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1.
EBioMedicine ; 80: 104054, 2022 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35576642

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Post-stroke inflammation biomarker high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) increases cerebral infarct size and results in functional disability directly, it also contributes to the formation and maturation of atherosclerotic plaques, which increase the risk of stroke recurrence and results in functional disability indirectly. However, no study has quantified how much functional disability was mediated by stroke recurrence. METHODS: Patients with acute ischaemic stroke within 7 days and admitted to 169 hospitals in the Third China National Stroke Registry were analyzed. Blood samples were collected within 24 h of admission. Stroke recurrence and functional disability (defined as a modified Rankin scale score ≥ 2) were assessed via face-to-face interviews at three months. Mediation analysis under the counterfactual framework was performed to examine the potential causal chain in which stroke recurrence may mediate the relationship between hsCRP and functional outcome. Sensitivity analyses were performed across different subgroups and on different scales of hsCRP measurement. FINDINGS: Of the 7603 analyzed patients (mean [SD] age, 62.3 [11.3] years; 2392 [31.5%] women), the median (interquartile range [IQR]) of NIHSS score was 3.0 (1.0-6.0). The median (IQR) level of hsCRP was 1.73 (0.81-4.38) mg/L. A total of 496 (6.5%) cases of stroke recurrence and 1884 (24.8%) cases of functional disability were observed at the 90-day follow-up. Each SD increase in the concentration of hsCRP was associated with an increased risk of stroke recurrence (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.11; 95% CI, 1.04-1.18) and disability (aOR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.08-1.20) within 90 days. Of 1884 functionally disabled patients, only 16.0 % (n = 302) of patients experienced stroke recurrence before functional disability. Stroke recurrence during follow-up explained 16.52% (95% CI, 5.79%-27.25%) of the relationship between hsCRP and functional disability. Sensitivity analyses in different subgroups and on different scales of hsCRP measurement showed comparable results. INTERPRETATION: Stroke recurrence mediates less than 20% of the association between hsCRP and functional disability at 90 days among patients with acute ischaemic stroke. In addition to typical secondary prevention strategies for preventing stroke recurrence, more attention should be paid to novel anti-inflammatory therapy to improve functional outcomes. FUNDING: Beijing Natural Science Foundation, the National Key R&D Program of China, the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and the Beijing Municipal Science & Technology Commission.

3.
Stroke Vasc Neurol ; 2022 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35443985

RESUMO

China faces the greatest challenge from stroke in the world. According to results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019, there were 3.94 million new stroke cases, 28.76 million prevalent cases and 2.19 million deaths due to stroke in China in 2019. Furthermore, stroke is also the leading cause of disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) in China, the number of DALYs reached 45.9 million in 2019. Several recent large-scale epidemiological surveys have updated the data on pre-existing conditions contributed to stroke. The age-adjusted prevalence of overweight among Chinese adults aged 18-69 years was 34.4%, and the prevalence of obesity was 16.8% in 2018. 50.9% of Chinese adults ≥18 years of age without history of hypertension had prehypertension in 2018. The weighted prevalence of hypertension in adults was 27.5% in 2018. The weighted prevalence of total diabetes and pre-diabetes diagnosed by the American Diabetes Association criteria were 12.8% and 35.2%, respectively, among Chinese adults ≥18 years of age in 2017. The weighted atrial fibrillation prevalence was 1.8% among Chinese adults ≥45 years of age and equates to being present in an estimated 7.9 million people in China. Data from 1672 tertiary public hospitals in the Hospital Quality Monitoring System (HQMS) showed that 3 411 168 stroke cases were admitted during 2019. Of those, 2 818 875 (82.6%) were ischaemic strokes (ISs), 485 474 (14.2%) were intracerebral haemorrhages (ICHs), 106 819 (3.1%) were subarachnoid haemorrhages (SAHs). The average age was 66 years old, and 59.6% were male. A total of 1379 (<0.1%), 2604 (0.5%), 1250 (1.2%) paediatric strokes (age <18 years) were identified among IS, ICH and SAH, respectively. Over one-third (1 231 519 (36.1%)) of the stroke cases were covered by urban resident basic medical insurance, followed by urban employee basic medical insurance (891 103 (26.1%)) and new rural cooperative medical schema (543 108 (15.9%)). The leading risk factor was hypertension (57.3% for IS, 69.9% for ICH and 44.1% for SAH), and the leading comorbidity was pneumonia or pulmonary infection (10.4% for IS, 34.6% for ICH and 29.7% for SAH). In-hospital death/discharge against medical advice rate was 8.5%, ranging from 6.0% for IS to 20.6% for SAH. The median and IQR of length of stay was 9.0 (6.0-13.0) days, ranging from 10.0 (7.0-13.0) in IS to 14.0 (8.0-22.0) in ICH. Similar data from 2847 secondary public hospitals or private hospitals in the HQMS were also reported. Data from HQMS showed that higher proportions of interprovincial admission to other provinces were seen in Inner Mongolia, Anhui, Tibet and Beijing. Higher proportions of interprovincial admission from other provinces were seen in Beijng, Tianjin, Shanghai and Ningxia. Data from 323 601 strokes from 1337 hospitals in the Chinese Stroke Center Alliance during 2019 demonstrated that the composite scores of guideline-recommended key performance indicators for patients with IS, ICH and SAH were 0.78±0.20, 0.69±0.27 and 0.60±0.31, respectively.

4.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 28(6): 913-921, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35233938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Dysphagia is common and is associated with aspiration pneumonia. However, little is known about the prevalence of and factors influencing dysphagia screening (DS) and pneumonia after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). METHODS: We used data on SAH patients admitted to 1476 hospitals from the China Stroke Center Alliance (CSCA) from August 2015 to July 2019 to analyze the rates of DS and pneumonia. We then conducted univariate and multivariable analyses to examine the relationship between DS and pneumonia. RESULTS: Among 4877 SAH patients who were eligible for DS and had complete data on pneumonia status, 3527 (72.3%) underwent DS, and 1006 (20.6%) developed pneumonia. Compared with patients without pneumonia, patients with pneumonia were older (mean: 63.4 vs. 57.8 years of age), had lower Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores at admission (mean: 13.5 vs. 14.3), were more likely to have dysphagia (15.2% vs. 3.3%), and were more likely to have undergone aneurysm isolation (19.1% vs. 10.0%). In multivariable analyses, factors independently associated with a higher risk of pneumonia were dysphagia [odds ratio (OR), 3.77; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.85-4.98], age (OR, 1.50 per 10-year increase; 95% CI, 1.40-1.60), male sex (OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.02-1.49), arrival at the hospital by emergency medical services (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.16-1.58), nimodipine treatment (OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.11-1.81), endovascular embolization of aneurysms (OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.03-1.47), cerebral ventricular shunt placement (OR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.41-3.54), and treatment at a higher grade hospital (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.21-1.71). CONCLUSION: More than a quarter of patients with SAH did not have documented DS, while one-fifth developed pneumonia. DS performance was associated with a lower risk of pneumonia. Randomized controlled trials may be needed to determine the effectiveness of DS.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição , Pneumonia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea , Transtornos de Deglutição/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Deglutição/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pneumonia/complicações , Pneumonia/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/complicações , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Stroke ; 2022 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130717

RESUMO

Background: Sex differences in stroke outcomes are crucial to secondary prevention but previous reports showed inconsistent results. We aimed to explore the sex differences in stroke outcomes in the Third China National Stroke Registry, a prospective multi-center registry study. Methods: Among the 15166 patients enrolled between 2015 and 2018, 9038 patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) were included. The primary outcomes were stroke recurrence, mortality, and unfavorable functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale [mRS] > 2) at 3, 6, and 12 months. Cox regression model was used for stroke recurrence and mortality and logistic regression was used for the unfavorable functional outcome, and adjusted as follows: (1) Model 1: without adjustment; (2) Model 2: adjusted for potential risk factors, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) at admission, pre-stroke mRS, tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) treatment, TOAST classification, and onset-to-door time; (3) Model 3: adjusted for covariates from model 2 in addition to blood pressure and blood serum covariates. Multiple imputation was used for missing values, and sensitivity analyses were conducted to describe sex differences by age groups. Results: One-third (2802/9038) of the patients were women. Women were significantly older than men (64.78±10.84 vs. 61.26±11.42, p<0.001). In the fully adjusted model, female patients were more likely to have unfavorable functional outcomes at 3 months (odds ratio [OR], 1.28 [1.09, 1.50]), especially among patients aged 65 years or older (OR, 1.39 [1.14, 1.70]), but no difference was discovered in patients aged < 65 years. There were no sex differences in stroke recurrence and mortality at 3, 6, or 12 months or unfavorable functional outcomes at 6 or 12 months after adjustment. Conclusions: Compared to men, women with AIS were less likely to have favorable outcomes at three months in China, especially among those over 65 years of age. Experts should aim to tailor secondary prevention strategies for high-risk patients.

6.
Eur J Neurol ; 29(1): 188-198, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34564908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous assessments of sex differences for patients with acute ischemic stroke were limited in a specific region or population, narrow scope, or small sample size. METHODS: Patients with acute ischemic stroke hospitalized in the China Stroke Center Alliance hospitals were analyzed. Absolute standardized differences (ASDs) were used to assess sex differences in vascular risk factors, guideline-recommended in-hospital management measures and outcomes, including stroke severity (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale≥16), death/discharge against medical advice, major adverse cardiovascular events, pneumonia, and disability (modified Rankin Scale≥3). RESULTS: Of 838,229 patients analyzed, 524351 (62.6%) were men and 313,878 (37.4%) were women. Compared with men, women were older (68.6 vs. 64.7 years), had higher prevalence of hypertension (67.7% vs. 62.4%), diabetes (24.7% vs. 19.5%), and atrial fibrillation (7.1% vs. 4.3%), but lower prevalence of smoking (4.5% vs. 56.6%) and drinking (2.6% vs 35.8%) (ASDs >10%). No sex differences were seen in guideline-directed management measures, indicated by risk-adjusted individual measures and the all-or-null summary measure (34.5% vs 34.9%, ASD = 1.0%). Compared to men, women tended to have strokes that were more severe at presentation (6.5% vs. 4.5%, ASD = 8.8%) and more disabilities at discharge (34.9% vs 30.5%, ASD =9.4%). However, all sex-related differences in outcomes were attenuated to null after risk adjustments (ASDs<2%). CONCLUSIONS: Compared to male patients, female patients had more vascular risk factors and received similar in-hospital care. They had strokes that were more severe at presentation and more disabilities at discharge, both of which may be explained by worse vascular risk profiles.


Assuntos
AVC Isquêmico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Caracteres Sexuais , Fatores Sexuais , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia
7.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 472, 2021 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34863109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical trials have shown that dexmedetomidine might decrease the occurrence of postoperative delirium after major surgery, but neurosurgical patients were excluded from these studies. We aimed to determine the feasibility of conducting a full-scale randomized controlled trial of the effect of prophylactic low-dose dexmedetomidine on postoperative delirium in patients after elective intracranial operation for brain tumors. METHODS: In this single-center, parallel-arm pilot randomized controlled trial, adult patients who underwent an elective intracranial operation for brain tumors were recruited. Dexmedetomidine (0.1 µg/kg/hour) or placebo was continuously infused from intensive care unit (ICU) admission on the day of surgery until 08:00 AM on postoperative day one. Adverse events during the study-drug administration were recorded. The primary feasibility endpoint was the occurrence of study-drug interruption. Delirium was assessed twice daily with the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU during the first five postoperative days. The assessable rate of delirium evaluation was documented. RESULTS: Sixty participants were randomly assigned to receive either dexmedetomidine (n = 30) or placebo (n = 30). The study-drug was stopped in two patients (6.7%) in the placebo group due to desaturation after new-onset unconsciousness and an unplanned reoperation for hematoma evacuation and in one patient (3.3%) in the dexmedetomidine group due to unplanned discharge from the ICU. The absolute difference (95% confidence interval) of study-drug interruption between the two groups was 3.3% (- 18.6 to 12.0%), with a noninferiority P value of 0.009. During the study-drug infusion, no bradycardia occurred, and hypotension occurred in one patient (3.3%) in the dexmedetomidine group. Dexmedetomidine tended to decrease the incidence of tachycardia (10.0% vs. 23.3%) and hypertension (3.3% vs. 23.3%). Respiratory depression, desaturation, and unconsciousness occurred in the same patient with study-drug interruption in the placebo group (3.3%). Delirium was evaluated 600 times, of which 590 (98.3%) attempts were assessable except in one patient in the placebo group who remained in a coma after an unplanned reoperation. CONCLUSIONS: The low rate of study-drug interruption and high assessable rate of delirium evaluation supported a fully powered trial to determine the effectiveness of low-dose dexmedetomidine on postoperative delirium in patients after intracranial operation for brain tumors. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04494828) on 31/07/2020.


Assuntos
Delírio , Dexmedetomidina , Adulto , Delírio/prevenção & controle , Dexmedetomidina/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Projetos Piloto
8.
J Clin Transl Hepatol ; 9(5): 647-654, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is one of the leading causes of death in patients with liver cirrhosis. We aimed to establish a prognostic model to evaluate the 1-year survival of cirrhosis patients after the first episode of SBP. METHODS: A prognostic model was developed based on a retrospective derivation cohort of 309 cirrhosis patients with first-ever SBP and was validated in a separate validation cohort of 141 patients. We used Uno's concordance, calibration curve, and decision curve (DCA) analysis to evaluate the discrimination, calibration, and clinical net benefit of the model. RESULTS: A total of 59 (19.1%) patients in the derivation cohort and 42 (29.8%) patients in the validation cohort died over the course of 1 year. A prognostic model in nomogram form was developed with predictors including age [hazard ratio (HR): 1.25; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.92-1.71], total serum bilirubin (HR: 1.66; 95% CI: 1.28-2.14), serum sodium (HR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.90-0.98), history of hypertension (HR: 2.52; 95% CI: 1.44-4.41) and hepatic encephalopathy (HR: 2.06; 95% CI: 1.13-3.73). The nomogram had a higher concordance (0.79) compared with the model end-stage liver disease (0.67) or Child-Turcotte-Pugh (0.71) score. The nomogram also showed acceptable calibration (calibration slope, 1.12; Bier score, 0.15±0.21) and optimal clinical net benefit in the validation cohort. CONCLUSIONS: This prediction model developed based on characteristics of first-ever SBP patients may benefit the prediction of patients' 1-year survival.

9.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(20): e021602, 2021 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34612071

RESUMO

Background Prior studies have shown an increased risk of ischemic stroke (IS) after myocardial infarction (MI); however, there are limited studies concerning the characteristics, in-hospital mortality, and complications of patients with IS with a medical history of MI. We hypothesized that patients with IS with a medical history of MI may experience more severe strokes and have a higher risk of in-hospital mortality and complications than patients with IS without a medical history of MI. Methods and Results Consecutive in-hospital data were extracted from the China Stroke Center Alliance database from August 2015 to July 2019. Patient characteristics, hospital tests, in-hospital mortality, and complications were analyzed and compared in patients with IS with or without a history of MI. Of 893 429 patients with IS, we identified 81 646 (9.1%) patients with a history of MI (MI group). Compared with patients with IS without MI, MI group patients were older, had a lower prevalence of current smoking, had a higher prevalence of a relative medical history, and took more medications before admission. Compared with the group with IS without MI, the MI group had a higher National Institute of Health Stroke Scale score after onset (4.0 versus 3.0; Hodges-Lehmann estimator, 22.5) and a higher proportion of severe strokes (National Institute of Health Stroke Scale score ≥15) (7.1% versus 4.4%; absolute standardized difference=11.6%). In the fully adjusted models, the risk of in-hospital mortality was higher in the MI group (odds ratio [OR], 1.74; 95% CI, 1.57-1.92; P<0.0001). MI group patients also had a higher risk of complications, including urinary tract infection (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.2-1.36; P<0.0001), gastrointestinal bleeding (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.19-1.39; P<0.0001), pneumonia (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.21-1.28; P<0.0001), depression (OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.24-1.42; P<0.0001), seizure (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.22-1.49; P<0.0001), atrial fibrillation (OR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.71-1.86; P<0.0001), and cardiac or respiratory arrest (OR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.78-2.2; P<0.0001). Conclusions Patients with IS with a medical history of MI have an increased risk of severe stroke, in-hospital mortality, and complications. Studies exploring the underlying mechanisms are needed to improve and tailor stroke treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Hospitalar , Infarto do Miocárdio , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Gravidade do Paciente , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
10.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(15): 1224, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34532361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is crucial for secondary stroke prevention in stroke patients with preexisting cardiovascular diseases (CVD) or cerebrovascular diseases (CeVD). However, data on attainment of guideline-recommended LDL-C levels are lacking. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Chinese Stroke Center Alliance (CSCA) program for patients with ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) hospitalized between August 2015 and July 2019. Participants were classified into different disease groups according to preexisting CeVD (stroke/TIA) or CVD [coronary heart disease (CHD) or myocardial infarction (MI)]. RESULTS: Of 858,509 patients presenting with an acute stroke/TIA, 251,176 (29.3%) had a preexisting CeVD, 44,158 (5.1%) had preexisting CVD, 33,070 (3.9%) had concomitant preexisting CeVD and CVD, and 530,105 (61.7%) had no documented history of CeVD/CVD. Overall, only 397,596 (46.3%) met the target for LDL-C <2.6 mmol/L, 128,177 (14.9%) for LDL-C <1.8 mmol/L and 55,275 (6.4%) for LDL-C <1.4 mmol/L, and patients with concomitant CeVD and CVD had higher attainment rates than other disease groups (P<0.001). Despite improvements over time in the proportion of patients who attain LDL-C targets (P for trend <0.05), it remains suboptimal. Younger age, women, having a history of hypertension or dyslipidemia, current smoking or drinking, and being admitted to hospitals located in eastern China were associated with lower odds of meeting the LDL-C goals. CONCLUSIONS: Overall attainment of guideline LDL-C targets in a population of stroke/TIA patients is low and indicates the need for better management of dyslipidemia, particularly for high-risk stroke patients with pre-existing CeVD or CVD.

11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(8): e2120745, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387677

RESUMO

Importance: Stroke represents a significant burden on the health care system of China. The Chinese Stroke Center Alliance was launched in 2015 to monitor and improve care quality and outcomes for patients with acute stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA). Objective: To evaluate the clinical characteristics, management, and in-hospital clinical outcomes and complications among patients with stroke or TIA in China. Design, Setting, and Participants: This quality improvement study assessed stroke or TIA admissions to 1476 participating hospitals in the Chinese Stroke Center Alliance between August 1, 2015, and July 31, 2019. Exposures: Stroke types and calendar year. Main Outcomes and Measures: Eleven guideline-based admission or discharge management measures and 2 summary measures: an all-or-none binary outcome and a composite score (range, 0 [nonadherence] to 1 [perfect adherence]) for adherence to evidence-based stroke and TIA care and in-hospital clinical outcomes, including death or discharge against medical advice (DAMA), major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs), including ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, TIA, or myocardial infarction; and in-hospital complications. Results: Of 1 006 798 patients with stroke or TIA (mean [SD] age, 65.7 [12.2] years; 383 500 [38.1%] female), 838 229 (83.3%) had an ischemic stroke, 64 929 (6.4%) had TIA, 85 705 (8.5%) had intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and 11 241 (1.1%) had subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Management measures varied by cerebrovascular event type, with the mean (SD) composite score ranging from 0.57 (0.31) in SAH to 0.83 (0.24) in TIA. Poor outcomes and complications were highest among patients with SAH (21.9%; 95% CI, 21.0%-22.8% in-hospital death or DAMA; 9.6%; 95% CI, 9.1%-10.2% MACEs; and 31.4%; 95% CI, 30.6%-32.3% in-hospital complications) and patients with ICH (17.2%; 95% CI, 16.9%-17.5% in-hospital death or DAMA; 9.3%; 95% CI, 9.1%-9.5% MACEs; and 31.3%; 95% CI, 31.0%-31.6% in-hospital complications), followed by patients with ischemic stroke (6.1%; 95% CI, 6.0%-6.1% in-hospital death or DAMA; 6.3%; 95% CI, 6.3%-6.4% MACEs; and 12.8%; 95% CI, 12.7%-12.9% in-hospital complications), and lowest in patients with TIA (5.0%; 95% CI, 4.8%-5.2% in-hospital death or DAMA; 2.4%; 95% CI, 2.3%-2.5% MACEs; and 0.8%; 95% CI, 0.7%-0.8% in-hospital complications). Temporal improvements in management measures were observed from 2015 to 2019, especially in administration of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (+60.3% relatively; 95% CI, 52.9%-70.5%), dysphagia screening (+14.7% relatively; 95% CI, 14.0%-15.6%), and use of anticoagulants for atrial fibrillation (+31.4% relatively; 95% CI, 25.7%-37.3%). Temporal improvements in in-hospital death or DAMA (-9.7% relatively; 95% CI, -9.6% to -8.5%) and complications (-27.1% relatively; 95% CI, -28.6% to -25.3) were also observed. Conclusions and Relevance: In this quality improvement study, performance measure adherence and poor outcomes and complications varied by cerebrovascular event type; although there were substantial improvements over time, these results suggest that support for the use of evidence-based practices is needed.


Assuntos
Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/terapia , Melhoria de Qualidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/epidemiologia , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/mortalidade , Masculino , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade
12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(7): e2118816, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34323982

RESUMO

Importance: Adherence to oral anticoagulants (OACs) per guideline recommendations is crucial in reducing ischemic stroke and systemic thromboembolism in high-risk patients with ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation. However, data on OAC use are underreported in China. Objective: To assess adherence to the Chinese Stroke Association or the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association's clinical management guideline-recommended prescription of OACs, the temporal improvement in adherence, and the risk factors associated with OAC prescriptions. Design, Setting, and Participants: This quality improvement study was conducted at 1430 participating hospitals in the Chinese Stroke Center Alliance (CSCA) among patients with ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation enrolled in the CSCA between August 1, 2015, and July 31, 2019. Exposure: Calendar year. Main Outcomes and Measures: Adherence to the Chinese Stroke Association or the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association's clinical management guideline-recommended prescribing of OACs (warfarin and non-vitamin K OACs, including dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban) at discharge. Results: Among 35 767 patients (18 785 women [52.5%]; mean [SD] age, 75.5 [9.2] years) with previous atrial fibrillation at admission, the median CHA2DS2-VASc (cardiac failure or dysfunction, hypertension, age 65-74 [1 point] or ≥75 years [2 points], diabetes, and stroke, transient ischemic attack or thromboembolism [2 points]-vascular disease, and sex category [female]) score was 4.0 (interquartile range, 3.0-5.0); 6303 (17.6%) were taking OACs prior to hospitalization for stroke, a rate that increased from 14.3% (20 of 140) in the third quarter of 2015 to 21.1% (118 of 560) in the third quarter of 2019 (P < .001 for trend). Of 49 531 eligible patients (26 028 men [52.5%]; mean [SD] age, 73.4 [10.4] years), 20 390 (41.2%) had an OAC prescription at discharge, an increase from 23.2% (36 of 155) in the third quarter of 2015 to 47.1% (403 of 856) in the third quarter of 2019 (P < .001 for trend). Warfarin was the most commonly prescribed OAC (11 956 [24.2%]) and had the largest temporal increase (from 5.8% [9 of 155] to 20.7% [177 of 856]). Older age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] per 5 year increase, 0.89;95% CI, 0.89-0.90), lower levels of education (aOR for below elementary school, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.74-0.95 ), lower income (aOR for ≤¥1000 [$154], 0.66; 95% CI, 0.59-0.73), having new rural cooperative medical scheme insurance (aOR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.87-0.96), prior antiplatelet use (aOR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.66-0.74), having several cardiovascular comorbid conditions (including stroke or transient ischemic attack [aOR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.75-0.82], hypertension [aOR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.80-0.89], diabetes [aOR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.83-0.99], dyslipidemia [aOR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.80-0.94], carotid stenosis [aOR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.69-0.98], and peripheral vascular disease [aOR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.71-0.90]), and admission to secondary hospitals (aOR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.68-0.74) or hospitals located in the central region of China (aOR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.75-0.84) were associated with not being prescribed an OAC at discharge. Conclusions and Relevance: This quality improvement study suggests that, despite significant improvement over time, OAC prescriptions remained low. Efforts to increase OAC prescriptions, especially non-vitamin K OACs, are needed for vulnerable subgroups by age, socioeconomic status, and presence of comorbid conditions.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/normas , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/tendências , AVC Isquêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Administração Oral , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , China , Prescrições de Medicamentos/normas , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Melhoria de Qualidade
13.
Stroke ; 52(7): 2250-2257, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34039032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We performed a systemic review and meta-analysis to elucidate the effectiveness and safety of dual antiplatelet (DAPT) therapy with P2Y12 inhibitors (clopidogrel/ticagrelor) and aspirin versus aspirin monotherapy in patients with mild ischemic stroke or high-risk transient ischemic attack. METHODS: Following Preferred Reported Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis standards for meta-analyses, Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the Cochrane Library were searched for randomized controlled trials that included patients with a diagnosis of an acute mild ischemic stroke or high-risk transient ischemic attack, intervention of DAPT therapy with clopidogrel/ticagrelor and aspirin versus aspirin alone from January 2012 to July 2020. The outcomes included subsequent stroke, all-cause mortality, cardiovascular death, hemorrhage (mild, moderate, or severe), and myocardial infarction. A DerSimonian-Laird random-effects model was used to estimate pooled risk ratio (RR) and corresponding 95% CI in R package meta. We assessed the heterogeneity of data across studies with use of the Cochran Q statistic and I2 test. RESULTS: Four eligible trials involving 21 493 participants were included in the meta-analysis. DAPT therapy started within 24 hours of symptom onset reduced the risk of stroke recurrence by 24% (RR, 0.76 [95% CI, 0.68-0.83], I2=0%) but was not associated with a change in all-cause mortality (RR, 1.30 [95% CI, 0.90-1.89], I2=0%), cardiovascular death (RR, 1.34 [95% CI, 0.56-3.17], I2=0%), mild bleeding (RR, 1.25 [95% CI, 0.37-4.29], I2=94%), or myocardial infarction (RR, 1.45 [95% CI, 0.62-3.39], I2=0%). However, DAPT was associated with an increased risk of severe or moderate bleeding (RR, 2.17 [95% CI, 1.16-4.08], I2=41%); further sensitivity tests found that the association was limited to trials with DAPT treatment duration over 21 days (RR, 2.86 [95% CI, 1.75-4.67], I2=0%) or ticagrelor (RR, 2.17 [95% CI, 1.16-4.08], I2=37%) but not within 21 days or clopidogrel. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with noncardioembolic mild stroke or high-risk transient ischemic attack, DAPT with aspirin and clopidogrel/ticagrelor is more effective than aspirin alone for recurrent stroke prevention with a small absolute increase in the risk of severe or moderate bleeding.


Assuntos
Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Terapia Antiplaquetária Dupla/métodos , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/administração & dosagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Terapia Antiplaquetária Dupla/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/diagnóstico por imagem , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem
14.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 633767, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34025575

RESUMO

Background: Although hyperuricemia frequently associates with respiratory diseases, patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) can show marked hypouricemia. Previous studies on the association of serum uric acid with risk of adverse outcomes related to COVID-19 have produced contradictory results. The precise relationship between admission serum uric acid and adverse outcomes in hospitalized patients is unknown. Methods: Data of patients affected by laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and admitted to Leishenshan Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. The primary outcome was composite and comprised events, such as intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mechanical ventilation, or mortality. Logistic regression analysis was performed to explore the association between serum concentrations of uric acid and the composite outcome, as well as each of its components. To determine the association between serum uric acid and in-hospital adverse outcomes, serum uric acid was also categorized by restricted cubic spline, and the 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to estimate odds ratios (OR). Results: The study cohort included 1854 patients (mean age, 58 years; 52% women). The overall mean ± SD of serum levels of uric acid was 308 ± 96 µmol/L. Among them, 95 patients were admitted to ICU, 75 patients received mechanical ventilation, and 38 died. In total, 114 patients reached composite end-points (have either ICU admission, mechanical ventilation or death) during hospitalization. Compared with a reference group with estimated baseline serum uric acid of 279-422 µmol/L, serum uric acid values ≥ 423 µmol/L were associated with an increased risk of composite outcome (OR, 2.60; 95% CI, 1.07- 6.29) and mechanical ventilation (OR, 3.01; 95% CI, 1.06- 8.51). Serum uric acid ≤ 278 µmol/L was associated with an increased risk of the composite outcome (OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.18- 3.65), ICU admission (OR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.17- 4.05]), and mechanical ventilation (OR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.06- 4.28), as assessed by multivariate analysis. Conclusions: This study shows that the association between admission serum uric acid and composite outcome of COVID-19 patients was U-shaped. In particular, we found that compared with baseline serum uric acid levels of 279-422 µmol/L, values ≥ 423 µmol/L were associated with an increased risk of composite outcome and mechanical ventilation, whereas levels ≤ 278 µmol/L associated with increased risk of composite outcome, ICU admission and mechanical ventilation.


Assuntos
COVID-19/sangue , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/terapia , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Respiração Artificial , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
15.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(8): 626, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33987324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unknown about the influence of prestroke antiplatelet use on early outcomes in patients with and without the indication. We aimed to evaluate the in-hospital prognosis of first-ever noncardiogenic ischemic stroke patients with and without indications of antiplatelet use for primary prevention. METHODS: This was a retrospective, observational study based on a prospective hospital-based registry (Chinese Stroke Center Alliance). Using the data with 436,660 first-ever noncardiogenic acute ischemic strokes recorded from Aug 1, 2015, to July 31, 2019, from 1,453 hospitals in China, we examined the associations between the indication for prestroke antiplatelet use and in-hospital clinical outcomes. RESULTS: Among 436,660 first-ever noncardiogenic ischemic stroke patients, 42,409 patients (9.7%) had a documented previous vascular indication and 394,251 (90.3%) did not. Compared to those without, patients with the indication were associated with increased prevalence of in-hospital morbid conditions, including stroke severity (OR 2.71; 95% CI: 2.62-2.81; P<0.0001), length of stay >14 days (OR 1.16; 95% CI: 1.13-1.19; P<0.0001), mortality (OR 2.20; 95% CI: 1.96-2.46, P<0.0001), and recurrence of ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) (OR 1.5; 95% CI: 1.43-1.59, P<0.0001). Among patients without indication, prestroke antiplatelet use was associated with lower mortality (OR 0.73, 95% CI: 0.56-0.96; P=0.0221); while among patients with indication, those receiving prestroke antiplatelet had lower odds ratios in stroke severity (P<0.0001) and disability (P=0.0003) than those who not. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with indications of prestroke antiplatelet use were more likely to have unfavorable outcomes than those without. Prestroke antiplatelet might be associated with lower mortality, less disability, and less stroke severity in certain population groups. Future studies to improve risk prediction rules are needed to guide effective primary prevention for ischemic stroke.

16.
Comput Struct Biotechnol J ; 19: 1694-1700, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33777331

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate and select the useful prognostic parameters to develop and validate a model to predict the mortality risk for severely and critically ill patients with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: We established a retrospective cohort of patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 (≥18 years old) from two tertiary hospitals: the People's Hospital of Wuhan University and Leishenshan Hospital between February 16, 2020, and April 14, 2020. The diagnosis of the cases was confirmed according to the WHO interim guidance. The data of consecutive severely and critically ill patients with COVID-19 admitted to these hospitals were analyzed. A total of 566 patients from the People's Hospital of Wuhan University were included in the training cohort and 436 patients from Leishenshan Hospital were included in the validation cohort. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) and multivariable logistic regression were used to select the variables and build the mortality risk prediction model. RESULTS: The prediction model was presented as a nomograph and developed based on identified predictors, including age, chronic lung disease, C-reactive protein (CRP), D-dimer levels, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), creatinine, and total bilirubin. In the training cohort, the model displayed good discrimination with an AUC of 0.912 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.884-0.940] and good calibration (intercept = 0; slope = 1). In the validation cohort, the model had an AUC of 0.922 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.891-0.953] and a good calibration (intercept = 0.056; slope = 1.161). The decision curve analysis (DCA) demonstrated that the nomogram was clinically useful. CONCLUSION: A risk score for severely and critically ill COVID-19 patients' mortality was developed and externally validated. This model can help clinicians to identify individual patients at a high mortality risk.

18.
Neurol Res ; 43(5): 387-395, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357098

RESUMO

Objective: We aimed to investigate factors related to in-hospital mortality (IHM) in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients.Methods: We prospectively investigated 827,314 patients who were admitted within 7 days of AIS between August 2015 and July 2019. Demographic characteristics, risk factors, and clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients were assessed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify predictors associated with IHM.Results: The IHM rate in this study was 0.5% in women and 0.3% in men. Factors associated with IHM in AIS included diabetes (odds ratio [OR] 1.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-1.43), female (OR 0.84, 95%CI 0.74-0.96), hypertension (OR 1.16, 95%CI 1.01-1.34), atrial fib/flutter (OR 1.51, 95%CI 1.29-1.77), other heart disease (OR1.43, 95%CI 1.23-1.67), prior myocardial infarction (OR 2.00, 95%CI 1.54-2.60), antiplatelet therapies (OR 0.71, 95%CI 0.60-0.84), gastrointestinal bleeding (OR 3.54, 95%CI 2.83-4.44), pulmonary embolism (OR 2.53, 95%CI1.41-4.53), dysphagia(OR7.32, 95%CI6.23-8.61), glycosylated hemoglobin (OR1.05, 95%CI 1.02-1.09), serum creatinine (OR 1.001, 95%CI 1.001-1.002), urea nitrogen (OR 1.10, 95%CI 1.08-1.12), National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score (4-5 vs. 0-4: OR 3.58; ≥15 vs. 0-4: OR 8.78), stroke rehabilitation (OR 0.27, 95%CI 0.23-0.30), age (third IQR vs. first IQR: OR 1.57; fourth IQR vs. first IQR: OR 2.23), and in-hospital stroke/TIArecurrence (OR 2.38, 95%CI 2.03-2.78).Conclusions: The findings from this study may help clinicians control the risk of IHM better for patients with AIS.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , AVC Isquêmico/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Razão de Chances , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco
20.
Stroke Vasc Neurol ; 5(3): 311-314, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994371

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: Embolic stroke is one of the main mechanisms of ischaemic stroke. Even if treated with recommended antithrombotic agents, stroke recurrence remains high. The Shuxuetong injection, a purified extract of traditional Chinese medicine widely used for thrombus diseases in clinical practice in China, could be a promising agent to prevent stroke recurrence. AIMS: To describe the design of the Shuxuetong injection for prevention of recurrence in acute ischaemic stroke with embolism mechanisms. DESIGN: The Shuxuetong for Prevention of recurrence in Acute Cerebrovascular events with Embolism (SPACE) trial is a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, superiority trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Shuxuetong injection in reducing recurrence or silent new ischaemic lesions on patients with acute embolic stroke within 10 days. An estimated 2416 patients with embolic stroke within 72 hours of symptom onset from 80 hospitals will be randomly assigned to one of two groups receiving Shuxuetong injection or placebo injection for 10 days. The primary endpoint is symptomatic or asymptomatic new cerebral infarction within 10 days after randomisation. CONCLUSION: The SPACE Trial will provide valuable evidence for the efficacy and safety of Shuxuetong injection for the prevention of stroke recurrence in patients with imaging-defined embolic stroke. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03090113.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Embolia Intracraniana/tratamento farmacológico , Prevenção Secundária , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , China , Método Duplo-Cego , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Equivalência como Asunto , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções , Embolia Intracraniana/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Recidiva , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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