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1.
Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol ; 21(2): 175-181, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33620884

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Asthma is a common disease worldwide, however, its pathogenesis has not been fully elucidated. Emerging evidence suggests that epigenetic modifications may play a role in the development and natural history of asthma. The aim of this review is to highlight recent progress in research on epigenetic mechanisms in asthma. RECENT FINDINGS: Over the past years, epigenetic studies, in particular DNA methylation studies, have added to the growing body of evidence supporting a link between epigenetic regulation of gene expression and asthma. Recent studies demonstrate that epigenetic mechanisms also play a role in asthma remission. Although most existing studies in this field have been conducted on blood cells, recent evidence suggests that epigenetic signatures are also crucial for the regulation of airway epithelial cells. Studies conducted on nasal epithelium revealed highly replicable epigenetic patterns that could be used for diagnostic purposes. SUMMARY: Further research is needed to explore the diagnostic and therapeutic potential of epigenetic modifications in asthma. Multiomics studies on asthma will become increasingly important for a better understanding of etiology, heterogeneity, and severity of asthma, as well as establishing molecular biomarkers that could be combined with clinical information to improve the management of asthma patients.

2.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 147(3): 1031-1040, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338541

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Differential DNA methylation associated with allergy might provide novel insights into the shared or unique etiology of asthma, rhinitis, and eczema. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify DNA methylation profiles associated with childhood allergy. METHODS: Within the European Mechanisms of the Development of Allergy (MeDALL) consortium, we performed an epigenome-wide association study of whole blood DNA methylation by using a cross-sectional design. Allergy was defined as having symptoms from at least 1 allergic disease (asthma, rhinitis, or eczema) and positive serum-specific IgE to common aeroallergens. The discovery study included 219 case patients and 417 controls at age 4 years and 228 case patients and 593 controls at age 8 years from 3 birth cohorts, with replication analyses in 325 case patients and 1111 controls. We performed additional analyses on 21 replicated sites in 785 case patients and 2124 controls by allergic symptoms only from 8 cohorts, 3 of which were not previously included in analyses. RESULTS: We identified 80 differentially methylated CpG sites that showed a 1% to 3% methylation difference in the discovery phase, of which 21 (including 5 novel CpG sites) passed genome-wide significance after meta-analysis. All 21 CpG sites were also significantly differentially methylated with allergic symptoms and shared between asthma, rhinitis, and eczema. The 21 CpG sites mapped to relevant genes, including ACOT7, LMAN3, and CLDN23. All 21 CpG sties were differently methylated in asthma in isolated eosinophils, and 10 were replicated in respiratory epithelium. CONCLUSION: Reduced whole blood DNA methylation at 21 CpG sites was significantly associated with childhood allergy. The findings provide novel insights into the shared molecular mechanisms underlying asthma, rhinitis, and eczema.

3.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(13): 16264-16271, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341921

RESUMO

Epidemiologic studies on health effects of air pollution usually rely on time-series of ambient monitoring data or on spatially modelled levels. Little is known how well these estimate residential outdoor and indoor levels. We investigated the agreement of measured residential black carbon (BC) levels outdoors and indoors with fixed-site monitoring data and with levels calculated using a Gaussian dispersion model. One-week residential outdoor and indoor BC measurements were conducted for 15 families living in central Stockholm. Time-series from urban background and street-level monitors were compared to these measurements. The observed weekly concentrations were also standardized to reflect annual averages, using urban background levels, and compared spatially to long-term levels as estimated by dispersion modelling. Weekly average outdoor BC level was 472 ng/m3 (range 261-797 ng/m3). The corresponding fixed-site urban background and street levels were 313 and 1039 ng/m3, respectively. Urban background variation explained 50% of the temporal variation in residential outdoor levels averaged over 24 h. Modelled residential long-term outdoor levels were on average comparable with the standardized measured home outdoor levels, and explained 49% of the spatial variability. The median indoor/outdoor ratio across all addresses was 0.79, with no difference between day and night time. Common exposure estimation approaches in the epidemiology of health effects related to BC displayed high validity for residencies in central Stockholm. Urban background monitored levels explained half of the outdoor day-to-day variability at residential addresses. Long-term dispersion modelling explained half of the spatial differences in outdoor levels. Indoor BC concentrations tended to be somewhat lower than outdoor levels.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Carbono/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos
4.
Genome Med ; 12(1): 105, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation has been shown to be associated with adiposity in adulthood. However, whether similar DNA methylation patterns are associated with childhood and adolescent body mass index (BMI) is largely unknown. More insight into this relationship at younger ages may have implications for future prevention of obesity and its related traits. METHODS: We examined whether DNA methylation in cord blood and whole blood in childhood and adolescence was associated with BMI in the age range from 2 to 18 years using both cross-sectional and longitudinal models. We performed meta-analyses of epigenome-wide association studies including up to 4133 children from 23 studies. We examined the overlap of findings reported in previous studies in children and adults with those in our analyses and calculated enrichment. RESULTS: DNA methylation at three CpGs (cg05937453, cg25212453, and cg10040131), each in a different age range, was associated with BMI at Bonferroni significance, P < 1.06 × 10-7, with a 0.96 standard deviation score (SDS) (standard error (SE) 0.17), 0.32 SDS (SE 0.06), and 0.32 BMI SDS (SE 0.06) higher BMI per 10% increase in methylation, respectively. DNA methylation at nine additional CpGs in the cross-sectional childhood model was associated with BMI at false discovery rate significance. The strength of the associations of DNA methylation at the 187 CpGs previously identified to be associated with adult BMI, increased with advancing age across childhood and adolescence in our analyses. In addition, correlation coefficients between effect estimates for those CpGs in adults and in children and adolescents also increased. Among the top findings for each age range, we observed increasing enrichment for the CpGs that were previously identified in adults (birth Penrichment = 1; childhood Penrichment = 2.00 × 10-4; adolescence Penrichment = 2.10 × 10-7). CONCLUSIONS: There were only minimal associations of DNA methylation with childhood and adolescent BMI. With the advancing age of the participants across childhood and adolescence, we observed increasing overlap with altered DNA methylation loci reported in association with adult BMI. These findings may be compatible with the hypothesis that DNA methylation differences are mostly a consequence rather than a cause of obesity.

5.
Environ Int ; 146: 106248, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33212358

RESUMO

Air pollution has been associated with adverse health effects across the life-course. Although underlying mechanisms are unclear, several studies suggested pollutant-induced changes in transcriptomic profiles. In this meta-analysis of transcriptome-wide association studies of 656 children and adolescents from three European cohorts participating in the MeDALL Consortium, we found two differentially expressed transcript clusters (FDR p < 0.05) associated with exposure to particulate matter < 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5) at birth, one of them mapping to the MIR1296 gene. Further, by integrating gene expression with DNA methylation using Functional Epigenetic Modules algorithms, we identified 9 and 6 modules in relation to PM2.5 exposure at birth and at current address, respectively (including NR1I2, MAPK6, TAF8 and SCARA3). In conclusion, PM2.5 exposure at birth was linked to differential gene expression in children and adolescents. Importantly, we identified several significant interactome hotspots of gene modules of relevance for complex diseases in relation to PM2.5 exposure.

6.
Thorax ; 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33184098

RESUMO

We aimed to determine prevalence and early-life risk factors for reversible and irreversible airflow limitation in young adults from the general population. Among young adults in their 20s, the prevalence was 5.3% for reversible airflow limitation and 2.0% for irreversible airflow limitation. While parental asthma was the only risk factor for development of reversible airflow limitation, the risk factors for development of irreversible airflow limitation were current asthma, childhood respiratory tract infections and asthma, and exposure to air pollution.

7.
Eur Respir J ; 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33184115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic bronchitis is associated with substantial morbidity among elderly adults, but little is known about its prevalence and risk factors in young adults. Our aim was to assess the prevalence and early life risk factors for chronic bronchitis in young adults. METHODS: Questionnaire data and clinical measures from the 24-year follow-up of the Swedish BAMSE cohort were used. We assessed chronic bronchitis (CB) as the combination of cough and mucus production in the morning during winter. Environmental and clinical data from birth and onwards were used for analyses of risk factors. RESULTS: At the 24-year follow-up, 75% (n=3064) participants completed the questionnaire and 2030 performed spirometry. The overall prevalence of CB was 5.5% (n=158) with similar estimates in males and females. Forty-nine percent of CB cases experienced more than 3 self-reported respiratory infections in the last year compared to 18% in non-CB subjects (p<0.001), and 37% of cases were current smokers (versus 19%). Statistically significant lower post-FEV1/FVC were observed in CB compared to non-CB subjects (mean z-score -0.06 versus 0.13, p=0.027). Daily smoking (adjusted Odds Ratio, aOR=3.85, p<0.001), air pollution exposure (black carbon during ages 1-4 years old, aOR=1.71 per 1 µg·m3 increase, p=0.009) and exclusive breast-feeding during four months or more (aOR=0.66, p=0.044) were associated with CB. CONCLUSION: Chronic bronchitis in young adults is associated with recurrent respiratory infections. Besides smoking, our results support role of early life exposures, such as air pollution and exclusive breast-feeding, for respiratory health later in life.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether long-term exposure air to pollution has effects on allergic sensitization is controversial. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate associations of air pollution exposure at birth and at the time of later biosampling with IgE sensitization against common food and inhalant allergens, or specific allergen molecules, in children aged up to 16 years. METHODS: A total of 6163 children from 4 European birth cohorts participating in the Mechanisms of the Development of ALLergy [MeDALL] consortium were included in this meta-analysis of the following studies: Children, Allergy, Milieu, Stockholm, Epidemiology (BAMSE) (Sweden), Influences of Lifestyle-Related Factors on the Human Immune System and Development of Allergies in Childhood (LISA)/German Infant Study on the Influence of Nutrition Intervention PLUS Environmental and Genetic Influences on Allergy Development (GINIplus) (Germany), and Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) (The Netherlands). The following indicators were modeled by land use regression: individual residential outdoor levels of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 µm, less than 10 µm, and between 2.5 and 10 µm; PM2.5 absorbance (a measurement of the blackness of PM2.5 filters); and nitrogen oxides levels. Blood samples drawn at ages 4 to 6 (n = 5989), 8 to 10 (n = 6603), and 15 to 16 (n = 5825) years were analyzed for IgE sensitization to allergen extracts by ImmunoCAP. Additionally, IgE against 132 allergen molecules was measured by using the MedALL microarray chip (n = 1021). RESULTS: Air pollution was not consistently associated with IgE sensitization to any common allergen extract up to age 16 years. However, allergen-specific analyses suggested increased risks of sensitization to birch (odds ratio [OR] = 1.12 [95% CI = 1.01-1.25] per 10-µg/m3 increase in NO2 exposure). In a subpopulation with microarray data, IgE to the major timothy grass allergen Phleum pratense 1 (Phl p 1) and the cat allergen Felis domesticus 1 (Fel d 1) greater than 3.5 Immuno Solid-phase Allergen Chip standardized units for detection of IgE antibodies were related to PM2.5 exposure at birth (OR = 3.33 [95% CI = 1.40-7.94] and OR = 4.98 [95% CI = 1.59-15.60], respectively, per 5-µg/m3 increase in exposure). CONCLUSION: Air pollution exposure does not seem to increase the overall risk of allergic sensitization; however, sensitization to birch as well as grass pollen Phl p 1 and cat Fel d 1 allergen molecules may be related to specific pollutants.

9.
Epigenet Insights ; 13: 2516865720930701, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964196

RESUMO

Background: How epigenetic modifications of DNA are associated with gestational age at birth is not fully understood. We investigated potential effects of differential paternal DNA methylation (DNAm) on offspring gestational age at birth by conducting an epigenome-wide search for cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites. Methods: Study participants in this study consist of male cohort members or partners of the F1-generation of the Isle of Wight Birth Cohort (IoWBC). DNAm levels in peripheral blood from F1-fathers (n = 92) collected around pregnancy of their spouses were analyzed using the Illumina 450K array. A 5-step statistical analysis was performed. First, a training-testing screening approach was applied to select CpG sites that are potentially associated with gestational age at birth. Second, functional enrichment analysis was employed to identify biological processes. Third, by centralizing on biologically informative genes, Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the hazard ratios of individual paternal CpGs on gestational age adjusting for confounders. Fourth, to assess the validity of our results, we compared our CpG-gestational age correlations within a Born into Life Study in Sweden (n = 15). Finally, we investigated the correlation between the detected CpGs and differential gene expression in F2 cord blood in the IoWBC. Results: Analysis of DNAm of fathers collected around their partner's pregnancy identified 216 CpG sites significantly associated with gestational age at birth. Functional enrichment pathways analyses of the annotated genes revealed 2 biological pathways significantly related to cell-cell membrane adhesion molecules. Differential methylation of 9 cell membrane adhesion pathway-related CpGs were significantly associated with gestational age at birth after adjustment for confounders. The replication sample showed correlation coefficients of 2 pathway-related CpGs with gestational age at birth within 95% confidence intervals of correlation coefficients in IoWBC. Finally, CpG sites of protocadherin (PCDH) gene clusters were associated with gene expression of PCDH in F2 cord blood. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that differential paternal DNAm may affect gestational age at birth through cell-cell membrane adhesion molecules. The results are novel but require future replication in a larger cohort.

10.
Reprod Sci ; 2020 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32754889

RESUMO

This study aims to evaluate the association of maternal DNA methylation (DNAm) during pregnancy and offspring birthweight. One hundred twenty-two newborn-mother dyads from the Isle of Wight (IOW) cohort were studied to identify differentially methylated cytosine-phosphate-guanine sites (CpGs) in maternal blood associated with offspring birthweight. Peripheral blood samples were drawn from mothers at 22-38 weeks of pregnancy for epigenome-wide DNAm assessment using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450K array. Candidate CpGs were identified using a course of 100 repetitions of a training and testing process with robust regressions. CpGs were considered informative if they showed statistical significance in at least 80% of training and testing samples. Linear mixed models adjusting for covariates were applied to further assess the selected CpGs. The Swedish Born Into Life cohort was used to replicate our findings (n = 33). Eight candidate CpGs corresponding to the genes LMF1, KIF9, KLHL18, DAB1, VAX2, CD207, SCT, SCYL2, DEPDC4, NECAP1, and SFRS3 in mothers were identified as statistically significantly associated with their children's birthweight in the IOW cohort and confirmed by linear mixed models after adjusting for covariates. Of these, in the replication cohort, three CpGs (cg01816814, cg23153661, and cg17722033 with p values = 0.06, 0.175, and 0.166, respectively) associated with four genes (LMF1, VAX2, CD207, and NECAP1) were marginally significant. Biological pathway analyses of three of the genes revealed cellular processes such as endocytosis (possibly sustaining an adequate maternal-fetal interface) and metabolic processes such as regulation of lipoprotein lipase activity (involved in providing substrates for the developing fetus). Our results contribute to an epigenetic understanding of maternal involvement in offspring birthweight. Measuring DNAm levels of maternal CpGs may in the future serve as a diagnostic tool recognizing mothers at risk for pregnancies ending with altered birthweights.

11.
Allergy ; 2020 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32277847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Allergic diseases often occur in combination (multimorbidity). Human blood transcriptome studies have not addressed multimorbidity. Large-scale gene expression data were combined to retrieve biomarkers and signaling pathways to disentangle allergic multimorbidity phenotypes. METHODS: Integrated transcriptomic analysis was conducted in 1233 participants with a discovery phase using gene expression data (Human Transcriptome Array 2.0) from whole blood of 786 children from three European birth cohorts (MeDALL), and a replication phase using RNA Sequencing data from an independent cohort (EVA-PR, n = 447). Allergic diseases (asthma, atopic dermatitis, rhinitis) were considered as single disease or multimorbidity (at least two diseases), and compared with no disease. RESULTS: Fifty genes were differentially expressed in allergic diseases. Thirty-two were not previously described in allergy. Eight genes were consistently overexpressed in all types of multimorbidity for asthma, dermatitis, and rhinitis (CLC, EMR4P, IL5RA, FRRS1, HRH4, SLC29A1, SIGLEC8, IL1RL1). All genes were replicated the in EVA-PR cohort. RT-qPCR validated the overexpression of selected genes. In MeDALL, 27 genes were differentially expressed in rhinitis alone, but none was significant for asthma or dermatitis alone. The multimorbidity signature was enriched in eosinophil-associated immune response and signal transduction. Protein-protein interaction network analysis identified IL5/JAK/STAT and IL33/ST2/IRAK/TRAF as key signaling pathways in multimorbid diseases. Synergistic effect of multimorbidity on gene expression levels was found. CONCLUSION: A signature of eight genes identifies multimorbidity for asthma, rhinitis, and dermatitis. Our results have clinical and mechanistic implications, and suggest that multimorbidity should be considered differently than allergic diseases occurring alone.

12.
Environ Res ; 185: 109404, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247905

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Increasing evidence indicates aggravation of immune-mediated diseases due to physiological and psychological stress. Noise is a stressor, however, little is known about its effects on children's respiratory health. This study investigates the association between pre- or postnatal road traffic or occupational noise exposure and asthma as well as related symptoms from infancy to adolescence. METHODS: The study was conducted in the Swedish birth cohort BAMSE, including over 4000 participants followed with repeated questionnaires and clinical tests until 16 years of age. Pre- and postnatal residential road traffic noise was assessed by estimating time-weighted average noise levels at the most exposed façade. Maternal occupational noise exposure during pregnancy was evaluated using a job-exposure-matrix. The associations between noise exposure and asthma-related outcomes were explored using logistic regression and generalised estimating equations. RESULTS: We observed non-significant associations for asthma ever up to 16 years with residential road traffic noise exposure in infancy ≥55 dBLden (adjusted OR = 1.22; 95% CI 0.90-1.65), as well as prenatal occupational noise exposure ≥80 dBLAeq,8h (1.18, 0.85-1.62). In longitudinal analyses, however, no clear associations between pre- or postnatal exposure to residential road traffic noise, or average exposure to noise since birth, were detected in relation to asthma or wheeze until 16 years. CONCLUSION: We did not find a clear overall association between exposure to noise during different time periods and asthma or wheeze up to adolescence.


Assuntos
Asma , Ruído dos Transportes , Adolescente , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/etiologia , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Suécia/epidemiologia
14.
Epigenet Insights ; 12: 2516865719867090, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31453433

RESUMO

There is emerging evidence on DNA methylation (DNAm) variability over time; however, little is known about dynamics of DNAm patterns during pregnancy. We performed an epigenome-wide longitudinal DNAm study of a well-characterized sample of young women from the Swedish Born into Life study, with repeated blood sampling before, during and after pregnancy (n = 21), using the Illumina Infinium MethylationEPIC array. We conducted a replication in the Isle of Wight third-generation birth cohort (n = 27), using the Infinium HumanMethylation450k BeadChip. We identified 196 CpG sites displaying intra-individual longitudinal change in DNAm with a false discovery rate (FDR) P < .05. Most of these (91%) showed a decrease in average methylation levels over the studied period. We observed several genes represented by ⩾3 differentially methylated CpGs: HOXB3, AVP, LOC100996291, and MicroRNA 10a. Of 36 CpGs available in the replication cohort, 17 were replicated, all but 2 with the same direction of association (replication P < .05). Biological pathway analysis demonstrated that FDR-significant CpGs belong to genes overrepresented in metabolism-related pathways, such as adipose tissue development, regulation of insulin receptor signaling, and mammary gland fat development. These results contribute to a better understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying important physiological alterations and adaptations for pregnancy and lactation.

15.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 49(9): 1225-1234, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187518

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Response to inhaled corticosteroids is highly variable, and the association between DNA methylation and treatment response is not known. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between peripheral blood DNA methylation and inhaled corticosteroid response in children with persistent asthma. METHODS: Epigenome-wide DNA methylation was analysed in individuals on inhaled corticosteroids in three independent and ethnically diverse cohorts-Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP); Children, Allergy, Milieu, Stockholm, Epidemiology (BAMSE); and Genetic Epidemiology of Asthma in Costa Rica Study (GACRS). Treatment response was evaluated using two definitions, the absence of emergency department visits and/or hospitalizations and the absence oral corticosteroid use while on inhaled corticosteroid therapy. CpG sites meeting nominal significance (P < 0.05) for each outcome were combined in a three-cohort meta-analysis with adjustment for multiple testing. DNA methylation was correlated with gene expression using Pearson and partial correlations. RESULTS: In 154 subjects from CAMP, 72 from BAMSE, and 168 from GACRS, relative hypomethylation of cg00066816 (171 bases upstream of IL12B) was associated with the absence of emergency department visits and/or hospitalizations (Q = 0.03) in all cohorts and lower IL12B expression (ρ = 0.34, P = 0.01) in BAMSE. Relative hypermethylation of cg04256470 (688 bases upstream of CORT) was associated with the absence of oral corticosteroid use (Q = 0.04) in all cohorts and higher CORT expression (ρ = 0.20, P = 0.045) in CAMP. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Differential DNA methylation of IL12B and CORT are associated with inhaled corticosteroid treatment response in persistent childhood asthmatics. Pharmaco-methylation can identify novel markers of treatment sensitivity in asthma.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Asma , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Subunidade p40 da Interleucina-12 , Neuropeptídeos , Administração por Inalação , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/genética , Asma/imunologia , Asma/metabolismo , Criança , Ilhas de CpG/imunologia , Metilação de DNA/imunologia , Epigenoma/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Subunidade p40 da Interleucina-12/genética , Subunidade p40 da Interleucina-12/imunologia , Masculino , Neuropeptídeos/genética , Neuropeptídeos/imunologia
16.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(5): 57012, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to air pollution has been associated with childhood respiratory disease and other adverse outcomes. Epigenetics is a suggested link between exposures and health outcomes. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate associations between prenatal exposure to particulate matter (PM) with diameter [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) or [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) and DNA methylation in newborns and children. METHODS: We meta-analyzed associations between exposure to [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) and [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) at maternal home addresses during pregnancy and newborn DNA methylation assessed by Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip in nine European and American studies, with replication in 688 independent newborns and look-up analyses in 2,118 older children. We used two approaches, one focusing on single cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites and another on differentially methylated regions (DMRs). We also related PM exposures to blood mRNA expression. RESULTS: Six CpGs were significantly associated [false discovery rate (FDR) [Formula: see text]] with prenatal [Formula: see text] and 14 with [Formula: see text] exposure. Two of the [Formula: see text] CpGs mapped to FAM13A (cg00905156) and NOTCH4 (cg06849931) previously associated with lung function and asthma. Although these associations did not replicate in the smaller newborn sample, both CpGs were significant ([Formula: see text]) in 7- to 9-y-olds. For cg06849931, however, the direction of the association was inconsistent. Concurrent [Formula: see text] exposure was associated with a significantly higher NOTCH4 expression at age 16 y. We also identified several DMRs associated with either prenatal [Formula: see text] and or [Formula: see text] exposure, of which two [Formula: see text] DMRs, including H19 and MARCH11, replicated in newborns. CONCLUSIONS: Several differentially methylated CpGs and DMRs associated with prenatal PM exposure were identified in newborns, with annotation to genes previously implicated in lung-related outcomes. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4522.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Epigenoma , Sangue Fetal/química , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez
17.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 222(5): 824-830, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036481

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to traffic noise has been associated with hypertension in adults but the evidence in adolescents is limited. We investigated long-term road traffic noise exposure, maternal occupational noise during pregnancy and other factors in relation to blood pressure and prehypertension at 16 years of age. METHODS: Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured in 2597 adolescents from the Swedish BAMSE birth cohort. Levels of road traffic noise were estimated at home addresses during lifetime and for the mother during pregnancy as well as maternal occupational noise exposure during pregnancy. Exposure to NOx from local sources was also assessed. Associations between noise or NOx exposure and blood pressure or prehypertension were analysed using linear and logistic regression. RESULTS: The prevalence of prehypertension was higher among males and in those with overweight, low physical activity or overweight mothers. No strong or consistent associations were observed between pre- or postnatal exposure to road traffic noise and blood pressure at 16 years of age. However, inverse associations were suggested for systolic or diastolic blood pressure and prehypertension, which reached statistical significance among males (OR 0.80 per 10 dB Lden, 95% CI 0.65-0.99) and those with maternal occupational noise exposure ≥ 70 dB LAeq8h (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.41-0.87). On the other hand, occupational noise exposure during pregnancy tended to increase systolic blood pressure and prehypertension risk in adolescence. No associations were seen for NOx exposure. CONCLUSION: No conclusive associations were observed between pre- or postnatal noise exposure and blood pressure or prehypertension in adolescents.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal
19.
Health Place ; 57: 200-203, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100656

RESUMO

The present study investigated whether associations between greenness and birth outcomes can be detected in children belonging to a Swedish birth cohort (BAMSE). Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) within a 500 m buffer zone around maternal address was used as estimate of greenness. Ordinary least squares and quantile regression models were performed to investigate associations between neighbourhood NDVI and birthweight (n = 2619), birth length (n = 2490) and head circumference (n = 2243). Logistic regression analyses were used to detect the association between NDVI and odds of being born as "small-" or "large-for-gestational-age". There were no clear associations between NDVI and birth weight in the total sample. However, in a suburban sub-sample, increased NDVI levels were significantly associated with elevated birthweight of small new-borns (ß2nd percentile = 276 g, 95% CI 61 to 492, p = 0.012), and significantly reduced the odds ratio (OR) for children being born as small-for-gestational-age (OR = 0.31 95% CI 0.1 to 1, p = 0.049). No significant associations were found between NDVI and birth length or head circumference. In conclusion, neighbourhood greenness appears not to be associated with birthweight as such, but rather decrease the odds of being born underweight, in particular in suburban areas.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Parques Recreativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Suécia
20.
Eur Respir J ; 53(5)2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30923181

RESUMO

Early allergic sensitisation (atopy) is the first step in the development of allergic diseases such as atopic asthma later in life. Genes and pathways associated with atopy and atopic asthma in children and adolescents have not been well characterised.A transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) of atopy and atopic asthma in white blood cells (WBCs) or whole blood was conducted in a cohort of 460 Puerto Ricans aged 9-20 years (EVA-PR study) and in a cohort of 250 Swedish adolescents (BAMSE study). Pathway enrichment and network analyses were conducted to further assess top findings, and classification models of atopy and atopic asthma were built using expression levels for the top differentially expressed genes (DEGs).In a meta-analysis of the study cohorts, both previously implicated genes (e.g. IL5RA and IL1RL1) and genes not previously reported in TWASs (novel) were significantly associated with atopy and/or atopic asthma. Top novel genes for atopy included SIGLEC8 (p=8.07×10-13), SLC29A1 (p=7.07×10-12) and SMPD3 (p=1.48×10-11). Expression quantitative trait locus analyses identified multiple asthma-relevant genotype-expression pairs, such as rs2255888/ALOX15 Pathway enrichment analysis uncovered 16 significantly enriched pathways at adjusted p<0.01, including those relevant to T-helper cell type 1 (Th1) and Th2 immune responses. Classification models built using the top DEGs and a few demographic/parental history variables accurately differentiated subjects with atopic asthma from nonatopic control subjects (area under the curve 0.84).We have identified genes and pathways for atopy and atopic asthma in children and adolescents, using transcriptome-wide data from WBCs and whole blood samples.


Assuntos
Asma/genética , Hipersensibilidade/genética , Leucócitos , Transcriptoma , Adolescente , Antígenos CD/genética , Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos B/genética , Araquidonato 15-Lipoxigenase/genética , Asma/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Transportador Equilibrativo 1 de Nucleosídeo/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/complicações , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Lectinas/genética , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Porto Rico , Esfingomielina Fosfodiesterase/genética , Adulto Jovem
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