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1.
Chemosphere ; 210: 401-416, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30015131

RESUMO

In the operation of biological wastewater treatment processes, fast sludge settling during liquid-solids disengagement is preferred as it affects effluent quality, treatment efficiency and plant operation economy. An important property of fast settling biological sludge is the ability to spontaneously form big and dense flocs (flocculation) that readily separates from water. Therefore, there had been much research to study the conditions that promote biological sludge flocculation. However, reported findings have often been inconsistent and this has possibly been due to the complex nature of the biological flocculation process. Thus, it has been challenging for wastewater treatment plant operators to extract practical information from the literature. The aim of this review is to summarize the current state of understanding of the factors that affect sludge flocculation so that evaluation of such information can be facilitated and strategize for intervention in the sludge flocculation and deflocculation process.


Assuntos
Floculação , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Águas Residuárias/química , Esgotos/química , Esgotos/microbiologia , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia
2.
Anal Chem ; 85(21): 10495-502, 2013 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24080025

RESUMO

The ion-to-electron transduction reaction mechanism at the buried interface of the electrosynthesized poly(3-octylthiophene) (POT) solid-contact (SC) ion-selective electrode (ISE) polymeric membrane has been studied using synchrotron radiation-X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (SR-XPS), near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)/neutron reflectometry (NR). The tetrakis[3,5-bis(triflouromethyl)phenyl]borate (TFPB(-)) membrane dopant in the polymer ISE was transferred from the polymeric membrane to the outer surface layer of the SC on oxidation of POT but did not migrate further into the oxidized POT SC. The TFPB(-) and oxidized POT species could only be detected at the outer surface layer (≤14 Ǻ) of the SC material, even after oxidation of the electropolymerized POT SC for an hour at high anodic potential demonstrating that the ion-to-electron transduction reaction is a surface confined process. Accordingly, this study provides the first direct structural evidence of ion-to-electron transduction in the electropolymerized POT SC ISE by proving TFPB(-) transport from the polymeric ISE membrane to the oxidized POT SC at the buried interface of the SC ISE. It is inferred that the performance of the POT SC ISE is independent of the thickness of the POT SC but is instead contingent on the POT SC surface reactivity and/or electrical capacitance of the POT SC. In particular, the results suggest that the electropolymerized POT conducting polymer may spontaneously form a mixed surface/bulk oxidation state, which may explain the unusually high potential stability of the resulting ISE. It is anticipated that this new understanding of ion-to-electron transduction with electropolymerized POT SC ISEs will enable the development of new and improved devices with enhanced analytical performance attributes.


Assuntos
Elétrons , Eletrodos Íon-Seletivos , Polímeros/química , Tiofenos/química , Propriedades de Superfície
3.
Anal Chem ; 85(13): 6208-12, 2013 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23731350

RESUMO

Potentiometric sensors that exhibit a non-Hofmeister selectivity sequence are normally designed by selective chemical recognition elements in the membrane. In other situations, when used as detectors in separation science, for example, membranes that respond equally to most ions are preferred. With so-called liquid membranes, a low selectivity is difficult to accomplish since these membranes are intrinsically responsive to lipophilic species. Instead, the high solubility of sample lipids in an ionophore-free sensing matrix results in a deterioration of the response. We explore here potentiometric sensors on the basis of ion-exchange membranes commonly used in fuel cell applications and electrodialysis, which have so far not found their way into the field of ion-selective electrodes. These membranes act as Donnan exclusion membranes as the ions are not stripped of their hydration shell as they interact with the membrane. Because of this, lipophilic ions are no longer preferred over hydrophilic ones, making them promising candidates for the detection of abundant ions in the presence of lipophilic ones or as detectors in separation science. Two types of cation-exchanger membranes and one anion-exchange membrane were characterized, and potentiometric measuring ranges were found to be Nernstian over a wide range down to about 10 µM concentrations. Depending on the specific membrane, lipophilic ions gave equal response to hydrophilic ones or were even somewhat discriminated. The medium and long-term stability and reproducibility of the electrode signals were found to be promising when evaluated in synthetic and whole blood samples.

4.
Anal Chem ; 84(14): 6158-65, 2012 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22703479

RESUMO

Seawater analysis is one of the most challenging in the field of environmental monitoring, mainly due to disparate concentration levels between the analyte and the salt matrix causing interferences in a variety of analytical techniques. We propose here a miniature electrochemical sample pretreatment system for a rapid removal of NaCl utilizing the coaxial arrangement of an electrode and a tubular Nafion membrane. Upon electrolysis, chloride is deposited at the Ag electrode as AgCl and the sodium counterions are transported across the membrane. This cell was found to work efficiently at potentials higher than 400 mV in both stationary and flow injection mode. Substantial residual currents observed during electrolysis were found to be a result of NaCl back diffusion from the outer side of the membrane due to insufficient permselectivity of the Nafion membrane. It was demonstrated that the residual current can be significantly reduced by adjusting the concentration of the outer solution. On the basis of ion chromatography results, it was found that the designed cell used in flow injection electrolysis mode reduced the NaCl concentration from 0.6 M to 3 mM. This attempt is very important in view of nutrient analysis in seawater where NaCl is a major interfering agent. We demonstrate that the pretreatment of artificial seawater samples does not reduce the content of nitrite or nitrate ions upon electrolysis. A simple diffusion/extraction steady state model is proposed for the optimization of the electrolysis cell characteristics.

5.
Anal Chem ; 84(3): 1327-35, 2012 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22185519

RESUMO

Ion-selective membranes operated in a thin layer coulometric detection mode have previously been demonstrated to exhibit attractive characteristics in view of realizing sensors without the need for frequent recalibration. In this methodology, the analyte ion is exhaustively removed across an ion-selective membrane by an applied potential, and the resulting current is integrated to yield the coulomb number and hence the amount of analyte originally present in the sample. This exhaustive process, however, places greater demands on the selectivity of the membrane compared to direct potentiometry, since the level of interference will increase as the analyte depletes. We evaluate here a double pulse protocol to reduce the level of interference, in which the sample is electrolyzed once again after the initial coulometric detection pulse. Since the analyte ion is no longer present at significant concentrations during the second pulse, but an interfering ion of high concentration did not appreciably deplete, the second electrolysis step may be used to partially compensate for undesired interference. These processes are here evaluated by numerical simulation for ions of the same charge, demonstrating that the resulting coulomb number may indeed be reduced for systems of limited selectivity. The improvement in operational selectivity relative to uncompensated coulometry is found to be ca. 6-fold. The methodology is successfully demonstrated experimentally with a calcium selective membrane and tetraethylammonium as a model interfering agent, and the observed relative errors after background compensation can be favorably compared to that in direct potentiometry where no sample depletion occurs.


Assuntos
Técnicas Eletroquímicas/instrumentação , Eletrodos Íon-Seletivos , Cálcio/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Membranas Artificiais , Modelos Teóricos , Tetraetilamônio/química
6.
Chimia (Aarau) ; 65(3): 141-9, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21528649

RESUMO

While potentiometric sensors experienced a golden age in the 1970s that drove innovation and implementation in the clinical laboratory as sensors of choice, it has been only fairly recently that a theoretical understanding coupled with modern materials approaches transformed the area of membrane electrodes from a playful, yet empirical field to one firmly rooted in scientific understanding. This paper summarizes key progress in the field during the past two decades, emphasizing that the key impulses at the time originated from the emerging field of optical ion sensors. This simplified and transformed the underlying theory of their potentiometric membrane electrode counterparts, where subsequently substantial progress was made, including the realization of ultra-trace detection limits. The better understanding of zero-current ion fluxes and transport processes in turn allowed the development of approaches utilizing dynamic electrochemistry principles, thereby drastically expanding the field of membrane electrodes and making available a range of new methodologies that would have been difficult to predict only a few years ago. These significant developments are now starting to come back and influence the field of optical sensors, where the control and triggering of dynamic processes, away from simpler equilibrium principles, are becoming a highly promising field of research.


Assuntos
Eletrodos , Íons , Membranas Artificiais , Óptica e Fotônica , Eletroquímica
7.
Anal Chim Acta ; 683(1): 92-5, 2010 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21094386

RESUMO

A theoretical treatment of potentiometric data is applied to calculate coextraction constants (K(IA)) for three potassium salts from water into a liquid nitrobenzene phase. The experiment involves treating nitrobenzene as a membrane and contacting it with two aqueous solutions of different ion activities. In the presence of either a cation or anion exchanger, the ratio of activities of ions in the two aqueous phases gives rise to a potential difference across the membrane that depends upon the nature and charge of the counter ion of the ion-exchanger in excess. Here, the cation exchanger was chosen to be potassium tetrakis(4-chlorophenyl)borate (KTpClPB) and the anion exchanger was tetradodecylammonium chloride (TDDACl). TDDACl was incrementally added to the nitrobenzene phase containing a fixed concentration of KTpClPB, and the corresponding emf was recorded as a function of concentration of TDDACl. The membrane changes from one with cation exchanger properties (excess KTpClPB) to one with anion exchanger properties (excess TDDACl). The potential difference and shape of the titration curve can be predicted by theory based on the phase boundary potential model. Log(K(IA)) values calculated for KCl, KNO(3) and KClO(4) in nitrobenzene were found as: -10.53 (± 0.09), -8.16 (± 0.05) and -5.63 (± 0.03) respectively, in accordance with the Hofmeister series of lipophilicity, and similar to those observed in PVC membranes containing other plasticizers. The method presented here offers the advantage over other methods to calculate K(IA), in that it is relatively experimentally simple without compromising the accuracy of the calculated coextraction constants. The ability to titrate directly into the liquid membrane phase affords a higher precision compared to the preparation of a series of PVC/plasticizer membranes with different compositions.

8.
Electrochem commun ; 12(9): 1195-1198, 2010 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20711488

RESUMO

A promising method for the elimination of undesired capacitive currents in view of realizing a potentially calibration free coulometric ion detection system is presented. The coulometric cell is composed of a porous polypropylene tube doped with a liquid calcium-selective membrane and a silver/silver chloride wire as an inner electrode, forming a thin layer sample between wire and tubing. The total charge passed through the system during potential controlled electrolysis of the thin layer sample is indeed found to be proportional to the amount of calcium present, but non-Faradaic processes do contribute to the obtained signal. We introduce here a multi-pulse procedure that allows one to perform a second excitation pulse at the same excitation potential after exhaustive ion transfer voltammetry of calcium has taken place. The intercept of the calibration curve after background subtraction is found as 20.6 +/- 0.6 muC, significantly lower than the value of 54.1 +/- 0.8 muC for the uncorrected curve. Changes in sample temperature (from 23 degrees C to 38 degrees C) did equally not affect the background corrected coulometric readings, supporting that the procedure renders the readout principle more robust.

9.
Anal Chem ; 82(16): 6887-94, 2010 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20666464

RESUMO

We report here on the synthesis of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) covalently modified with ferrocene groups (FcPVC) and the electrochemical behavior of the resulting polymeric membranes in view of designing all solid state voltammetric ion sensors. The Huisgen cycloaddition ("click chemistry") was found to be a simple and efficient method for ferrocene attachment. A degree of PVC modification with ferrocene groups between 1.9 and 6.1 mol % was achieved. The chemical modification of the PVC backbone does not significantly affect the ion-selective properties (selectivity, mobility, and solvent casting ability) of potentiometric sensing membranes applying this polymer. Importantly, the presence of such ferrocene groups may eliminate the need for an additional redox-active layer between the membrane and the inner electric contact in all solid state sensor designs. Electrochemical doping of this system was studied in a symmetrical sandwich configuration: glassy carbon electrode |FcPVC| glassy carbon electrode. Prior electrochemical doping from aqueous solution, resulting in a partial oxidation of the ferrocene groups, was confirmed to be necessary for the sandwich configuration to pass current effectively. The results suggest that only approximately 2.3 mol % of the ferrocene groups are electrochemically accessible, likely due to surface confined electrochemical behavior in the polymer. Indeed, cyclic voltammetry of aqueous hexacyanoferrate (III) remains featureless at cathodic potentials (down to -0.5 V). This indicates that the modified membrane is not responsive to redox-active species in the sample solution, making it possible to apply this polymer as a traditional, single membrane. Yet, the redox capacity of the electrode modified with this type of membrane was more than 520 microC considering a 20 mm(2) active electrode area, which appears to be sufficient for numerous practical ion voltammetric applications. The electrode was observed to operate reproducibly, with 1% standard deviation, when applying pulsed amperometric techniques.


Assuntos
Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Elétrons , Compostos Ferrosos/química , Íons/química , Cloreto de Polivinila/química , Carbono/química , Eletrodos , Metalocenos , Oxirredução
10.
Anal Chem ; 82(14): 6203-7, 2010 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20557118

RESUMO

This paper reports on three-dimensional synchrotron radiation/Fourier transform-infrared microspectroscopy (SR/FT-IRM) imaging studies of water inclusions at the buried interface of solid-contact-ion-selective electrodes (SC-ISEs). It is our intention to describe a nondestructive method that may be used in surface studies of the buried interfaces of materials, especially multilayers of polymers. Herein, we demonstrate the power of SR/FT-IRM for studying water inclusions at the buried interfaces of SC-ISEs. A poly(methyl methacrylate)-poly(decyl methacyrlate) [PMMA-PDMA] copolymer revealed the presence of micrometer sized inclusions of water at the gold/membrane interface, while a coupling of a hydrophobic solid contact of poly(3-octylthiophene 2,5-diyl) (POT) prevented the accumulation of water at the buried interface. A similar study with a poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly (styrenesulfonate) [PEDOT/PSS] solid contact also revealed an absence of distinct micrometer-sized pools of water; however, there were signs of absorption of water accompanied by swelling of the PEDOT/PSS underlayer, and these membrane zones are enriched with respect to water.


Assuntos
Polímeros/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos , Síncrotrons , Água/química , Ouro/química , Eletrodos Íon-Seletivos , Tiofenos/química
11.
Anal Chem ; 82(11): 4537-42, 2010 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20429515

RESUMO

We are demonstrating here for the first time a thin layer coulometric detection mode for ionophore based liquid ion-selective membranes. Coulometry promises to achieve the design of robust, calibration free sensors that are especially attractive for applications where recalibration in situ is difficult or undesirable. This readout principle is here achieved with porous polypropylene tubing doped with the membrane material and which contains a chlorinated silver wire in the inner compartment, together with the fluidically delivered sample solution. The membrane material consists of the lipophilic plasticizer dodecyl 2-nitrophenyl ether, the lipophilic electrolyte ETH 500, and the calcium ionophore ETH 5234. Importantly and in contrast to earlier work on voltammetric liquid membrane electrodes, the membrane also contains a cation-exchanger salt, KTFPB. This renders the membrane permselective and allows one to observe open circuit potentiometric responses for the device, which is confirmed to follow the expected Nernstian equation. Moreover, as the same cationic species is now potential determining at both interfaces of the membrane, it is possible to use rapidly diffusing and/or thin membrane systems where transport processes at the inner and outer interface of the membrane do not perturb each other or the overall composition of the membrane. The tubing is immersed in an electrolyte solution where the counter and working electrode are placed, and the potentials are applied relative to the measured open circuit potentials. Exhaustive current decays are observed in the range of 10 to 100 muM calcium chloride. The observed charge, calculated as integrated currents, is linearly dependent on concentration and forms the basis for the coulometric readout of ion-selective membrane electrodes.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Química Analítica/métodos , Ionóforos/química , Membranas Artificiais , Cloreto de Cálcio/química , Calibragem , Eletroquímica , Prata/química , Compostos de Prata/química , Água/química
12.
Anal Chim Acta ; 625(2): 137-44, 2008 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18724987

RESUMO

In this work, a new concept of the solid-state sensors free from EMF instabilities is proposed. In order to prevent the formation of an aqueous layer underneath the ion-selective membrane, instead of improving the hydrophobicity of the monolayer, the moieties terminated with acrylate groups were incorporated within the redox-active monolayer structure. It allowed to "sew" all phases of the sensor (i.e., the transducer, the intermediate layer and the ion-selective membrane) and to obtain a stable and durable ion-selective sensor. It is shown that newly designed monolayer containing both the ferrocene- and the acrylate-terminated molecules does not affect the working parameters of the electrode, such as selectivity or the slope of the calibration curve, although the EMF drift of the sensor is significantly reduced to 0.2 mV per day.


Assuntos
Acrilatos/química , Compostos Ferrosos/química , Eletrodos Íon-Seletivos , Membranas Artificiais , Sítios de Ligação , Calibragem , Eletroquímica , Ouro/química , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Íons/química , Microscopia de Força Atômica/instrumentação , Microscopia de Força Atômica/métodos , Estrutura Molecular , Oxirredução , Potenciometria/instrumentação , Potenciometria/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/instrumentação , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Propriedades de Superfície , Fatores de Tempo
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