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1.
Bioresour Technol ; 293: 122042, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473374

RESUMO

In excess sludge digestion, organic matters cannot be digested adequately due to its high lignocellulose content. This study attempted to comprehensively evaluate the digestive performances of sludge with different lignocellulosic components (hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin). Results show that hemicellulose/dealkaline lignin addition (S6) presents the highest methane yield of 203.6 mL/gVS. Compared to hemicellulose, dealkaline lignin is hardly degraded (lower than 10%), while its participation can promote the degradation of other organics in the system. Additionally, solo cellulose feedstock is difficult to be hydrolyzed (only 40.1%) without hemicellulose and dealkaline lignin addition. VFAs composition analysis indicates that VFA inhibition occurs in the digester with hemicellulose, cellulose and dealkaline lignin addition (S8). Microbial diversities of different digestive systems show that the relative abundance of Euryarchaeota in the digester S6 (7.2%) is much higher than others, and some specific microbes (Bacteroidetas and Firmicutes) are enriched in the S5 (74.1%) and S8 (54.7%) digesters.

3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(34): e16957, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD), also called eczema, is one of the most familiar chronic diseases in childhood. A possible pathological mechanism is immune dysfunction resulting in IgE sensitization to allergens. The recent studies demonstrated that the immune system can be affected by probiotics or prebiotics. However, the effectiveness and safety of probiotics or prebiotics on prevention of eczema are still unclear. To investigate this question, we conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: The protocol followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols. Four main databases (PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and the web of science) will be searched dating until 15 July 2019 for randomized controlled trials investigating the effects and safety of probiotics or prebiotics on prevention of eczema in children with no language restrictions. In addition, a manual search of the references of relevant published studies will also be considered.Studies selection, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment will be conducted by two independent reviewers. The primary outcome is the incidence of eczema. The second outcome is adverse events. The duration of intervention, the timing of intervention and intervention organism will be taken into consideration. RESULTS: The results will provide useful information about the effect and safety of probiotics or prebiotics on reducing the incidence of eczema in children. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study will be published in a peer-reviewed journal.PROSPERO registration number: CRD42019136528.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/prevenção & controle , Eczema/prevenção & controle , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Revisão Sistemática como Assunto
4.
Brain Res Bull ; 153: 150-161, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422072

RESUMO

T2 relaxation time (T2) alterations may serve as markers for early detection and disease progression monitoring by reflecting brain microstructural integrity in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the characteristics of T2 alterations during the early stage of AD remain elusive. We explored T2 alterations and their possible correlations with cognitive function in 5XFAD mice at early ages (1, 2, 3, and 5 months of age). Voxel-based analysis (VBA) and region of interest (ROI) analysis showed a decreased T2 in the hippocampus of 2-, 3-, and 5-month-old 5XFAD mice compared to those of controls. The dorsal hippocampal T2 decreased earlier than the ventral hippocampus T2. A significant correlation was observed between Morris water maze (MWM) test cognitive behavior and the dorsal hippocampus T2 in 5XFAD mice. These results indicated that the microstructural integrity of brain tissues, particularly the hippocampus, was impaired early and the impairment became more extensive and severe during disease progression. Furthermore, the dorsal hippocampus is a crucial component involved in spatial cognition impairment in young 5XFAD mice.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276844

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the possible effects of fetal gender and maternal characteristics on concentration of fetal cell-free DNA (cfDNA). METHODS: Maternal plasma that collected from 2638 singleton pregnancies women were analyzed using non-invasive prenatal testing for aneuploidy by next generation sequence technology. The effects of fetal gender and maternal BMI on fetal cfDNA was measured by Pearson correlation analysis. RESULTS: The proportion of fetal cfDNA was positively correlated with gestational age (regression equation: Y=16.2483+6.8856X, r=0.1660, p<0.0001); and negatively correlated with BMI (Body Mass Index) (regression equation: Y=25.6342-19.0065X, r=-0.2146, p<0.0001); Concentration of female fetal cfDNA (mean fetal cfDNA is 13.07%, p<0.0001) is higher than male fetal cfDNA (mean fetal cfDNA is 8.37%, p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Fetal cfDNA increases stably between 12 and 20 weeks of gestation, and increases in a higher rate after 20 weeks. The maternal BMI is an important factor affecting fetal cfDNA, should be paid enough attention in clinical application.

6.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0218856, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291286

RESUMO

There are large amounts of waste activated sludge (WAS) and kitchen waste (KW) produced every year in China. It has been confirmed that anaerobic co-digestion is an effective method to solve this problem. The targets of the present study were optimizing the digestive performances and clearing of the mechanism of bentonite addition by adding bentonite into digestive system. Group M (WAS: KW = 1:2, based on VS) presented higher cumulative methane yield (CMY), where the CMY increased from 19.8 to 36.3 mL/g VS with the bentonite dosage from 0 to 2 g/g VS. After bentonite addition, the lag phase of every digester presented an obvious decrease from 15.1 to 1.4 d. Furthermore, and the moderating effects on microbial community by bentonite. The addition of bentonite improved methane production, and it can also reduce the lag phase of methane production in co-digestion. What's more, bentonite addition increased the speed of pH recovery from 4.2-4.8 to normal level (7.0-8.0) and thus enhanced the system stability. The conclusion of this study can be used to guide practical engineering.

7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(27): e16096, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277108

RESUMO

Osteoporosis (OP) is a disease characterized by decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and an increased risk of osteoporotic fractures. Nutritional factors (including glucose and fats lipids), have been implicated in OP.We hypothesized that the levels of blood glucose and lipids could be biomarkers for predicting the risk of OP. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the potential relationship between BMD and levels of blood glucose and lipids via a community-based study in China.This was a community-based cross-section analysis, and a total of 8584 cases were investigated. The BMD of the left calcaneus was measured using an ultrasonic bone densitometer. The levels of blood glucose (fasting blood glucose [FBG], 2-h blood glucose [2hBG], and glycosylated hemoglobin [HbAlc]), and lipids (triglyceride [TG], total cholesterol [TC], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C]) were measured and analyzed.In our study population, the levels of FBG, 2hBG, HbAlc, TC, LDL-C and HDL-C were higher in the OP group than in the low bone density and the normal bone density groups, while the levels of HbAlc, TC, and LDL-C in the low bone density group were higher than those in the normal bone density group. In males, the level of blood LDL-C in the low bone density group was higher than that in the normal bone density group. In postmenopausal subjects, the levels of FBG, 2hBG and HbA1C were higher than those in the normal bone density groups, and the level of HbA1C in the low bone density group was higher than that in the normal bone density group. Pearson linear trend analysis demonstrated that BMD was positively associated with TC and LDL-C in males and negatively associated with FBG, 2hBG and HbA1C in postmenopausal females. Moreover, logistic analysis showed that BMD was correlated with TC in premenopausal females and HbA1C in postmenopausal females.OP is generally associated with abnormal levels of blood glucose and/or lipids; nevertheless, the relationship between OP and abnormal levels of blood glucose and/or lipids is complicate and different subpopulations may have different susceptibilities. Therefore, further detailed studies are warranted.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Osteoporose/sangue , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Calcâneo/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(12): 2499-2510, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359717

RESUMO

Ten batches of Angelica sinensis from three producing areas( Tuoxiang,Minxian and Weiyuan of Gansu province) were selected as the research objects,and processed into raw A. sinensis,A. sinensis with alcohol,and A. sinensis with soil respectively through the standard processing methods. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography( UPLC) was used to establish fingerprint for three processed products of A. sinensis,and determine the contents of 9 phenolic acids and phthalide compounds. The similarity was analyzed with Similarity Evaluation System for Chromatographic Fingerprint of Traditional Chinese Medicine,which showed that the chromatographic peaks of the same processed samples of A. sinensis were basically similar,with all similarities greater than 0. 950. The difference between different processed products and their control spectra was not obvious,with all similarities also higher than 0. 950.On the basis of using principal component analysis( PCA) and OPLS-DA to seek the difference components between groups,the improved distance coefficient method can be used to effectively distinguish the three processed products of A. sinensis by fingerprint similarity. At the same time,the determination method of nine phenolic acids and phthalide in A. sinensis was established by UPLC,and the comparison between different processed products was carried out. The results showed that the content of various components was changed as compared with the raw A. sinensis. The contents of coniferyl ferulate and ligustilide in the A. sinensis with alcohol were increased significantly,and the content of coniferyl ferulate was obviously increased in A. sinensis with soil. The method established in this paper can effectively distinguish different processed products of A. sinensis and determine the content of the main components in them.

9.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(12): 2511-2518, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359718

RESUMO

Both raw and vinegar products of the rhizome of Curcuma phaeocaulis are common drugs for promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis in traditional Chinese medicine,which could be reflected in the inhibition of tail thrombosis in mice. As the traditional processing theory instructs,vinegar tastes sour and bitter,but can activate blood circulation and remove stasis after being infiltrated into the rhizome of C. phaeocaulis as an excipient. In this study,under the help of the ultrafast liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-offlight mass spectrometry( UFLC-Q-TOF-MS),the spectrum-effect relationship between the inhibition of tail thrombosis in mice and the rhizome of C. phaeocaulis both before and after the vinegar processing,were established to explore the functional changes of blood circulation and stasis after vinegar process. Based on the peak area from the fingerprint of UFLC-Q-TOF-MS of the alcohol extracts from the raw and vinegar-processed rhizome of C. phaeocaulis and their efficacy for inhibiting tail thrombosis,the correlation between the chromatography of UFLC-Q-TOF-MS and the inhibition of tail thrombosis in mice were analyzed by orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis( OPLS-DA) method. The results,produced by Simca-P software,showed that effective components consisted of eight peaks 16,24( aromadendrene oxide),3,11,22( dehydro-α-curcumene),19[( R)-(-)-α-curcumene],23 and 10 from the fingerprint,making great contribution to distinguish C. phaeocaulis raw products and the corresponding vinegar processed products. Therefore,from the perspective of inhibiting the formation of tail thrombosis in mice,the marker components could be found through the spectrum-effect relationship to distinguish C.phaeocaulis raw and vinegar products. This study provided new basis to explain the difference between the raw and the processed products of traditional Chinese medicine in the functional change of promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350617

RESUMO

Species identification of Nocardia is difficult because of a complex and rapidly evolving taxonomy. In this study, gene sequencing (16S rRNA, gyrB, secA1, hsp65, rpoB), single 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogenetic analysis, and MALDI-TOF analysis were used to accurately identify 46 clinical Nocardia isolates to the species level. This provided a basis for establishing a routine method of multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) for molecular identification of Nocardia species. Genetic polymorphism analysis showed that MLSA was a powerfully discriminating method compared with the 16S rRNA gene to identify clinical Nocardia isolates. However, five-locus (gyrB-16S rRNA-secA1-hsp65-rpoB) MLSA led to misidentifications of all of the five Nocardia abscessus, which were confirmed by digital DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) analysis. Interestingly, four strains identified as Nocardia beijingensis by a 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic tree may be novel species as suggested by DDH studies. For the purpose of achieving both accuracy and discrimination, the data of MLSA were reanalyzed. A three-locus MLSA with concatenated gyrB-16S rRNA-secA1 sequences was used to construct the phylogenetic tree with high accuracy and powerful discrimination. Therefore, a routine method of MLSA was developed to identify clinical Nocardia species.

11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(13)2019 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261891

RESUMO

Consecutive monoculture practice facilitates enrichment of rhizosphere pathogenic microorganisms and eventually leads to the emergence of replant disease. However, little is known about the interaction relationship among pathogens enriched in rhizosphere soils, Nucleotide binding-leucine-rich repeats (NB-LRR) receptors that specifically recognize pathogens in effector-triggered immunity (ETI) and physiological indicators under replant disease stress in Rehmannia glutinosa. In this study, a controlled experiment was performed using different kinds of soils from sites never planted R. glutinosa (NP), replanted R. glutinosa (TP) and mixed by different ration of TP soils (1/3TP and 2/3TP), respectively. As a result, different levels of TP significantly promoted the proliferation of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. R. glutinosa (FO). Simultaneously, a comparison between FO numbers and NB-LRR expressions indicated that NB-LRRs were not consecutively responsive to the FO proliferation at transcriptional levels. Further analysis found that NB-LRRs responded to FO invasion with a typical phenomenon of "promotion in low concentration and suppression in high concentration", and 6 NB-LRRs were identified as candidates for responding R. glutinosa replant disease. Furthermore, four critical hormones of salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), ethylene (ET) and abscisic acid (ABA) had higher levels in 1/3TP, 2/3TP and TP than those in NP. Additionally, increasing extents of SA contents have significantly negative trends with FO changes, which implied that SA might be inhibited by FO in replanted R. glutinosa. Concomitantly, the physiological indexes reacted alters of cellular process regulated by NB-LRR were affected by complex replant disease stresses and exhibited strong fluctuations, leading to the death of R. glutinosa. These findings provide important insights and clues into further revealing the mechanism of R. glutinosa replant disease.

12.
Appl Opt ; 58(17): 4714-4719, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31251292

RESUMO

A femtosecond x-ray streak camera based on photoelectron filter technology is reported in this paper. Photoelectrons are collimated through the slit and channel of the photoelectron filter, so that transit time spread and space charge effect of electrons are reduced. A planar-focusing high-voltage electron-optical system is designed to match the filter. The channel length of the filter is 300 µm, and the slit width is 20 µm. The streak tube using the photoelectron filter is 273 mm in length, and the extraction field value between the Au photocathode and the filter is 10 kV/mm. An experimental platform is set up to calibrate the streak camera, which is excited by a 266 nm, 130 fs UV laser. The experimental results show that temporal resolution is 357 fs and dynamic range is 182:1 of this developed camera.

13.
Bioresour Technol ; 289: 121595, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203179

RESUMO

This study evaluated the digestive performance of excess sludge and different crop straws. Methane production, hydrolytic and acidogenic performance of different substrates were specially focused. Results showed that wheat straw presented the highest experimental biochemical methane potential (BMP, 462.5 mL/g VSremoval). Corn cob-added digester obtained the highest VS removal (68.8%) and the lowest methane content due to its high hemicellulose content. Kinetic studies showed that addition of crop straws could shorten the lag phase and accelerate the hydrolysis of substrates. 3DEEM results indicated that lignocellulosic compositions play important roles in sludge hydrolysis, while FE-SEM analysis showed that the lignocellulosic textures of different crop straws determine their hydrolytic performances. Microbial community and diversity results showed that the crop straws in sludge provided abundant nutrients and their unique structures supplied attachment points for microorganisms, which ensured the efficient operation of digestive process.

14.
Psychol Res ; 2019 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190091

RESUMO

Timing is essential for various behaviors and relative to vision, audition is considered to be specialized for temporal processing. The present study conducted a sensorimotor timing task that required tapping in synchrony with a temporally regular sequence and a perceptual timing task that required detecting a timing deviation among a temporally regular sequence. The sequence was composed of auditory tones, visual flashes, or a visual bouncing ball. In the sensorimotor task, sensorimotor timing performance (synchronization stability) of the bouncing ball was much greater than that of flashes and was comparable to that of tones. In the perceptual task, where perceptual timing performance of the bouncing ball was greater than that of flashes, it was poorer than that of tones. These results suggest the facilitation of both perceptual and sensorimotor processing of temporal information by the bouncing ball. Given such facilitation of temporal processing, however, audition is still superior over vision in perceptual detection of timing.

15.
World J Pediatr ; 2019 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Forkhead box M1 (FoxM1), a member of forkhead family, plays a key role in carcinogenesis, progression, invasion, metastasis and drug resistance. Based on the similarities between cancer and pulmonary arterial hypertension, studies on the roles and mechanisms of FoxM1 in pulmonary arterial hypertension have been increasing. This article aims to review recent advances in the mechanisms of signal transduction associated with FoxM1 in pulmonary arterial hypertension. DATA SOURCES: Articles were retrieved from PubMed and MEDLINE published after 1990, including-but not limited to-FoxM1 and pulmonary arterial hypertension. RESULTS: FoxM1 is overexpressed in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells in both pulmonary arterial hypertension patients and animal models, and promotes pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation and inhibits cell apoptosis via regulating cell cycle progression. Multiple signaling molecules and pathways, including hypoxia-inducible factors, transforming growth factor-ß/Smad, SET domain-containing 3/vascular endothelial growth factor, survivin, cell cycle regulatory genes and DNA damage response network, are reported to cross talk with FoxM1 in pulmonary arterial hypertension. Proteasome inhibitors are effective in the prevention and treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension by inhibiting the expression and transcriptional activity of FoxM1. CONCLUSIONS: FoxM1 has a crucial role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension and may represent a novel therapeutic target. But more details of interaction between FoxM1 and other signaling pathways need to be clarified in the future.

16.
Eur Respir J ; 54(2)2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164430

RESUMO

Although broad knowledge of influenza viral pneumonia has been established, the significance of non-influenza respiratory viruses in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and their impact on clinical outcomes remains unclear, especially in the non-immunocompromised adult population.Hospitalised immunocompetent patients with CAP were prospectively recruited from 34 hospitals in mainland China. Respiratory viruses were detected by molecular methods. Comparisons were conducted between influenza and non-influenza viral infection groups.In total, 915 out of 2336 adult patients with viral infection were enrolled in the analysis, with influenza virus (28.4%) the most frequently detected virus, followed by respiratory syncytial virus (3.6%), adenovirus (3.3%), human coronavirus (3.0%), parainfluenza virus (2.2%), human rhinovirus (1.8%) and human metapneumovirus (1.5%). Non-influenza viral infections accounted for 27.4% of viral pneumonia. Consolidation was more frequently observed in patients with adenovirus infection. The occurrence of complications such as sepsis (40.1% versus 39.6%; p=0.890) and hypoxaemia (40.1% versus 37.2%; p=0.449) during hospitalisation in the influenza viral infection group did not differ from that of the non-influenza viral infection group. Compared with influenza virus infection, the multivariable adjusted odds ratios of CURB-65 (confusion, urea >7 mmol·L-1, respiratory rate ≥30 breaths·min-1, blood pressure <90 mmHg (systolic) or ≤60 mmHg (diastolic), age ≥65 years) ≥3, arterial oxygen tension/inspiratory oxygen fraction <200 mmHg, and occurrence of sepsis and hypoxaemia for non-influenza respiratory virus infection were 0.87 (95% CI 0.26-2.84), 0.72 (95% CI 0.26-1.98), 1.00 (95% CI 0.63-1.58) and 1.05 (95% CI 0.66-1.65), respectively. The hazard ratio of 90-day mortality was 0.51 (95% CI 0.13-1.91).The high incidence of complications in non-influenza viral pneumonia and similar impact of non-influenza respiratory viruses relative to influenza virus on disease severity and outcomes suggest more attention should be given to CAP caused by non-influenza respiratory viruses.

17.
Exp Cell Res ; 382(2): 111468, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201812

RESUMO

Database screening indicated that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in pathogenesis of endometrial cancer. Among these miRNAs, miR-449a might be involved in tumorigenesis and lower expression of miR-449a was associated with poor prognosis. However, the role of miR-449a and its underlying molecular mechanism in endometrial cancer (EC) has not been investigated. In this study, our analysis found that miR-449a expression is inversely correlated with the stage of EC. Downregulation of miR-449a was correlated with tumor progression and poor prognosis in the EC patients. Results of functional analyses revealed that overexpression of miR-449a in human EC cells alleviated cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis. Conversely, loss of miR-449a in EC cancer cells facilitated all these cellular activities. Moreover, we identified N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) as a direct and functional target gene of miR-449a in EC cells, and the expression of NDRG1 in 87 EC specimens were inversely correlated with that of miR-449a. Additionally, further studies show that the down-regulation of NDRG1 expression inhibited proliferation and metastasis of EC cells through the PTEN/AKT pathway. Therefore, these results suggest that miR-449a suppresses the growth and metastasis of EC by directly targeting the NDRG1 gene and that the activation of miR-449a may represent an effective therapeutic strategy in EC.

18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(22): 23095-23107, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31183761

RESUMO

Nitrous oxide (N2O) generated during biological nitrogen removal in wastewater treatment processes has contributed an important proportion to the global warming effect. To evaluate the possibility of N2O emission mitigating by changing carbon source supply strategies, nitrogen transformation characteristics and N2O emissions with methanol one-time dosing and step dosing were investigated. Two sets of laboratory-scale sequencing batch biofilm reactors (SBBRs) were conducted to treat real domestic wastewater with low carbon source. The results revealed that reactors with methanol step dosing showed a lower N2O emission of 0.0402 ± 0.0016 mg/(L·h), together with a higher total nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen removal efficiencies of 83.30% ± 1.21 and 93.45% ± 1.20, respectively. While N2O emission from conventional one-time dosing reactors was 0.0741 ± 0.0025 mg/(L·h), total nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen removal efficiencies were 75.71% ± 0.54 and 88.45% ± 0.59, respectively. The N2O emission factor of SBBR was reduced from 6.26% ± 0.21 to 3.40% ± 0.14 with methanol step dosing. Moreover, nitrification rates in aerobic phases were reduced, while denitrification rates in anoxic phases were elevated. Hence, carbon source step dosing enhanced nitrogen removal and reduced N2O emission compared with one-time dosing, which is a simply achievable strategy for N2O emission reduction in highly automated systems like wastewater treatment plants.

19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(20): e15675, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Constipation is one of the most common diseases in children and it is also a significant healthcare burden, more than many other common childhood diseases. For some children, 1st-line treatment cannot relieve their constipation and their constipation symptoms maybe continue to adolescence. So, alternative treatment options such as lactobacilli are needed. However, the effectiveness and safety of lactobacilli is still unclear. To investigate this question, we conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: The protocol followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols. Three main databases (PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library) will be searched to December 20, 2018 for randomized controlled trials investigating the effects and safety of lactobacilli for constipation in children with no language restrictions. In addition, a manual search of the references of relevant published studies will also be considered.Two independent reviewers will conduct studies selection, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment. The primary outcome is defecation frequency, treatment success (bowl movement >3 times per week). The 2nd outcome is stool consistency, incidence of abdominal pain, patients using laxatives, and adverse events. RESULTS: The results will provide useful information about the effect and safety of lactobacilli for constipation in children. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019125913.


Assuntos
Constipação Intestinal/terapia , Lactobacillus , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Probióticos/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa
20.
Environ Technol ; : 1-11, 2019 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050606

RESUMO

This paper used cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) pre-loaded activated carbon (AC) to research nitrate adsorption. Effects of various parameters such as AC types, AC dosage as well as initial pH were studied. The results indicated that the ACs modified by CTAC can get higher nitrate removal. Even pH is neutral and basic, an accepted removal about 2.5 mg/g can be observed. The more CTAC pre-loaded on the AC surface, the higher nitrate adsorption capacity can be obtained. pH is regarded as a key factor affecting interactions between adsorbent and adsorbate, and the results confirmed that the nitrate adsorption on modified AC decreases gradually with the growth of initial pH. Besides, the acidic pH condition is much favoured for adsorption while the results gained a nitrate adsorption about 4.28 mg/g at pH = 3 condition. Sorption mechanism of nitrate on CTAC modified AC was investigated through two kinetic modellings including pseudo-second-order and Weber and Morris intra-particle diffusion model. The results imply that the generalized kinetic models tally well with experimental data. Additionally, interference of co-existing anions is examined, and the results showed that higher co-anions concentration would bring a heavier depression of the nitrate uptake due to its competing for adsorption sites.

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