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1.
Nanoscale ; 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33978038

RESUMO

Two-dimensional materials, such as transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), exhibit intriguing physical properties that lead to both fundamental research and technology development. The recently emerged platinum diselenide (PtSe2), as a new member of the TMDs, has attracted increasing attention because of its good air stability, large refractive index and high electron mobility. However, being atomically thin significantly hinders its interaction with light, severely limiting the spontaneous or stimulated linear and nonlinear emission. Particularly, its nonlinear up-converted emission has not been fully exploited yet. Here, we experimentally observed the distinct enhancement of nonlinear up-converted luminescence of CVD-grown PtSe2 atomic layers on a SiO2/Si substrate with the assistance of the Fabry-Perot cavity resonance. The laser irradiance dependent luminescence study reveals the three-photon process of this nonlinear emission for the first time. Compared with non-resonant excitation, the luminescence enhancement can be up to six times because of the optical interference induced local field enhancement at the excitation wavelength. Leveraging this three-photon luminescence, nonlinear optical imaging and encryption were demonstrated for exploring information security applications. These results will pave the way for integrating nonlinear optical devices with the PtSe2 2D material.

2.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 114: 49-57, 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33887442

RESUMO

Soy saponins, as thermo-stable anti-nutrients in soybean meal (SBM), are the primary causal agents of SBM-induced enteritis, which represents a well-documented pathologic alternation involving the distal intestines of various farmed fish. Our previous work showed that soy saponins might lead to SBM-induced enteritis, destroy tight junction structure and induce oxidative damage in juvenile turbot. Glutamine, as a conditionally essential amino acid, is an important substrate utilized for the growth of intestinal epithelial cells. An 8-week feeding trial was carried out to determine whether glutamine can attenuate the detrimental effects of soy saponins. Three isonitrogenous-isolipidic experimental diets were formulated as follows: (i) fish meal-based diet (FM), considered as control; (ii) FM + 10 g/kg soy saponins, SAP; and (iii) SAP + 15 g/kg glutamine, GLN. The results showed that dietary soy saponins significantly increased the gene expression levels of inflammatory markers (IL-1ß, IL-8 and TNF-α) and related signaling factors (NF-кB, AP-1, p38, JNK and ERK), which were remarkably attenuated by dietary glutamine. Compared to SAP group, GLN-fed fish exhibited significantly higher expression levels of tight junction genes (CLDN3, CLDN4, OCLN, Tricellulin and ZO-1). Glutamine supplementation in SAP diet markedly suppressed the production of reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl, and enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes as well as the mRNA levels of HO-1, SOD, GPX and Nrf2. Furthermore, GLN-fed fish had a remarkably lower number of autophagosomes compared to SAP-fed fish. In conclusion, our study indicated that glutamine could reverse the harmful effects of soy saponins on intestinal inflammation, tight junction disruption and oxidative damage, via attenuation of NF-кB, AP-1 and MAPK pathways and activation of Nrf2 pathway. Glutamine may have the function of controlling autophaghic process within an appropriate level of encountering inflammation.

3.
Heart Rhythm ; 2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33887449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Left bundle branch pacing (LBBP) is a novel conduction system pacing modality, but pacing lead deployment remains challenging. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of visualization-enhanced lead deployment for LBBP implantation and to assess LBBP characteristics on the basis of lead tip location. METHODS: Successful LBBP with a well-defined lead tip location by visualization of the tricuspid value annulus in 20 patients was retrospectively analyzed to develop an image-guided technique to identify the LBBP target site. This technique was then prospectively tested in 60 patients who were randomized into 2 groups, one using the standard approach (the standard group) and the other using the image-guided technique (the visualization group). The procedural details, electrophysiological characteristics, and short-term follow-up were compared between groups. RESULTS: LBBP was successfully achieved in 28 patients in the standard group and in 29 in the visualization group. The procedural and fluoroscopic durations in the visualization group (66.76 ± 14.62 and 7.83 ± 2.05 minutes) were significantly shorter than those in the standard group (85.46 ± 20.19 and 11.11 ± 3.51 minutes, respectively) (P < .01). The number of lead deployment attempts in the visualization group was lower than that in the standard group (2.03 ± 1.18 vs 2.96 ± 1.17; P < .01), and the proportion of left bundle branch potential recorded was higher (79.3% vs 46.4%; P = .01). CONCLUSION: Using a visualization technique, the procedural and fluoroscopic durations for LBBP implantation were significantly shortened with fewer lead repositioning attempts.

4.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; : e2000799, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33890707

RESUMO

SCOPE: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and receptor of advanced glycation end products (RAGE) mediate renal function during diabetic and non-diabetic nephropathy development. Methylglyoxal-lysine dimer (MOLD), a typical toxic advanced glycation end product (TAGE), contributes to inflammatory responses during renal diseases. We determined the effect of MOLD on inflammatory responses in mouse mesangial cells. METHODS AND RESULTS: The murine mesangial cell line SV40 MES13 was used to assess nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) expression, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and mitochondria labeling. The interaction model between RAGE and MOLD was also determined. MOLD treatment of mesangial cells markedly increased RAGE expression and the linkage with V-type Ig domain of RAGE. MOLD induced ROS production and mitochondrial dysfunction. MOLD activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-protein kinase B (PI3KB) and NF-κB signaling pathways. It was confirmed that these changes were reversed when ROS was suppressed. These effects may be regulated through mitogen-activated protein kinases and pro-inflammatory cytokines in circulatory inflammation responses. CONCLUSION: MOLD plays a major role in nephropathy via ROS production and mitochondrial dysfunction through direct association with RAGE. Further, the NF-kB and PI3k/AKT signaling pathways triggered by ROS mediate the inflammatory response to exacerbate MOLD-induced damages in inflammation-related diabetic and non-diabetic renal diseases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

5.
Int J Cardiol ; 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839174

RESUMO

Background Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ACM) is characterized by a high incidence of ventricular tachyarrhythmia and sudden death. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation is the cornerstone of management. Objective This study aims to reveal the prognostic value of the contrast-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) amount in predicting varying lethal outcomes among ACM patients with ICDs. Methods The 88 patients with definite ACM who were all referred for contrast-enhanced CMR received an ICD and were followed up for a median of 4.0 years. Results Fifty-four patients had no left ventricular (LV) involvement and sixteen had an LV LGE amount > 15%. During the follow-up time, appropriate ICD therapy was seen in 57, electrical storm (ES) in 19, and cardiac death in 9 patients. Compared with those without LV involvement, patients with LV LGE amount > 15% had a higher risk of cardiac death (log-rank P = 0.021). LV LGE amount was associated with an increased risk of ICD therapy [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.035, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.008-1.062, P = 0.010], and cardiac death (adjusted HR 1.082, 95% 1.006-1.164, P = 0.034), independently of LV ejection fraction. LV LGE mass of >15% demonstrated an over 2-fold increase in ICD therapy (adjusted HR 2.180, 95%CI 1.058-4.488, P = 0.035) and an over 7-fold increase in cardiac death (unadjusted HR 7.198, 95%CI 1.399-37.043, P = 0.018) than those without LV involvement, respectively. Conclusions The LV LGE-CMR in ACM shows a dose-dependent association with ICD therapy and cardiac death. And LV LGE amount of >15% is a strong predictor.

6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 650424, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33927720

RESUMO

Chronic renal graft dysfunction (CAD) is caused by multiple factors, including glomerular sclerosis, inflammation, interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IF/TA). However, the most prominent elements of CAD are IF/TA. Our studies have confirmed that endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) is an important source to allograft IF/TA. The characteristic of EndMT is the loss of endothelial marker and the acquisition of mesenchymal or fibroblastic phenotypes. Autophagy is an intracellular degradation pathway that is regulated by autophagy-related proteins and plays a vital role in many fibrotic conditions. However, whether or not autophagy contributes to fibrosis of renal allograft and how such mechanism occurs still remains unclear. Autophagy related 16 like gene (ATG16L) is a critical autophagy-related gene (ARG) necessary for autophagosome formation. Here, we first analyzed kidney transplant patient tissues from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets and 60 transplant patients from our center. Recipients with stable kidney function were defined as non-CAD group and all patients in CAD group were histopathologically diagnosed with CAD. Results showed that ATG16L, as one significant differential ARG, was less expressed in CAD group compared to the non-CAD group. Furthermore, we found there were less autophagosomes and autolysosomes in transplanted kidneys of CAD patients, and downregulation of autophagy is a poor prognostic factor. In vitro, we found out that the knockdown of ATG16L enhanced the process of EndMT in human renal glomerular endothelial cells (HRGECs). In vivo, the changes of EndMT and autophagic flux were then detected in rat renal transplant models of CAD. We demonstrated the occurrence of EndMT, and indicated that abundance of ATG16L was accompanied by the dynamic autophagic flux change along different stages of kidney transplantation. Mechanistically, knockdown of ATG16L, specifically in endothelial cells, reduced of NF-κB degradation and excreted inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α), which could facilitate EndMT. In conclusion, ATG16L-dependent autophagic flux causing by transplant showed progressive loss increase over time. Inflammatory cytokines from this process promoted EndMT, thereby leading to progression of CAD. ATG16L served as a negative regulator of EndMT and development of renal graft fibrosis, and autophagy can be explored as a potential therapeutic target for chronic renal graft dysfunction.

7.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 19(1): 203-216, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33723980

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the comprehensive effects of photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy on teeth after active orthodontic treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines. Six databases were electronically searched and screened for eligible human and animal studies published up to August 2020. The risk of bias was assessed based on the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions and Systematic Review Centre for Laboratory Experiment Tool. Two independent reviewers performed all procedures in duplicate. Any disagreement was resolved by discussion or consultation with a third reviewer. RESULTS: A total of 395 records were identified from the initial search up to August 2020. Following screening, 16 full-text articles were reviewed for eligibility (κ > 0.90), and ultimately 9 studies (3 clinical studies and 6 animal studies) were included in this review. The key outcomes observed were 'tooth position maintenance' and 'root resorption rehabilitation'. Two controlled clinical trials and two animal studies supported the preventive effects of PBM therapy on the relapse of post-orthodontic tooth positions, while the other two animal studies reported opposing findings. Regarding root resorption, all evidence supported the rehabilitation potential using PBM therapy for teeth that had undergone orthodontic tooth movement. There was a high risk of bias among studies, except for one randomised controlled trial. Due to the substantial heterogeneity among studies in terms of their types, participants, designs, PBM therapy settings and variables of interest, it was not possible to conduct a meta-analysis; therefore, a qualitative synthesis is presented. CONCLUSION: The quality of evidence for PBM therapy contributing to the maintenance of tooth position or improved dental health after orthodontic treatment remains low. There is considerable controversy over the effects of PBM therapy on orthodontic relapse. However, the use of PBM therapy after orthodontic treatment has promising effects for root resorption rehabilitation and is generally recommended.


Assuntos
Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade , Reabsorção da Raiz , Animais , Assistência Odontológica , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Técnicas de Movimentação Dentária
9.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 16(1): 44, 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33689036

RESUMO

The negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy ([Formula: see text]) centre in nanodiamonds (NDs) has been recently studied for applications in cellular imaging due to its better photo-stability and biocompatibility if compared to other fluorophores. Super-resolution imaging achieving 20-nm resolution of [Formula: see text] in NDs has been proved over the years using sub-diffraction limited imaging approaches such as single molecule stochastic localisation microscopy and stimulated emission depletion microscopy. Here we show the first demonstration of ground-state depletion (GSD) nanoscopy of these centres in NDs using three beams, a probe beam, a depletion beam and a reset beam. The depletion beam at 638 nm forces the [Formula: see text] centres to the metastable dark state everywhere but in the local minimum, while a Gaussian beam at 594 nm probes the [Formula: see text] centres and a 488-nm reset beam is used to repopulate the excited state. Super-resolution imaging of a single [Formula: see text] centre with a full width at half maximum of 36 nm is demonstrated, and two adjacent [Formula: see text] centres separated by 72 nm are resolved. GSD microscopy is here applied to [Formula: see text] in NDs with a much lower optical power compared to bulk diamond. This work demonstrates the need to control the NDs nitrogen concentration to tailor their application in super-resolution imaging methods and paves the way for studies of [Formula: see text] in NDs' nanoscale interactions.

10.
Exp Mol Pathol ; 120: 104635, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33773992

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: MicroRNA (miR)-93 has been proven to mediate the initiation and progression of colorectal carcinoma (CRC); however, the mechanisms by which miR-93 mediates CRC development need deeper elucidation. The present study is designed to investigate the association between miR-93 and high mobility group box 3 (HMGB3), as well as the functions of miR-93, in CRC. METHODS: miR-93 expression was quantified by RT-qPCR. CRC cells were transfected or cotransfected with miR-93 mimic, miR-93 inhibitor, pcDNA3.1-HMGB3 and sh-HMGB3, and then the proliferative, migratory and invasive capacities were detected in addition to the apoptotic rate. Western blotting assessed the expression levels of HMGB3, PI3K, p-PI3K, AKT and p-AKT. The interaction between miR-93 and HMGB3 was identified. RESULTS: In CRC tissues, miR-93 was downregulated and HMGB3 was upregulated. LOVO and SW480 cells transfected with miR-93 mimic exhibited reduced proliferation, invasion and migration as well as increased apoptosis. The ratios of p-PI3K/PI3K and p-AKT/AKT were declined after miR-93 mimic was introduced into the CRC cell lines. miR-93 negatively downregulated HMGB3, and introduction of pcDNA3,1-HMGB3 could counteract, in part, the inhibitory effects of miR-93 on the malignant properties of CRC cells as well as the ratios of p-PI3K/PI3K and p-AKT/AKT. CONCLUSION: miR-93 targeted HMGB3 to block the activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway and thus enhance CRC cell apoptosis.

11.
J Nucl Cardiol ; 28(2): 464-477, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33751472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A low appropriate therapy rate indicates that a minority of patients will benefit from their implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). Quantitative measurements from 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) may predict ventricular arrhythmia (VA) occurrence after ICD placement. METHODS: We performed a prospective observational study and recruited patients who required ICD placement. Pre-procedure image scans were performed. Patients were followed up for VA occurrence. Associations between image results and VA were analyzed. RESULTS: In 51 patients (33 males, 53.9 ± 17.2 years) analyzed, 17 (33.3%) developed VA. Compared with patients without VA, patients with VA had significantly larger values in scar area (17.7 ± 12.4% vs. 7.0 ± 7.9%), phase standard deviation (51.4° ± 14.0° vs. 34.0° ± 15.0°), bandwidth (172.9° ± 39.8° vs. 128.7° ± 49.9°), sum thickening score (STS, 29.5 ± 11.1 vs. 17.8 ± 13.2), and sum motion score (42.9 ± 11.5 vs. 33.0 ± 19.0). Cox regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that scar size, dyssynchrony, and STS were associated with VA occurrence (HR, 4.956, 95% CI 1.70-14.46). CONCLUSION: Larger left ventricular scar burden, increased dyssynchrony, and higher STS quantified by 18F-FDG PET may indicate a higher VA incidence after ICD placement.

12.
Vet Microbiol ; 255: 109019, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676094

RESUMO

PA-X is a novel discovered accessory protein encoded by the PA mRNA of the influenza A virus. Accumulated studies have demonstrated the crucial role of this protein in regulating the virulence of various subtypes of influenza virus, including H1N1, H5N1, H9N2, H1N2, H3N8 and H3N2 virus. However, the role of PA-X protein in regulating the virulence of the highly pathogenic avian H7N9 virus was unknown. In this study, we firstly generated two recombinant H7N9 viruses which have lower PA-X expression level than the parental H7N9 virus. We then systematically compared their difference in virus replication, polymerase activity, virulence and virus-induced host immune responses in mice. The results showed that the PA-X deficient viruses significantly increased viral replication in madin darby canine kidney cells and slightly increased viral replication in mouse lung. In addition, loss of PA-X expression significantly increased viral polymerase activity and alleviated the host-shutoff activity mediated by the parental PA protein. However, in contrast with the usual function of PA-X in regulating the virulence in different subtype influenza virus, no obvious effect on viral virulence in mice was observed by H7N9 PA-X protein. Furthermore, among the 12 kinds of cytokines and 2 kinds of complement derived components that we tested, the PA-X deficiency viruses only induced significantly higher expression levels of MX1 than the parental virus. Altogether, these results showed that PA-X has little effect on viral virulence and viral induced innate immune response of the H7N9 subtype virus. Our study adds further information for the growing understanding of the complexity of PA-X in regulating viral virulence and host innate immune response of different influenza virus.

13.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33704802

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic alcohol consumption is associated with a compromised innate and adaptive immune responses to infectious disease. Mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells play a critical role in antibacterial host defense. However, whether alcohol-associated deficits in innate and adaptive immune responses are mediated by alterations in MAIT cells remains unclear. METHODS: To investigate the impact of alcohol on MAIT cells, mice were treated with binge-on-chronic alcohol for 10 days and sacrificed at day 11. MAIT cells in the barrier organs (lung, liver, and intestine) were characterized by flow cytometry. Two additional sets of animals were used to examine the involvement of gut microbiota on alcohol-induced MAIT cell changes: (1) Cecal microbiota from alcohol-fed (AF) mice were adoptive transferred into antibiotic-pretreated mice and (2) AF mice were treated with antibiotics during the experiment. MAIT cells in the barrier organs were measured via flow cytometry. RESULTS: Binge-on-chronic alcohol feeding led to a significant reduction in the abundance of MAIT cells in the barrier tissues. However, CD69 expression on tissue-associated MAIT cells was increased in AF mice compared with pair-fed (PF) mice. The expression of Th1 cytokines and the corresponding transcriptional factor was tissue specific, showing downregulation in the intestine and increases in the lung and liver in AF animals. Transplantation of fecal microbiota from AF mice resulted in a MAIT cell profile aligned to that of AF mouse donor. Antibiotic treatment abolished the MAIT cell differences between AF and PF animals. CONCLUSION: MAIT cells in the intestine, liver, and lung are perturbed by alcohol use and these changes are partially attributable to alcohol-associated dysbiosis. MAIT cell dysfunction may contribute to alcohol-induced innate and adaptive immunity and consequently end-organ pathophysiology.

14.
Front Immunol ; 12: 618737, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33732243

RESUMO

Background: Costimulatory blockade provides new therapeutic opportunities for ensuring the long-term survival of kidney grafts. The adoption of the novel immunosuppressant Belatacept has been limited, partly due to concerns regarding higher rates and grades of acute rejection in clinical trials. In this study, we hypothesized that a combined therapy, Belatacept combined with BTLA overexpression, may effectively attenuate acute rejection after kidney transplantation. Materials and Methods: The rat kidney transplantation model was used to investigate graft rejection in single and combined therapy. Graft function was analyzed by detecting serum creatinine. Pathological staining was used to observe histological changes in grafts. The expression of T cells was observed by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. In vitro, we constructed an antigen-stimulated immune response by mixed lymphocyte culture, treated with or without Belatacept and BTLA-overexpression adenovirus, to observe the proliferation of receptor cells and the expression of cytokines. In addition, western blot and qRT-PCR analyses were performed to evaluate the expression of CTLA-4 and BTLA at various time points during the immune response. Results: In rat models, combined therapy reduced the serum creatinine levels and prolonged graft survival compared to single therapy and control groups. Mixed acute rejection was shown in the allogeneic group and inhibited by combination treatment. Belatacept reduced the production of DSA and the deposition of C4d in grafts. Belatacept combined with BTLA overexpression downregulated the secretion of IL-2 and IFN-γ, as well as increasing IL-4 and IL-10 expression. We also found that Belatacept combined with BTLA overexpression inhibited the proliferation of spleen lymphocytes. The duration of the elevated expression levels of CTLA-4 and BTLA differentially affected the immune response. Conclusion: Belatacept combined with BTLA overexpression attenuated acute rejection after kidney transplantation and prolonged kidney graft survival, which suggests a new approach for the optimization of early immunosuppression after kidney transplantation.

15.
J Periodontal Res ; 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33751610

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) can act as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) to compete for micro-RNAs (miRNAs) in regulation of downstream genes, various biological functions and diseases. Yet, the expression and regulation of lncRNAs in periodontitis are not fully understood. The objective of the study was to identify potential genes (lncRNA, messenger RNA [mRNA] and miRNA) involved in periodontitis, construct lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA ceRNA networks, explore gene functions and validate gene expressions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The data sets for the lncRNA, mRNA and miRNA expression profiles in gingival samples from periodontally healthy subjects and chronic periodontitis patients were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus. The differentially expressed lncRNAs (DElncRNAs), mRNAs (DEmRNAs) and miRNAs (DEmiRNAs) were identified, and ceRNA networks were then constructed. The expression of DElncRNAs and DEmRNAs was examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Moreover, Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analyses were performed for exploring the potential functions and biological pathways. RESULTS: The GSE80715 and GSE54710 data sets were retrieved. Subsequently, 26 DElncRNAs, 436 DEmRNAs and 12 DEmiRNAs were identified (|fold change| ≥2, adjusted p < 0.05). Further bioinformatics analysis contributed to establishment of the ceRNA networks, which consisted of 10 DElncRNAs, 11 DEmiRNAs and 83 DEmRNAs. Notably, the qPCR results showed a marked decrease in the expression of lncRNA H19 and two mRNAs (NOS1 and MAPT) which further supported the identified ceRNA network. The GO results revealed that the up-regulated mRNAs were significantly enriched in inflammatory processes, whilst the down-regulated mRNAs were enriched in cellular potentials. CONCLUSION: Non-coding RNAs are critically involved in the regulatory mechanisms in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. Further study is warranted to investigate the specific underlying genetic traits and networks.

16.
Adv Mater ; 33(11): e2008157, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33569816

RESUMO

Infrared optical systems are indispensable in almost all domains of society, but their performances are often restricted by bulky size, small field of view, large thermal sensitivity, high fabrication cost, etc. Here, based on the concept of catenary optics, a novel isophase streamline optimization approach is leveraged to design silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible metasurfaces with broadband, wide-angle, and high-efficiency performances, which breaks through the glass ceiling of traditional optical technologies. By using the truly local geometric phase, a maximum diffraction efficiency approaching 100% is obtained in ultrawide spectral and angular ranges. Somewhat surprising results are shown in that wide-angle diffraction-limited imaging and laser beam steering can be realized with a record field of view up to 178°. This methodology is scalable to the entire optical band and other materials, enabling unprecedented compact infrared systems for surveillance, unmanned vehicles, medical science, etc.

17.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 68, 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573615

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression in essential tremor (ET) has been constantly studied and reported, while the associated brain activity changes remain unclear. Recently, regional homogeneity (ReHo), a voxel-wise local functional connectivity (FC) analysis of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, has provided a promising way to observe spontaneous brain activity. METHODS: Local FC analyses were performed in forty-one depressed ET patients, 49 non-depressed ET patients and 43 healthy controls (HCs), and then matrix FC and clinical depression severity correlation analyses were further performed to reveal spontaneous neural activity changes in depressed ET patients. RESULTS: Compared with the non-depressed ET patients, the depressed ET patients showed decreased ReHo in the bilateral cerebellum lobules IX, and increased ReHo in the bilateral anterior cingulate cortices and middle prefrontal cortices. Twenty-five significant changes of ReHo clusters were observed in the depressed ET patients compared with the HCs, and matrix FC analysis further revealed that inter-ROI FC differences were also observed in the frontal-cerebellar-anterior cingulate cortex pathway. Correlation analyses showed that clinical depression severity was positively correlated with the inter-ROI FC values between the anterior cingulate cortex and bilateral middle prefrontal cortices and was negatively correlated with the inter-ROI FC values of the anterior cingulate cortex and bilateral cerebellum lobules IX. CONCLUSION: Our findings revealed local and inter-ROI FC differences in frontal-cerebellar-anterior cingulate cortex circuits in depressed ET patients, and among these regions, the cerebellum lobules IX, middle prefrontal cortices and anterior cingulate cortices could function as pathogenic structures underlying depression in ET patients.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Tremor Essencial/fisiopatologia , Tremor Essencial/psicologia , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia
18.
Mol Plant ; 14(4): 647-663, 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524550

RESUMO

The precise regulation of microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis is crucial for plant development, which requires core microprocessors and many fine tuners to coordinate their miRNA processing activity/specificity in fluctuating cellular environments. During de-etiolation, light triggers a dramatic accumulation of core microprocessors and primary miRNAs (pri-miRNAs) but decreases pri-miRNA processing activity, resulting in relatively constant miRNA levels. The mechanisms underlying these seemingly contradictory regulatory changes remain unclear. In this study, we identified forkhead-associated domain 2 (FHA2) as a light-stabilized suppressor of miRNA biogenesis. We found that FHA2 deficiency increased the level of mature miRNAs, accompanied by a reduction in pri-miRNAs and target mRNAs. Biochemical assays showed that FHA2 associates with the core microprocessors DCL1, HYL1, and SE, forming a complex to suppress their pri-miRNA processing activity. Further analyses revealed that FHA2 promotes HYL1 binding but inhibits the binding of DCL1-PAZ-RNase-RNA-binding domains (DCL1-PRR) to miRNAs, whereas FHA2 does not directly bind to these RNAs. Interestingly, we found that FHA2 protein is unstable in the dark but stabilized by light during de-etiolation. Consistently, disruption of FHA led to defects in light-triggered changes in miRNA expression and reduced the survival rate of de-etiolated seedlings after prolonged light deprivation. Collectively, these data suggest that FHA2 is a novel light-stabilized suppressor of miRNA biogenesis and plays a role in fine-tuning miRNA processing during de-etiolation.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33616880

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate the electrical characteristics and pacing parameters at different locations of His-Purkinje system pacing. METHODS: Patients who successfully underwent His-Purkinje system pacing with bradycardia indications from April 2018 to August 2019 were retrospectively analyzed according to the lead location confirmed by visualization of the tricuspid value annulus, postoperative echocardiography, and pacing electrocardiogram. The electrical characteristics and pacing parameters were compared among these patients. RESULTS: A total of 135 patients were retrospectively analyzed. Among them, 30 patients received atrial side HBP (aHBP group), 52 received ventricular side HBP (vHBP group), and 53 received left bundle branch pacing (LBBP group). The proportion of non-selective pacing was significantly lower in aHBP group (30.0%) than in vHBP (75.0%) and LBBP group (90.6%). LBBP had significantly shorter procedural and fluoroscopic duration than aHBP and vHBP. The capture threshold was significantly higher (1.07 ± 0.26 V/1.0 ms vs. 0.89 ± 0.22 V/1.0 ms vs. 0.77 ± 0.18 V/0.4 ms, P < 0.01, respectively), and the R-wave amplitude was significantly lower (3.71 ± 1.72 mV vs. 5.81 ± 2.37 mV vs. 10.27 ± 4.71 mV, P < 0.05 respectively) in aHBP group than those in the other two groups at implantation and during 3-month follow-up. No significant differences were observed in complications among groups during 3-month follow-up. CONCLUSION: VHBP and LBBP had better pacing performances than aHBP and might be more ideal pacing methods for bradycardia patients.

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