with early transient asthma [aOR=1.79 (95% CI: 1.14, 2.83)]. Maternal smoking of ≥10 cigarettes/day during pregnancy was associated with persistent asthma [aOR=1.66 (95% CI: 1.29, 2.15)] and persistent rhinoconjunctivitis [aOR=1.55 (95% CI, 1.09, 2.20)]. Tobacco smoke exposure during fetal life, infancy, childhood, and adolescence was not associated with adolescent-onset asthma or rhinoconjunctivitis. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this combined analysis of five European birth cohorts strengthen evidence linking early exposure to tobacco smoke with asthma during childhood and adolescence. Children with high early-life exposure were more likely than unexposed children to have early transient and persistent asthma and persistent rhinoconjunctivitis. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP2738.

11.
Lancet Respir Med ; 6(5): 379-388, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29496485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation profiles associated with childhood asthma might provide novel insights into disease pathogenesis. We did an epigenome-wide association study to assess methylation profiles associated with childhood asthma. METHODS: We did a large-scale epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) within the Mechanisms of the Development of ALLergy (MeDALL) project. We examined epigenome-wide methylation using Illumina Infinium Human Methylation450 BeadChips (450K) in whole blood in 207 children with asthma and 610 controls at age 4-5 years, and 185 children with asthma and 546 controls at age 8 years using a cross-sectional case-control design. After identification of differentially methylated CpG sites in the discovery analysis, we did a validation study in children (4-16 years; 247 cases and 2949 controls) from six additional European cohorts and meta-analysed the results. We next investigated whether replicated CpG sites in cord blood predict later asthma in 1316 children. We subsequently investigated cell-type-specific methylation of the identified CpG sites in eosinophils and respiratory epithelial cells and their related gene-expression signatures. We studied cell-type specificity of the asthma association of the replicated CpG sites in 455 respiratory epithelial cell samples, collected by nasal brushing of 16-year-old children as well as in DNA isolated from blood eosinophils (16 with asthma, eight controls [age 2-56 years]) and compared this with whole-blood DNA samples of 74 individuals with asthma and 93 controls (age 1-79 years). Whole-blood transcriptional profiles associated with replicated CpG sites were annotated using RNA-seq data of subsets of peripheral blood mononuclear cells sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. FINDINGS: 27 methylated CpG sites were identified in the discovery analysis. 14 of these CpG sites were replicated and passed genome-wide significance (p<1·14 × 10-7) after meta-analysis. Consistently lower methylation levels were observed at all associated loci across childhood from age 4 to 16 years in participants with asthma, but not in cord blood at birth. All 14 CpG sites were significantly associated with asthma in the second replication study using whole-blood DNA, and were strongly associated with asthma in purified eosinophils. Whole-blood transcriptional signatures associated with these CpG sites indicated increased activation of eosinophils, effector and memory CD8 T cells and natural killer cells, and reduced number of naive T cells. Five of the 14 CpG sites were associated with asthma in respiratory epithelial cells, indicating cross-tissue epigenetic effects. INTERPRETATION: Reduced whole-blood DNA methylation at 14 CpG sites acquired after birth was strongly associated with childhood asthma. These CpG sites and their associated transcriptional profiles indicate activation of eosinophils and cytotoxic T cells in childhood asthma. Our findings merit further investigations of the role of epigenetics in a clinical context. FUNDING: EU and the Seventh Framework Programme (the MeDALL project).


Assuntos
Asma/genética , Ilhas de CpG , Metilação de DNA , Eosinófilos/imunologia , Epigênese Genética , Asma/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , DNA/sangue , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos
12.
Eur Respir J ; 51(3)2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29519908

RESUMO

Interleukin-1 receptor-like 1 (IL1RL1) is an important asthma gene. (Epi)genetic regulation of IL1RL1 protein expression has not been established. We assessed the association between IL1RL1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), IL1RL1 methylation and serum IL1RL1-a protein levels, and aimed to identify causal pathways in asthma.Associations of IL1RL1 SNPs with asthma were determined in the Dutch Asthma Genome-wide Association Study cohort and three European birth cohorts, BAMSE (Children/Barn, Allergy, Milieu, Stockholm, an Epidemiological survey), INMA (Infancia y Medio Ambiente) and PIAMA (Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy), participating in the Mechanisms of the Development of Allergy study. We performed blood DNA IL1RL1 methylation quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis (n=496) and (epi)genome-wide protein QTL analysis on serum IL1RL1-a levels (n=1462). We investigated the association of IL1RL1 CpG methylation with asthma (n=632) and IL1RL1-a levels (n=548), with subsequent causal inference testing. Finally, we determined the association of IL1RL1-a levels with asthma and its clinical characteristics (n=1101).IL1RL1 asthma-risk SNPs strongly associated with IL1RL1 methylation (rs1420101; p=3.7×10-16) and serum IL1RL1-a levels (p=2.8×10-56). IL1RL1 methylation was not associated with asthma or IL1RL1-a levels. IL1RL1-a levels negatively correlated with blood eosinophil counts, whereas there was no association between IL1RL1-a levels and asthma.In conclusion, asthma-associated IL1RL1 SNPs strongly regulate IL1RL1 methylation and serum IL1RL1-a levels, yet neither these IL1RL1-methylation CpG sites nor IL1RL1-a levels are associated with asthma.

13.
Environ Res ; 161: 276-283, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29172161

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We integratively assessed the effect of different indoor and outdoor environmental exposures early in life on respiratory and allergic health conditions among children from (sub-) urban areas. METHODS: This study included children participating in four ongoing European birth cohorts located in three different geographical regions: INMA (Spain), LISAplus (Germany), GINIplus (Germany) and BAMSE (Sweden). Wheezing, bronchitis, asthma and allergic rhinitis throughout childhood were assessed using parental-completed questionnaires. We designed "environmental scores" corresponding to different indoor, green- and grey-related exposures (main analysis, a-priori-approach). Cohort-specific associations between these environmental scores and the respiratory health outcomes were assessed using random-effects meta-analyses. In addition, a factor analysis was performed based on the same exposure information used to develop the environmental scores (confirmatory analysis, data-driven-approach). RESULTS: A higher early exposure to the indoor environmental score increased the risk for wheezing and bronchitis within the first year of life (combined adjusted odds ratio: 1.20 [95% confidence interval: 1.13-1.27] and 1.28 [1.18-1.39], respectively). In contrast, there was an inverse association with allergic rhinitis between 6 and 8 years (0.85 [0.79-0.92]). There were no statistically significant associations for the outdoor related environmental scores in relation to any of the health outcomes tested. The factor analysis conducted confirmed these trends. CONCLUSION: Although a higher exposure to indoor related exposure through occupants was associated with an increased risk for wheezing and bronchitis within the 1st year, it might serve as a preventive mechanism against later childhood allergic respiratory outcomes in urbanized environments through enhanced shared contact with microbial agents.

14.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 221(2): 276-282, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29233481

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The understanding of determinants for saliva cortisol levels in adolescents is limited. This study investigated the role of road traffic noise exposure, noise annoyance and various other factors for saliva cortisol levels. METHODS: We collected morning and evening saliva samples from 1751 adolescents from the BAMSE birth cohort based in Stockholm County. Façade noise levels from road traffic were estimated at the residences of the study subjects and repeated questionnaires and medical examinations provided extensive information on various exposures and conditions, including annoyance to noise from different sources. Cortisol was measured using radioimmunoassay. Associations between determinants and saliva cortisol levels were analysed using linear regression. RESULTS: Morning saliva cortisol levels were significantly higher in females than in males (geometric mean 42.4 and 35.0 nmol/l, respectively) as well as in subjects with allergy related diseases. Height and age were related to saliva cortisol levels as well as sampling season. Road traffic noise exposure was not associated with saliva cortisol, however, annoyance to noise tended to increase the levels. Saliva cortisol levels appeared particularly high among those who were highly annoyed and exposed to road traffic noise levels ≥ 55 dB Lden (50.5 nmol/l, p = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that individual perception of noise may be of importance for saliva cortisol levels. The results also point to the complexity of using saliva cortisol as a marker of noise exposure in adolescents.

16.
Respir Med ; 133: 16-21, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29173444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about synergistic effects of several risk factors on asthma. We developed a risk score in Puerto Rican children, and then used this score to estimate the combined effects of multiple risk factors on asthma at school age in Puerto Rican and Swedish children. METHODS: Case-control study in 609 Puerto Rican children (aged 6-14 years) and longitudinal birth cohort study of 2290 Swedish children followed up to age 12 years (The Children, Allergy, Milieu, Stockholm, Epidemiological Survey [BAMSE] Study). In both cohorts, there was data on parental asthma, sex, obesity, allergic rhinitis, and early-life second-hand smoke (SHS); data on diet and (in children ≥9 years) lifetime exposure to gun violence were also available in the Puerto Rico study. Asthma was defined as physician-diagnosed asthma and ≥1 episode of wheeze in the previous year. RESULTS: In a multivariable analysis in Puerto Rican children, male sex, parental asthma, allergic rhinitis, early-life SHS, an unhealthy diet and (in children ≥9 years) gun violence were each significantly associated with asthma. We next created a risk score using these variables (range, 0 to 5-6 in Puerto Rico and 0 to 4 in BAMSE). Compared with Puerto Rican children without any risk factors (i.e. a score of 0), Puerto Rican children with 2, 3, and at least 4 risk factors had 3.6 times (95% CI = 1.4-9.2), 10.4 times (95% CI = 4.0-27.0), and 21.6 times (95% CI = 7.2-64.9) significantly higher odds of asthma, respectively. In BAMSE, the presence of 2, 3, and at least 4 risk factors was significantly associated with 4.1 times (95% CI = 2.3-7.4), 6.3 times (95% CI = 3.0-13.3), and 17.2 times (95% CI = 4.1-73.2) increased odds of asthma at age 12 years. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings emphasize the multifactorial etiology of asthma, and suggest that concurrent eradication or reduction of several modifiable risk factors may better prevent or reduce the burden of childhood asthma.


Assuntos
Asma/etiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Rinite Alérgica/prevenção & controle , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Asma/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Pais , Porto Rico/epidemiologia , Rinite Alérgica/complicações , Rinite Alérgica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Suécia/epidemiologia , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Violência/etnologia , Violência/prevenção & controle
17.
Environ Health Perspect ; 125(6): 067007, 2017 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28669936

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution can lead to adverse health effects in children; however, underlying biological mechanisms are not fully understood. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the effect of air pollution exposure during different time periods on mRNA expression as well as circulating levels of inflammatory cytokines in children. METHODS: We measured a panel of 10 inflammatory markers in peripheral blood samples from 670 8-y-old children in the Barn/Child, Allergy, Milieu, Stockholm, Epidemiology (BAMSE) birth cohort. Outdoor concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameter <10 µm (PM10) from road traffic were estimated for residential, daycare, and school addresses using dispersion modeling. Time-weighted average exposures during infancy and at biosampling were linked to serum cytokine levels using linear regression analysis. Furthermore, gene expression data from 16-year-olds in BAMSE (n=238) were used to evaluate links between air pollution exposure and expression of genes coding for the studied inflammatory markers. RESULTS: A 10 µg/m3 increase of NO2 exposure during infancy was associated with a 13.6% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.8; 28.1%) increase in interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels, as well as with a 27.8% (95% CI: 4.6, 56.2%) increase in IL-10 levels, the latter limited to children with asthma. However, no clear associations were observed for current exposure. Results were similar using PM10, which showed a high correlation with NO2. The functional analysis identified several differentially expressed genes in response to air pollution exposure during infancy, including IL10, IL13, and TNF;. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate alterations in systemic inflammatory markers in 8-y-old children in relation to early-life exposure to traffic-related air pollution. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP460.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Citocinas/sangue , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade , Interleucina-10/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise
18.
Eur Heart J ; 38(13): 983-990, 2017 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28417138

RESUMO

Aims: We investigated whether traffic-related air pollution and noise are associated with incident hypertension in European cohorts. Methods and results: We included seven cohorts of the European study of cohorts for air pollution effects (ESCAPE). We modelled concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), ≤10 µm (PM10), >2.5, and ≤10 µm (PMcoarse), soot (PM2.5 absorbance), and nitrogen oxides at the addresses of participants with land use regression. Residential exposure to traffic noise was modelled at the facade according to the EU Directive 2002/49/EC. We assessed hypertension as (i) self-reported and (ii) measured (systolic BP ≥ 140 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥ 90 mmHg or intake of BP lowering medication (BPLM). We used Poisson regression with robust variance estimation to analyse associations of traffic-related exposures with incidence of hypertension, controlling for relevant confounders, and combined the results from individual studies with random-effects meta-analysis. Among 41 072 participants free of self-reported hypertension at baseline, 6207 (15.1%) incident cases occurred within 5-9 years of follow-up. Incidence of self-reported hypertension was positively associated with PM2.5 (relative risk (RR) 1.22 [95%-confidence interval (CI):1.08; 1.37] per 5 µg/m³) and PM2.5 absorbance (RR 1.13 [95% CI:1.02; 1.24] per 10 - 5m - 1). These estimates decreased slightly upon adjustment for road traffic noise. Road traffic noise was weakly positively associated with the incidence of self-reported hypertension. Among 10 896 participants at risk, 3549 new cases of measured hypertension occurred. We found no clear associations with measured hypertension. Conclusion: Long-term residential exposures to air pollution and noise are associated with increased incidence of self-reported hypertension.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Hipertensão/etiologia , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Autorrelato
19.
Am J Epidemiol ; 185(4): 247-258, 2017 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28087514

RESUMO

Atmospheric pollutants and meteorological conditions are suspected to be causes of preterm birth. We aimed to characterize their possible association with the risk of preterm birth (defined as birth occurring before 37 completed gestational weeks). We pooled individual data from 13 birth cohorts in 11 European countries (71,493 births from the period 1994-2011, European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE)). City-specific meteorological data from routine monitors were averaged over time windows spanning from 1 week to the whole pregnancy. Atmospheric pollution measurements (nitrogen oxides and particulate matter) were combined with data from permanent monitors and land-use data into seasonally adjusted land-use regression models. Preterm birth risks associated with air pollution and meteorological factors were estimated using adjusted discrete-time Cox models. The frequency of preterm birth was 5.0%. Preterm birth risk tended to increase with first-trimester average atmospheric pressure (odds ratio per 5-mbar increase = 1.06, 95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.11), which could not be distinguished from altitude. There was also some evidence of an increase in preterm birth risk with first-trimester average temperature in the -5°C to 15°C range, with a plateau afterwards (spline coding, P = 0.08). No evidence of adverse association with atmospheric pollutants was observed. Our study lends support for an increase in preterm birth risk with atmospheric pressure.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Pressão Atmosférica , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Nascimento Prematuro/induzido quimicamente , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Saúde da População Urbana
20.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 195(10): 1373-1383, 2017 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27901618

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The evidence supporting an association between traffic-related air pollution exposure and incident childhood asthma is inconsistent and may depend on genetic factors. OBJECTIVES: To identify gene-environment interaction effects on childhood asthma using genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data and air pollution exposure. Identified loci were further analyzed at epigenetic and transcriptomic levels. METHODS: We used land use regression models to estimate individual air pollution exposure (represented by outdoor NO2 levels) at the birth address and performed a genome-wide interaction study for doctors' diagnoses of asthma up to 8 years in three European birth cohorts (n = 1,534) with look-up for interaction in two separate North American cohorts, CHS (Children's Health Study) and CAPPS/SAGE (Canadian Asthma Primary Prevention Study/Study of Asthma, Genetics and Environment) (n = 1,602 and 186 subjects, respectively). We assessed expression quantitative trait locus effects in human lung specimens and blood, as well as associations among air pollution exposure, methylation, and transcriptomic patterns. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: In the European cohorts, 186 SNPs had an interaction P < 1 × 10-4 and a look-up evaluation of these disclosed 8 SNPs in 4 loci, with an interaction P < 0.05 in the large CHS study, but not in CAPPS/SAGE. Three SNPs within adenylate cyclase 2 (ADCY2) showed the same direction of the interaction effect and were found to influence ADCY2 gene expression in peripheral blood (P = 4.50 × 10-4). One other SNP with P < 0.05 for interaction in CHS, rs686237, strongly influenced UDP-Gal:betaGlcNAc ß-1,4-galactosyltransferase, polypeptide 5 (B4GALT5) expression in lung tissue (P = 1.18 × 10-17). Air pollution exposure was associated with differential discs, large homolog 2 (DLG2) methylation and expression. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated that gene-environment interactions are important for asthma development and provided supportive evidence for interaction with air pollution for ADCY2, B4GALT5, and DLG2.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Asma/epidemiologia , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Emissões de Veículos , Asma/genética , Criança , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
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