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1.
Chemosphere ; 281: 130831, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289597

RESUMO

The understanding of the photochemistry of antibiotic compounds is important because it gives the direct information on the possible environmental pollution caused by them. Due to their large size, the theoretical studies of their excited-state reactions are rather challenging. In current work, we combined the on-the-fly trajectory surface-hopping dynamics, conical-intersection optimizations and excited-state pathway calculations to study the photochemistry of the trans-isomer of nitrofurantoin, a widely-used drug to treat the urinary tract infections. The dynamics-then-pathway approach was taken. First the trajectory surface hopping dynamics at the state-averaged complete-active-space self-consistent-field (SA-CASSCF) level with small active space and small basis sets were run. Second, the minimum-energy conical-intersection optimizations were performed. Finally the excited pathways from the Frank-Condon region to different reaction channels were built at the multi-state multi-reference second-order perturbation (MS-CASPT2) level with large active space and large basis set. Several possible channels responsible for the photo-induced reaction mechanism of the trans-nitrofurantoin were obtained, including the cleavage of the NO bond of the NO2 moiety, the photoisomerization at the central CN bond, and other internal conversion channels. Our findings give some preliminary explanations on available experimental observations. It is also demonstrates that the current theoretical approach is a powerful tool to explore the excited-state reactions in the photochemistry of media-sized or large-sized drug compounds.


Assuntos
Nitrofurantoína , Teoria Quântica , Isomerismo , Modelos Teóricos , Fotoquímica
2.
J Hazard Mater ; 419: 126135, 2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34157463

RESUMO

Diclofenac is an anti-inflammatory drug used as an analgesic. It is often detected in various environmental sources around the world and is considered as one of the emerging contaminants (ECs). This paper reviews the distribution of diclofenac at high concentrations in diverse environments and its adverse ecological impact. Recent studies observed strong evidence of the hazardous effect of diclofenac on mammals, including humans. Diclofenac could cause gastrointestinal complications, neurotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, hematotoxicity, genotoxicity, teratogenicity, bone fractures, and skin allergy in mammals even at a low concentration. Collectively, this comprehensive review relates the mode of toxicity, level of exposure, and route of administration as a unique approach for addressing the destructive consequence of diclofenac in mammalian systems. Finally, the mitigation strategy to eradicate the diclofenac toxicity through green remediation is critically discussed. This review will undoubtedly shed light on the toxic effects of pseudo-persistent diclofenac on mammals as well as frame stringent guidelines against its common usage.


Assuntos
Diclofenaco , Meio Ambiente , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides , Diclofenaco/toxicidade , Humanos , Mamíferos
3.
Anal Methods ; 13(20): 2305-2312, 2021 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33949435

RESUMO

In this work, poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride)-capped CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) aminolyzed with ethanolamine are proposed as fluorescent probes for the detection of Cu2+ and Hg2+, and two different quenching mechanisms are discussed in detail. The coordination abilities of the surface polymer of CdSe/ZnS QDs and two metal ions are calculated by density functional theory (DFT). The photoinduced electron transfer from excited QDs to Cu2+ unoccupied orbitals is enhanced due to the coordination between Cu2+ and the surface polymer of QDs. The electron transfer consumes non-radiative energy and performs fluorescence quenching. For Hg2+, the formation of HgS and the slight aggregation of polymer-coated CdSe/ZnS QDs lead to fluorescence quenching. The probe is sensitive to both Cu2+ and Hg2+, and the response can be detected within 1 min without adjusting the pH. With the addition of a masking agent, Cu2+ and Hg2+ can be exclusively detected in coexistence with another ion. For Cu2+, a linear relation in the concentration ranging from 0.02 to 0.7 µM was found between the relative fluorescence intensity (F0/F) and the concentration of Cu2+; the limit of detection (S/N = 3) is 6.94 nM. For Hg2+, a linear relation ranging from 0.1 to 1.4 µM was found between ln(F0/F) and the concentration of Hg2+; the limit of detection is 20.58 nM.


Assuntos
Compostos de Cádmio , Mercúrio , Pontos Quânticos , Compostos de Selênio , Polímeros , Sulfetos , Compostos de Zinco
4.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 23(7): 4300-4310, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33587072

RESUMO

By performing global-switching on-the-fly trajectory surface-hopping molecular dynamics simulation at the OM2/MRCI (14,15) quantum level, we probed the S3(ππ*) photoisomerization mechanisms associated with excited-state intramolecular hydrogen transfer for 2'-hydroxychalcone (2HC) within the interwoven conical intersection networks from four singlet electronic states (S3, S2, S1, and S0). The simulated quantum yields of 0.03 for cis-to-trans and zero for trans-to-cis photoisomerization were due to almost all the conical intersections being localized either in the cis-2HC or in trans-2HC region, and there was little chance for sampling trajectories to reach the rotation conical intersection (S1/S0) in between cis-2HC and trans-2HC that is key for reactive isomerization. The potential energy well on the S1 state in the trans-2HC region prevents trajectories from trans-to-cis photoisomerization, while the fact there is no well on S1 state in cis-2HC region opens a few chances for trajectories to reach the rotation conical intersections. The present simulation found that excited-state intramolecular hydrogen transfers in 2HC have a negative impact for reactive isomerization, and that hydrogen transfers take place on the S1 state, while back-transfer on the S0 state prevents sampling trajectories reaching rotational conical intersections. It was realized that it could be possible to enhance the quantum yield of 2HC photoisomerization by suppressing the hydrogen transfer (such as by changing an electron-donating substitution or adjusting the substitution position to decrease the acidity of the phenol group). From a perspective view of the potential energy surfaces, the theoretical design of such 2HC derivatives could enhance (control) the quantum yield by shifting the conical intersections away from the cis- and trans-region.

5.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 23(9): 5236-5243, 2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33629668

RESUMO

Global switching on-the-fly trajectory surface hopping molecular dynamics simulation was performed on the accurate TD-B3LYP/6-31G* potential energy surfaces for E-to-Z and Z-to-E photoisomerization of dMe-OMe-NAIP up to S1(ππ*) excitation. The present TD(DFT) simulation provides accurate calculation for conical intersections between the first-excited and ground states. Thus, simulated quantum yield and lifetime of 0.23 and 620 fs (0.15 and 600 fs) for E-to-Z (Z-to-E) isomerization are in good (relatively good) agreement with experimental observation of 0.25 and 480 fs (0.24 and 430 fs), respectively. Simulated results reveal that photoisomerization pathways are initially uphill to conical intersection zones on the S1 potential energy surface and then downhill to product zones. Three types of representative conical intersections are found for determining photoisomerization mechanisms: one is the rotation type responsible for reactive isomerization and the other two are close to E and Z configurations, respectively, only for nonreactive isomerization. The present conclusions can be held in general for similar large NAIP systems of photoinduced isomerization based on E and Z configurations.

6.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(40): 17451-17455, 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638499

RESUMO

Ultralong organic phosphorescence (UOP) has attracted increasing attention due to its potential applications in optoelectronics, bioelectronics, and security protection. However, achieving UOP with high quantum efficiency (QE) over 20 % is still full of challenges due to intersystem crossing (ISC) and fast non-radiative transitions in organic molecules. Here, we present a novel strategy to enhance the QE of UOP materials by modulating intramolecular halogen bonding via structural isomerism. The QE of CzS2Br reaches up to 52.10 %, which is the highest afterglow efficiency reported so far. The crucial reason for the extraordinary QE is intramolecular halogen bonding, which can not only effectively enhance ISC by promoting spin-orbit coupling, but also greatly confine motions of excited molecules to restrict non-radiative pathways. This work provides a reasonable strategy to develop highly efficient UOP materials for practical applications.

7.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(26): 15006-15012, 2020 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597446

RESUMO

Accurate and effective sensing of H2S is one of the most complex and challenging tasks. Recent studies have demonstrated that the development of an Sb-doped SnO2 nanoribbon sensor can enhance the detection limit of H2S. To clarify the enhancement mechanism, various factors that regulate the sensing processes, such as the Sb-doped sites, surface oxygen defects and possible pre-adsorbed oxygen species, are considered in this study. Theoretical calculations reveal a thorough and extensive understanding of the gas-sensing mechanisms. Once the H2S gas interacted with the Sb-doped SnO2(110) surface, the molecule released electrons back to the surface, together with a decreased resistance level and strengthened detection signal. In addition, the dissociative adsorption of the O2 molecule also plays a significant role in the sensing processes. It is expected that the present work can provide effective guidance for improving the sensitivity of metal oxide surfaces and shed new light on the development of next generation gas-sensing materials.

8.
ACS Nano ; 14(6): 7066-7076, 2020 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401487

RESUMO

The stereospecific design of the interface effects can optimize the electron/Li-ion migration kinetics for energy-storage materials. In this study, an electric field was introduced to silicon-based materials (C-SiOx@Si/rGO) through the rational construction of multi-heterostructures. This was achieved by manipulating the physicochemical properties at the atomic level of advanced Li-ion batteries (LIBs). The experimental and density functional theory calculations showed that the unbalanced charge distribution generated a large potential difference, which in turn induced a large-scale electric-field response with a boosted interfacial charge transfer in the composite. The as-prepared C-SiOx@Si/rGO anode showed advanced rate capability (i.e., 1579.0 and 906.5 mAh g-1 at 1000 and 8000 mA g-1, respectively) when the migration paths of the Li-ion/electrons hierarchically optimized the large electric field. Furthermore, the C-SiOx@Si/rGO composite with a high SiOx@Si mass ratio (73.5 wt %) demonstrated a significantly enhanced structural stability with a 40% volume expansion. Additionally, when coupled with the LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2 (NCM) cathode, the NCM//C-SiOx@Si/rGO full cell delivers superior Li-ion storage properties with high reversible capacities of 157.6 and 101.4 mAh g-1 at 500 and 4000 mA g-1, respectively. Therefore, the electric-field introduction using optimized electrochemical reaction kinetics can assist in the construction of other high-performance LIB materials.

9.
J Phys Chem A ; 124(5): 955-965, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971389

RESUMO

Materials with outstanding nonlinear optical (NLO) response exhibit excellent prospects in electrooptic devices. Thus, it is essential to find a high-performance NLO material to meet the growing demand for high-speed data transmission. In this study, theoretical investigations on the second order NLO properties of the novel expanded mislinked thia-norhexaphyrin, sulfur-free pentaphyrin, and their substituted derivatives were performed using density functional theory. Theoretical calculations display that the approximate planar structures of sulfur-free pentaphyrin embedded with two five-membered rings exhibits a remarkable NLO response and holds large dipolar contribution (ΦJ=1 = 63.5%) to the first hyperpolarizability among four parent expanded mislinked porphyrins. The static first hyperpolarizability values of these expanded porphyrins were found to range from 3490 to 14 229 au. In addition, the second order NLO response of these porphyrins has greatly improved except for minority electron-releasing- and electron-withdrawing-group substituted cases, and the static first hyperpolarizability value has increased to 47 950 au after installing the donor and acceptor groups. Unambiguous evidence reveals that expanded mislinked porphyrin can serve as a potential candidate for NLO materials.

10.
Sci Total Environ ; 698: 134057, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783460

RESUMO

Diclofenac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug has turned into a contaminant of emerging concern; hence, it was included in the previous Watch List of the EU Water Framework Directive. This review paper aims to highlight the metabolism of diclofenac at different trophic levels, its occurrence, ecological risks, and interactive effects in the water cycle and biota over the past two decades. Increased exposure to diclofenac not only raises health concerns for vultures, aquatic organisms, and higher plants but also causes serious threats to mammals. The ubiquitous nature of diclofenac in surface water (river, lake canal, estuary, and sea) is compared with drinking water, groundwater, and wastewater effluent in the environment. This comprehensive survey from previous studies suggests the fate of diclofenac in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and may predict its persistence in the environment. This review offers evidence of fragmentary available data for the water environment, soil, sediment, and biota worldwide and supports the need for further data to address the risks associated with the presence of diclofenac in the environment. Finally, we suggest that the presence of diclofenac and its metabolites in the environment may represent a high risk because of their synergistic interactions with existing contaminants, leading to the development of drug-resistant strains and the formation of newly emerging pollutants.


Assuntos
Diclofenaco , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Biota
11.
J Comput Chem ; 41(7): 635-645, 2020 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743473

RESUMO

Within three functionals (TD-B3LYP, TD-BHandHLYP, and TD-CAM-B3LYP) in combination with four basis sets (3-21g, 6-31g, 6-31g(d), and cc-pvdz), global switching (GS) trajectory surface hopping molecular dynamics has been performed for cis-to-trans azobenzene photoisomerization up to the S1 (nπ*) excitation. Although all the combinations show artificial double-cone structure of conical intersection between ground and first excited states, simulated quantum yields and lifetimes are in good agreement with one another; 0.6 (±5%) and 40.5 fs (±10%) by TD-B3LYP, 0.5 (±10%) and 35.5 fs (±4%) by TD-BHandHLYP, and 0.44 (±9%) and 35.2 fs (±10%) by TD-CAM-B3LYP. By analyzing distributions of excited-state population decays, hopping spots, and typical trajectories with performance of 12 functional/basis set combinations, it has been concluded that functional dependence for given basis set is slightly more sensitive than basis set dependence for given functional. The present GS on-the-fly time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) trajectory surface hopping simulation can provide practical benchmark guidelines for conical intersection driven excited-state molecular dynamics simulation involving in large complex system within ordinary TDDFT framework. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

12.
Chem Sci ; 10(31): 7352-7357, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489156

RESUMO

Due to inefficient molecular design strategies, two-photon-excited ultralong organic room temperature phosphorescence (TPUOP) has not yet been reported in single-component materials. Herein, we present an innovative design method by dual-channel triplet harvesting to obtain the first bright TPUOP molecule with a lifetime of 0.84 s and a quantum efficiency of 16.6%. In compound o-Cz the donor and acceptor units are connected at the ortho position of benzophenone, showing intramolecular space charge transfer. Therefore, the two-photon absorption ability is improved due to the enhanced charge transfer character. Moreover, the small energy gap boosts dual-channel triplet harvesting via ultralong thermally activated delayed fluorescence and H-aggregation phosphorescence, which suppresses the long-lived triplet concentration quenching. Through two-photon absorption, a near-infrared laser (808 nm) is able to trigger the obvious ultralong emission under ambient conditions. This research work provides valuable guidance for designing near-infrared-excited ultralong organic room temperature phosphorescence materials.

13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(10)2019 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31108985

RESUMO

A copper sulfide nanoflakes-decorated carbon nanofragments-modified glassy carbon electrode (CuS-CNF/GCE) was fabricated for the electrocatalytic differentiation and determination of hydroquinone (HQ) and catechol (CC). The physicochemical properties of the CuS-CNF were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The electrocatalytic determination of HQ and CC over the CuS-CNF/GCE was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. An excellent detection limit and sensitivity of the CuS-CNF/GCE are obtained (0.293 µM and 0.259 µM) with a sensitivity of 184 nA µM-1 cm-2 and 208 nA µM-1 cm-2 (S/N=3) for HQ and CC, respectively. In addition, the CuS-CNF/GCE shows a selective identification of HQ and CC over potential interfering metal ions (Zn2+, Na+, K+, NO3-, SO42-, Cl-) and organic compounds (ascorbic acid, glucose), and a satisfactory recovery is also obtained in the spiked water samples. These results suggest that the CuS-CNF/GCE can be used as an efficient electrochemical sensor for the simultaneous determination of co-existing environmental pollutants such as HQ and CC in water environments with high selectivity and acceptable reproducibility.

14.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(3): 1367-1374, 2019 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30601508

RESUMO

Understanding the atmospheric fate of hydrofluoroolefins (HFOs) is of great significance to assess their potential risk to the environment. As an important type of HFO, the comprehensive transformation mechanism and kinetics of Z(E)-CF3CH[double bond, length as m-dash]CHF initiated by OH radicals were investigated by performing quantum chemical calculations at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ//MP2/cc-pVDZ level. The results show that the OH-addition pathways are the most favorable for the title reaction. The rate constants are obtained by transition state theory with Wigner tunneling correction (TST/W). The calculated total rate constants are in good agreement with the experimental data. At 298 K, the computed rate constant and lifetime of Z(E)-CF3CH[double bond, length as m-dash]CHF are 9.66 × 10-13 (4.02 × 10-13) cm3 molecule-1 s-1 and 12.3 (29.7) days, respectively, which demonstrates that Z(E)-CF3CH[double bond, length as m-dash]CHF is atmospherically persistent.

15.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 20(35): 22681-22688, 2018 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30137106

RESUMO

A global switching on-the-fly trajectory surface hopping dynamics simulation at the 3SA-CASSCF(12,11)/6-31G* quantum level has been employed to probe the photo-induced Wolff rearrangement (WR) reaction of 5-diazo Meldrum's acid (DMA) within three low-lying electronic excited states. The present simulation predicted that the branching ratios for relaxing back to the ground state, isomerizing to diazirine, and reaction to ketene I via carbene I are 69% ± 0.1, 3% ± 0.4, and 28% ± 0.1, which are in excellent agreement with those obtained by the femtosecond spectroscopy experiment, 67%, 3% and 30%, respectively. In particular, the present simulation revealed that the major WR reaction to ketene I pathway is stepwise via the excited-state to carbene I (17.8% ± 0.2) and via the ground-state to carbene I (8.7% ± 0.2), and the minor pathway is concerted synchronous (1.5% ± 0.6). The photo-induced WR reaction of DMA has been quantitatively interpreted in terms of the distribution of extended seam surfaces as a function of CN dissociation bonds for two important conical intersections within three low-lying electronic excited states. Ultrafast dynamic time constants have been estimated to be about 500 fs ± 120 fs and 180 fs ± 80 fs for the stepwise and the concerted WR reaction to ketene I which are also in good agreement with those determined by the experiment. Therefore, the photo-induced excited-state WR reaction mechanism has been quantitatively revealed by the present real-time dynamics simulation.

16.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 20(37): 23885-23897, 2018 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30019063

RESUMO

Global nonadiabatic switching on-the-fly trajectory surface hopping simulations at the 5SA-CASSCF(6,6)/6-31G quantum level have been employed to probe the photoisomerization mechanism of trans-azobenzene upon ππ* excitation within four coupled singlet low-lying electronic states (S0, S1, S2, and S3). We have performed 586 sampling trajectories (331 starting from S2 and 255 from S3), and we found about half of the sampling trajectories staying on S1 or S2 states as resonances and the other half of them ending on the ground S0 state as active trajectories. The present simulation has demonstrated that there are six distinct photoisomerization pathways which can be summarized as three categories; one is the newly opened inversion-inversion nonreactive isomerization pathway accounting for 40% (34%) of active trajectories at a time constant of 80 fs (320 fs), the other is the inversion-torsion reactive and nonreactive isomerization pathways accounting for 40% (20%) of active trajectories at a time constant of 880 fs (1700 fs), and the third is the torsion-torsion reactive and nonreactive isomerization pathways accounting for 20% (46%) of active trajectories at a time constant of 780 fs (1000 fs) upon S2 (S3) ππ* excitation. The simulated total reactive quantum yield for trans-azobenzene photoisomerization upon S2 (S3) ππ* excitation is about 0.11 (0.13) which is in good agreement with recent experimental results of 0.09-0.20. Furthermore, the newly opened inversion-inversion nonreactive isomerization pathway from the present simulation agrees well with cascade experimental measurements of the Sn → S1 → S0 relaxation mechanism in both branching ratio and time constant.

17.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 20(20): 14105-14116, 2018 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29748667

RESUMO

The mechanism of an asymmetric ring-opening (ARO) addition of oxabicyclic alkenes catalyzed by a platinum(ii) catalyst was investigated by M06-2X/6-311G(d,p) using density functional theory (DFT). All the structures were optimized in the solvent model density (SMD) solvation model (solvation = the mixture of H2O/CH2Cl2 1 : 10, v/v) for consistence with experimental conditions. The overall mechanism is considered as a four-step reaction including transmetalation, carboplatinum, ß-oxygen elimination, and hydrolysis. The transmetalation and carboplatinum steps are multi-step processes, and both the regioselectivity and the enantioselectivity lie in the carboplatinum process. Based on the natural population analysis (NPA) and the orbital composition analysis of oxabicyclic alkenes, the preferable coordination site with a platinum(ii) center is considered as the bridging oxygen atom by exo-coordination because of the less steric hindrance and the stronger electronic effect. This coordination is thought of as origin of the regioselectivity and the enantioselectivity, which is different from that proposed previously. The Gibbs free energy profiles show that the rate-determining step involves the migration of an aryl group from the platinum(ii) center to one of the closer enantiotopic carbon atoms in an alkene of the oxabicyclic alkenes. The theoretically predicted enantiomeric excess (ee) value of 82% for this reaction is very close to the experimental ee value of 80%. It was found that the hydrogen bonds between the oxabicyclic alkenes and water molecules promotes the platinum(ii) catalyst leaving the reaction system effortlessly and entering the next catalysis recycle. In the overall catalytic cycle, the highest free energy barrier is 30.1 kcal mol-1 and the process releases an energy of 26.3 kcal mol-1. The results confirm that the Pt(ii)-catalyzed ARO reactions take place at mild experimental conditions, which is consistent with the experiment observations. Thus, this study is important for understanding the catalytic behavior of the transition metal platinum(ii) in an asymmetric ring-opening reaction.

18.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 20(8): 5606-5616, 2018 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29393948

RESUMO

Ultrafast intersystem crossing mechanisms for two p- and m-nitrophenol groups (PNP and MNP) have been investigated using ab initio nonadiabatic molecular dynamics simulations at the 6SA-CASSCF level of theory. Trajectory surface hopping simulation has been performed within an intersystem crossing network constructed from two low-lying singlets (S0 and S1) and two low-lying triplets (T1 and T2). It is found that the dominant relaxation S1 → T2 pathway accounts for 65.4% (85.0%) of the quantum yield with a time constant of 13.4 fs (22 fs) and the S1 → T2 → S0 pathway accounts for 33.1% (13.5%) with a time constant of 275 fs (375 fs) for PNP (MNP). In comparison with the previously studied excited-state proton transfer process for ONP, the dominant relaxation S1 → T2 → T1 pathway accounts for 49.3% with a time constant of 40 fs and the S1 → T2 → T1 → S0 pathway accounts for 47.5% with a time constant of 300 fs. The relaxation mechanisms and electronic structures of the intersystem crossings are in close relation with the relative motion between the torsion motions of the nitro-group and the hydroxyl group. The present simulation provides new physical insight for understanding ultrafast photochemical intersystem crossing dynamics.

19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(5): 4134-4148, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29247419

RESUMO

With growing population and urbanization, there is an increasing exploitation of natural resources, and this often results to environmental pollution. In this review, the levels of heavy metal in lentic compartments (water, sediment, fishes, and aquatic plants) over the past two decades (1997-2017) have been summarized to evaluate the current pollution status of this ecosystem. In all the compartments, the heavy metals dominated are zinc followed by iron. The major reason could be area mineralogy and lithogenic sources. Enormous quantity of metals like iron in estuarine sediment is a very natural incident due to the permanently reducing condition of organic substances. Contamination of cadmium, lead, and chromium was closely associated with anthropogenic origin. In addition, surrounding land use and atmospheric deposition could have been responsible for substantial pollution. The accumulation of heavy metals in fishes and aquatic plants is the result of time-dependent deposition in lentic ecosystems. Moreover, various potential risk assessment methods for heavy metals were discussed. This review concludes that natural phenomena dominate the accumulation of essential heavy metals in lentic ecosystems compared to anthropogenic sources. Amongst other recent reviews on heavy metals from other parts of the world, the present review is executed in such a way that it explains the presence of heavy metals not only in water environment, but also in the whole of the lentic system comprising sediment, fishes, and aquatic plants.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Animais , Cádmio/análise , Cromo/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Peixes , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Humanos , Ferro/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Plantas/química , Medição de Risco , Urbanização , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Zinco/análise
20.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 19(40): 27755-27764, 2017 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28990027

RESUMO

Density functional theory calculations are employed to study the mechanism of photoselective catalytic reduction of 4-bromobenzaldehyde (4-BBA) in acetonitrile and in ethanol solvents. A totally relaxed Ti3O9H6 cluster model is proposed to represent titanium dioxide (TiO2) surfaces. The reduction selectivity of an adsorbed 4-BBA molecule on Ti3O9H6 has been investigated. Owing to the difference in the proton and H atom donating capabilities between explicit CH3CN and C2H5OH solvent molecules, the photocatalytic reduction of 4-BBA is the debromination process in acetonitrile, whereas in ethanol it is the carbonyl reduction process. Therefore 4-BBA can be selectively reduced to benzaldehyde in acetonitrile and 4-bromobenzyl alcohol in ethanol, respectively. Our computational results have verified the reaction mechanism proposed by experiments and show that the debromination of 4-BBA would be efficient if both 4-BBA and Ti3O9H6 have an extra photoelectron. The Ti3O9H6 cluster, playing a role as a hydrogen source and a bridge to transfer photoelectrons from bulk TiO2, would have potential to be an ideal molecular model for understanding photocatalytic reactions on the TiO2 surface.

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