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1.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(41): 17004-17014, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623792

RESUMO

Rapid screening of infected individuals from a large population is an effective means in epidemiology, especially to contain outbreaks such as COVID-19. The gold standard assays for COVID-19 diagnostics are mainly based on the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, which mismatches the requirements for wide-population screening due to time-consuming nucleic acid extraction and amplification procedures. Here, we report a direct nucleic acid assay by using a graphene field-effect transistor (g-FET) with Y-shaped DNA dual probes (Y-dual probes). The assay relies on Y-dual probes modified on g-FET simultaneously targeting ORF1ab and N genes of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid, enabling high a recognition ratio and a limit of detection (0.03 copy µL-1) 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than existing nucleic acid assays. The assay realizes the fastest nucleic acid testing (∼1 min) and achieves direct 5-in-1 pooled testing for the first time. Owing to its rapid, ultrasensitive, easily operated features as well as capability in pooled testing, it holds great promise as a comprehensive tool for population-wide screening of COVID-19 and other epidemics.

2.
Genome Med ; 13(1): 164, 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The receptor-binding domain (RBD) variants of SARS-CoV-2 could impair antibody-mediated neutralization of the virus by host immunity; thus, prospective surveillance of antibody escape mutants and understanding the evolution of RBD are urgently needed. METHODS: Using the single B cell cloning technology, we isolated and characterized 93 RBD-specific antibodies from the memory B cells of four COVID-19 convalescent individuals in the early stage of the pandemic. Then, global RBD alanine scanning with a panel of 19 selected neutralizing antibodies (NAbs), including several broadly reactive NAbs, was performed. Furthermore, we assessed the impact of single natural mutation or co-mutations of concern at key positions of RBD on the neutralization escape and ACE2 binding function by recombinant proteins and pseudoviruses. RESULTS: Thirty-three amino acid positions within four independent antigenic sites (1 to 4) of RBD were identified as valuable indicators of antigenic changes in the RBD. The comprehensive escape mutation map not only confirms the widely circulating strains carrying important immune escape RBD mutations such as K417N, E484K, and L452R, but also facilitates the discovery of new immune escape-enabling mutations such as F486L, N450K, F490S, and R346S. Of note, these escape mutations could not affect the ACE2 binding affinity of RBD, among which L452R even enhanced binding. Furthermore, we showed that RBD co-mutations K417N, E484K, and N501Y present in B.1.351 appear more resistant to NAbs and human convalescent plasma from the early stage of the pandemic, possibly due to an additive effect. Conversely, double mutations E484Q and L452R present in B.1.617.1 variant show partial antibody evasion with no evidence for an additive effect. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides a global view of the determinants for neutralizing antibody recognition, antigenic conservation, and RBD conformation. The in-depth escape maps may have value for prospective surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 immune escape variants. Special attention should be paid to the accumulation of co-mutations at distinct major antigenic sites. Finally, the new broadly reactive NAbs described here represent new potential opportunities for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19.

3.
Cell Discov ; 7(1): 71, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408130

RESUMO

Massive production of efficacious SARS-CoV-2 vaccines is essential for controlling the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. We report here the preclinical development of yeast-produced receptor-binding domain (RBD)-based recombinant protein SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. We found that monomeric RBD of SARS-CoV-2 could be efficiently produced as a secreted protein from transformed Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris) yeast. Yeast-derived RBD-monomer possessed functional conformation and was able to elicit protective level of neutralizing antibodies in mice. We further designed and expressed a genetically linked dimeric RBD protein in yeast. The engineered dimeric RBD was more potent than the monomeric RBD in inducing long-lasting neutralizing antibodies. Mice immunized with either monomeric RBD or dimeric RBD were effectively protected from live SARS-CoV-2 virus challenge even at 18 weeks after the last vaccine dose. Importantly, we found that the antisera raised against the RBD of a single SARS-CoV-2 prototype strain could effectively neutralize the two predominant circulating variants B.1.1.7 and B.1.351, implying broad-spectrum protective potential of the RBD-based vaccines. Our data demonstrate that yeast-derived RBD-based recombinant SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are feasible and efficacious, opening up a new avenue for rapid and cost-effective production of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines to achieve global immunization.

4.
MAbs ; 13(1): 1953683, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34313527

RESUMO

The global pandemic of COVID-19 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in widespread social and economic disruption. Effective interventions are urgently needed for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have demonstrated their prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy against SARS-CoV-2, and several have been granted authorization for emergency use. Here, we discover and characterize a fully human cross-reactive mAb, MW06, which binds to both SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) and disrupts their interaction with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors. Potential neutralization activity of MW06 was observed against both SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV in different assays. The complex structure determination and epitope alignment of SARS-CoV-2 RBD/MW06 revealed that the epitope recognized by MW06 is highly conserved among SARS-related coronavirus strains, indicating the potential broad neutralization activity of MW06. In in vitro assays, no antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of SARS-CoV-2 infection was observed for MW06. In addition, MW06 recognizes a different epitope from MW05, which shows high neutralization activity and has been in a Phase 2 clinical trial, supporting the development of the cocktail of MW05 and MW06 to prevent against future escaping variants. MW06 alone and the cocktail show good effects in preventing escape mutations, including a series of variants of concern, B.1.1.7, P.1, B.1.351, and B.1.617.1. These findings suggest that MW06 recognizes a conserved epitope on SARS-CoV-2, which provides insights for the development of a universal antibody-based therapy against SARS-related coronavirus and emerging variant strains, and may be an effective anti-SARS-CoV-2 agent.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Vírus da SARS/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/química , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antivirais/química , Anticorpos Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Facilitadores , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/terapia , Sequência Conservada , Reações Cruzadas , Epitopos/química , Epitopos/genética , Epitopos/imunologia , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Testes de Neutralização , Pandemias , Domínios Proteicos , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Vírus da SARS/química , Vírus da SARS/genética , SARS-CoV-2/química , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia
5.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 1555-1573, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304724

RESUMO

To curb the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), multiple platforms have been employed toward a safe and highly effective vaccine. Here, we develop a novel cell-based vaccine candidate, namely K562-S, by utilizing human cell K562 as a cellular carrier to display Spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 on the membrane. Analogous to the traditional inactivated vaccine, K562-S cells can be propagated to a large scale by culturing and completely lose their viability after exposure to X-ray irradiation or formalin. We in turn demonstrated high immunogenicity of formalin-inactivated K562-S vaccine in both mouse and non-human primates and its protective efficacy in mice. In mice, immunization with inactivated K562-S vaccines can elicit potent neutralizing antibody (nAb) responses persisting longer than 5 months. We consequently showed in a hACE2 mouse model of SARS-CoV-2 infection that a two-shot vaccination with adjuvanted K562-S rendered greater than 3 log reduction in viral lung load and concomitant ameliorated lung pathology. Of importance, the administration of the same regimen in non-human primates was able to induce a neutralizing antibody titer averaging three-fold higher relative to human convalescent serum. These results together support the promise of K562-based, S-protein-expressing vaccines as a novel vaccination approach against SARS-CoV-2. Importantly, with a powerful capacity to carry external genes for cell-based vectors, this platform could rapidly generate two- and multiple-valent vaccines by incorporating SARS-CoV-2 mutants, SARS-CoV, or MERS-CoV.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/imunologia , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Células K562 , Macaca mulatta , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Primatas , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/administração & dosagem , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia
8.
Antiviral Res ; 190: 105076, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865876

RESUMO

Chronic infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a high risk factor for hepatic diseases, such as liver fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Non-responders and hyporesponders to HBV vaccine are not protected from HBV infection. Patients that achieve autonomous or treatment-induced recovery are at risk of reactivation due to persistence of HBV covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) in hepatocytes. Interleukin 21 (IL-21) is a key regulator of HBV clearance in mouse models of HBV persistence: IL-21-based therapies effectively induces HBV clearance and protects mice from subsequent re-challenge. In this study, we explore the possibility of using IL-21 as prophylaxis against HBV by using mouse models of HBV persistence. HBV-naïve mice were transiently exposed to exogenous IL-21 through injection with recombinant adeno-associated virus expressing mouse IL-21 (AAV-IL-21). After extraneous IL-21 protein and DNA had become undetectable, mice were challenged with persistence-inducing HBV replicon plasmid through hydrodynamic injection. Viral persistence was analyzed by measuring viral antigens and DNA markers in serum and intrahepatic HBV DNA. For mechanistic studies, CD8+ T cell functions were blocked by repeated intraperitoneal injections of CD8 monoclonal antibodies in HBV-challenged mice. AAV-IL-21-injected mice quickly cleared HBV after HBV replicon challenge. In contrast, untreated mice and mice injected with control virus (AAV-Ctrl) allowed establishment of HBV persistence. Mechanistically, mice with prior IL-21 exposure displayed marked intrahepatic CD8+ T cell infiltrations, and CD8 blocking experiments demonstrated that CD8+ T cell responses functionally contributed toward clearance.

9.
Front Immunol ; 12: 653189, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33828563

RESUMO

After the pandemic of COVID-19, neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against SARS-CoV-2 have been developed for the prophylactic and therapeutic purposes. However, few methodologies are described in detail on how to rapidly and efficiently generate effective NAbs to SARS-CoV-2. Here, we integrated and optimized a strategically screening method for NAbs, which has enabled us to obtain SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) specific NAbs within 6 days, followed by additional 9 days for antibody production and function analysis. Using this method, we obtained 198 specific Abs against SARS-CoV-2 RBD from the blood samples of COVID-19 convalescent patients, and 96 of them showed neutralizing activity. At least 20% of these NAbs exhibited advanced neutralizing potency and high affinity, with the top two NAbs showing half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) to block authentic SARS-CoV-2 at 9.88 and 11.13 ng/ml, respectively. Altogether, our study provides an effective methodology with high applicable value for discovering potential preventative and therapeutic NAbs for the emerging infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/imunologia , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo
10.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 549: 207-213, 2021 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684697

RESUMO

DNA transfection is routinely used for delivering expression of gene of interest to target cells. Transfected DNA has been known to activate cellular DNA sensor(s) and innate immune responses, but the effects of such responses on transfected DNA are not fully understood. STING (stimulator of interferon genes) is an important adaptor protein in cellular innate immune response to various DNA and RNA stimuli and upon activation induces significant type I interferon responses. In this work, we characterized the effects of STING on gene expression driven by transfected double-stranded DNA. We observed that gene expression from transfected DNA was repressed in the presence of overexpressed STING, but increased if endogenous STING was knocked down through RNA interference. Endogenous chromosomal genes and chromosome-integrated exogenous genes were not affected by such STING-mediated restriction, which did not depend on DNA circularity or linearity, promoter used, or bacterial sequences in transfected DNA. Mechanistically, STING-mediated repression of transfected DNA correlates with reduced mRNA levels, and partially involves the induction of interferon ß production by STING. Collectively, these data indicate that episomal double-stranded DNA is targeted by STING-mediated cell defense.


Assuntos
DNA/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Cromossomos Humanos/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Interferon beta/metabolismo , Transfecção
12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 264, 2021 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431876

RESUMO

The ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 are an option for drug development for treating COVID-19. Here, we report the identification and characterization of two groups of mouse neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) targeting the receptor-binding domain (RBD) on the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein. MAbs 2H2 and 3C1, representing the two antibody groups, respectively, bind distinct epitopes and are compatible in formulating a noncompeting antibody cocktail. A humanized version of the 2H2/3C1 cocktail is found to potently neutralize authentic SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro with half inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 12 ng/mL and effectively treat SARS-CoV-2-infected mice even when administered at as late as 24 h post-infection. We determine an ensemble of cryo-EM structures of 2H2 or 3C1 Fab in complex with the S trimer up to 3.8 Å resolution, revealing the conformational space of the antigen-antibody complexes and MAb-triggered stepwise allosteric rearrangements of the S trimer, delineating a previously uncharacterized dynamic process of coordinated binding of neutralizing antibodies to the trimeric S protein. Our findings provide important information for the development of MAb-based drugs for preventing and treating SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/química , Anticorpos Antivirais/farmacologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Mapeamento de Epitopos , Epitopos , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Modelos Moleculares , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Conformação Proteica , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia
13.
Sci Bull (Beijing) ; 66(9): 925-936, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33318880

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 infection is spreading rapidly worldwide. Efficacious antiviral therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2 is urgently needed. Here, we discovered that protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) and verteporfin, two Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs, completely inhibited the cytopathic effect produced by SARS-CoV-2 infection at 1.25 µmol/L and 0.31 µmol/L, respectively, and their EC50 values of reduction of viral RNA were at nanomolar concentrations. The selectivity indices of PpIX and verteporfin were 952.74 and 368.93, respectively, suggesting a broad margin of safety. Importantly, PpIX and verteporfin prevented SARS-CoV-2 infection in mice adenovirally transduced with human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). The compounds, sharing a porphyrin ring structure, were shown to bind viral receptor ACE2 and interfere with the interaction between ACE2 and the receptor-binding domain of viral S protein. Our study suggests that PpIX and verteporfin are potent antiviral agents against SARS-CoV-2 infection and sheds new light on developing novel chemoprophylaxis and chemotherapy against SARS-CoV-2.

14.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 282, 2020 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33247109

RESUMO

The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has posed serious threats to global health and economy, thus calling for the development of safe and effective vaccines. The receptor-binding domain (RBD) in the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 is responsible for its binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. It contains multiple dominant neutralizing epitopes and serves as an important antigen for the development of COVID-19 vaccines. Here, we showed that immunization of mice with a candidate subunit vaccine consisting of SARS-CoV-2 RBD and Fc fragment of human IgG, as an immunopotentiator, elicited high titer of RBD-specific antibodies with robust neutralizing activity against both pseudotyped and live SARS-CoV-2 infections. The mouse antisera could also effectively neutralize infection by pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 with several natural mutations in RBD and the IgG extracted from the mouse antisera could also show neutralization against pseudotyped SARS-CoV and SARS-related coronavirus (SARSr-CoV). Vaccination of human ACE2 transgenic mice with RBD-Fc could effectively protect mice from the SARS-CoV-2 challenge. These results suggest that SARS-CoV-2 RBD-Fc has good potential to be further developed as an effective and broad-spectrum vaccine to prevent infection of the current SARS-CoV-2 and its mutants, as well as future emerging SARSr-CoVs and re-emerging SARS-CoV.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/farmacologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/farmacologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/antagonistas & inibidores , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Epitopos/imunologia , Humanos , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Pandemias , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligação Proteica/imunologia , Receptores Virais/genética , Receptores Virais/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/antagonistas & inibidores
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(44): 27141-27147, 2020 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33024017

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has highlighted the urgent need to rapidly develop therapeutic strategies for such emerging viruses without effective vaccines or drugs. Here, we report a decoy nanoparticle against COVID-19 through a powerful two-step neutralization approach: virus neutralization in the first step followed by cytokine neutralization in the second step. The nanodecoy, made by fusing cellular membrane nanovesicles derived from human monocytes and genetically engineered cells stably expressing angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2) receptors, possesses an antigenic exterior the same as source cells. By competing with host cells for virus binding, these nanodecoys effectively protect host cells from the infection of pseudoviruses and authentic SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, relying on abundant cytokine receptors on the surface, the nanodecoys efficiently bind and neutralize inflammatory cytokines including interleukin 6 (IL-6) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and significantly suppress immune disorder and lung injury in an acute pneumonia mouse model. Our work presents a simple, safe, and robust antiviral nanotechnology for ongoing COVID-19 and future potential epidemics.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Citocinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Nanopartículas/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2 , Animais , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Membrana Celular/química , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/antagonistas & inibidores , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Interleucina-6/antagonistas & inibidores , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Monócitos , Nanopartículas/química , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Receptores de Citocinas/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2 , Células THP-1
18.
JAMA Intern Med ; 180(10): 1356-1362, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32808970

RESUMO

Importance: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) threatens global public health. The association between clinical characteristics of the virus and neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against this virus have not been well studied. Objective: To examine the association between clinical characteristics and levels of NAbs in patients who recovered from COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cohort study, a total of 175 patients with mild symptoms of COVID-19 who were hospitalized from January 24 to February 26, 2020, were followed up until March 16, 2020, at Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center, Shanghai, China. Exposures: SARS-CoV-2 infections were diagnosed and confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction testing of nasopharyngeal samples. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was SARS-CoV-2-specific NAb titers. Secondary outcomes included spike-binding antibodies, cross-reactivity against SARS-associated CoV, kinetics of NAb development, and clinical information, including age, sex, disease duration, length of stay, lymphocyte counts, and blood C-reactive protein level. Results: Of the 175 patients with COVID-19, 93 were female (53%); the median age was 50 (interquartile range [IQR], 37-63) years. The median length of hospital stay was 16 (IQR, 13-21) days, and the median disease duration was 22 (IQR, 18-26) days. Variable levels of SARS-CoV-2-specific NAbs were observed at the time of discharge (50% inhibitory dose [ID50], 1076 [IQR, 448-2048]). There were 10 patients whose NAb titers were less than the detectable level of the assay (ID50, <40), and 2 patients who showed very high titers of NAbs, with ID50 levels of 15 989 and 21 567. NAbs were detected in patients from day 4 to 6 and reached peak levels from day 10 to 15 after disease onset. NAbs were unable to cross-react with SARS-associated CoV and NAb titers correlated with the spike-binding antibodies targeting S1 (r = 0.451; 95% CI, 0.320-0.564; P < .001), receptor binding domain (r = 0.484; 95% CI, 0.358-0.592; P < .001), and S2 regions (r = 0.346; 95% CI, 0.204-0.473; P < .001). NAb titers at the time of discharge were significantly higher in the 82 men (1417 [IQR, 541-2253]) than those in the 93 women (905 [IQR, 371-1687]) (median difference, 512; 95% CI, 82-688; P = .01) and at the time of follow-up in 56 male patients (1049 [IQR, 552-2454]) vs 61 female patients (751 [IQR, 216-1301]) (median difference, 298; 95% CI, 86-732; P = .009). Plasma NAb titers were significantly higher in 56 older (1537 [IQR, 877-2427) and 63 middle-aged (1291 [IQR, 504-2126]) patients than in 56 younger patients (459 [IQR, 225-998]) (older vs younger: median difference, 1078; 95% CI, 548-1287; P < .001; middle-aged vs younger: median difference, 832; 95% CI, 284-1013; P < .001). The NAb titers were correlated with plasma C-reactive protein levels (r = 0.508; 95% CI, 0.386-0.614; P < .001) and negatively correlated with lymphocyte counts (r = -0.427; 95% CI, -0.544 to -0.293; P < .001) at the time of admission. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, among 175 patients who recovered from mild COVID-19 in Shanghai, China, NAb titers to SARS-CoV-2 appeared to vary substantially. Further research is needed to understand the clinical implications of differing NAb titers for protection against future infection.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/análise , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Adulto , COVID-19 , China , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Cell Rep ; 32(3): 107918, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668215

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a worldwide threat to humans, and neutralizing antibodies have therapeutic potential. We have purified more than 1,000 memory B cells specific to SARS-CoV-2 S1 or its RBD (receptor binding domain) and obtain 729 paired heavy- and light-chain fragments. Among these, 178 antibodies test positive for antigen binding, and the majority of the top 17 binders with EC50 below 1 nM are RBD binders. Furthermore, we identify 11 neutralizing antibodies, eight of which show IC50 within 10 nM, and the best one, 414-1, with IC50 of 1.75 nM. Through epitope mapping, we find three main epitopes in RBD recognized by these antibodies, and epitope-B antibody 553-15 could substantially enhance the neutralizing abilities of most of the other antibodies. We also find that 515-5 could cross neutralize the SARS-CoV pseudovirus. Altogether, our study provides 11 potent human neutralizing antibodies for COVID-19 as therapeutic candidates.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Receptores Virais/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos B/imunologia , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Mapeamento de Epitopos , Epitopos/imunologia , Humanos , Memória Imunológica/imunologia , Testes de Neutralização , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Domínios Proteicos/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2
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