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1.
Mol Cell ; 81(16): 3323-3338.e14, 2021 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352207

RESUMO

The emerging "epitranscriptomics" field is providing insights into the biological and pathological roles of different RNA modifications. The RNA methyltransferase METTL1 catalyzes N7-methylguanosine (m7G) modification of tRNAs. Here we find METTL1 is frequently amplified and overexpressed in cancers and is associated with poor patient survival. METTL1 depletion causes decreased abundance of m7G-modified tRNAs and altered cell cycle and inhibits oncogenicity. Conversely, METTL1 overexpression induces oncogenic cell transformation and cancer. Mechanistically, we find increased abundance of m7G-modified tRNAs, in particular Arg-TCT-4-1, and increased translation of mRNAs, including cell cycle regulators that are enriched in the corresponding AGA codon. Accordingly, Arg-TCT expression is elevated in many tumor types and is associated with patient survival, and strikingly, overexpression of this individual tRNA induces oncogenic transformation. Thus, METTL1-mediated tRNA modification drives oncogenic transformation through a remodeling of the mRNA "translatome" to increase expression of growth-promoting proteins and represents a promising anti-cancer target.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/genética , Metiltransferases/genética , Neoplasias/genética , tRNA Metiltransferases/genética , Guanosina/análogos & derivados , Guanosina/genética , Humanos , Metilação , Neoplasias/patologia , Oncogenes/genética , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA de Transferência/genética
2.
Blood Adv ; 5(9): 2412-2425, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33956058

RESUMO

Advances in cancer genomics have revealed genomic classes of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) characterized by class-defining mutations, such as chimeric fusion genes or in genes such as NPM1, MLL, and CEBPA. These class-defining mutations frequently synergize with internal tandem duplications in FLT3 (FLT3-ITDs) to drive leukemogenesis. However, ∼20% of FLT3-ITD-positive AMLs bare no class-defining mutations, and mechanisms of leukemic transformation in these cases are unknown. To identify pathways that drive FLT3-ITD mutant AML in the absence of class-defining mutations, we performed an insertional mutagenesis (IM) screening in Flt3-ITD mice, using Sleeping Beauty transposons. All mice developed acute leukemia (predominantly AML) after a median of 73 days. Analysis of transposon insertions in 38 samples from Flt3-ITD/IM leukemic mice identified recurrent integrations at 22 loci, including Setbp1 (20/38), Ets1 (11/38), Ash1l (8/38), Notch1 (8/38), Erg (7/38), and Runx1 (5/38). Insertions at Setbp1 led exclusively to AML and activated a transcriptional program similar, but not identical, to those of NPM1-mutant and MLL-rearranged AMLs. Guide RNA targeting of Setbp1 was highly detrimental to Flt3ITD/+/Setbp1IM+, but not to Flt3ITD/+/Npm1cA/+, AMLs. Also, analysis of RNA-sequencing data from hundreds of human AMLs revealed that SETBP1 expression is significantly higher in FLT3-ITD AMLs lacking class-defining mutations. These findings propose that SETBP1 overexpression collaborates with FLT3-ITD to drive a subtype of human AML. To identify genetic vulnerabilities of these AMLs, we performed genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 screening in Flt3ITD/+/Setbp1IM+ AMLs and identified potential therapeutic targets, including Kdm1a, Brd3, Ezh2, and Hmgcr. Our study gives new insights into epigenetic pathways that can drive AMLs lacking class-defining mutations and proposes therapeutic approaches against such cases.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Doença Aguda , Animais , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Camundongos , Mutação , Proteínas Nucleares/genética
4.
Leukemia ; 35(4): 1012-1022, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764680

RESUMO

Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) catalyze the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to lysine residues of histones and play a central role in transcriptional regulation in diverse biological processes. Dysregulation of HAT activity can lead to human diseases including developmental disorders and cancer. Through genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 screens, we identified several HATs of the MYST family as fitness genes for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Here we investigate the essentiality of lysine acetyltransferase KAT7 in AMLs driven by the MLL-X gene fusions. We found that KAT7 loss leads to a rapid and complete loss of both H3K14ac and H4K12ac marks, in association with reduced proliferation, increased apoptosis, and differentiation of AML cells. Acetyltransferase activity of KAT7 is essential for the proliferation of these cells. Mechanistically, our data propose that acetylated histones provide a platform for the recruitment of MLL-fusion-associated adaptor proteins such as BRD4 and AF4 to gene promoters. Upon KAT7 loss, these factors together with RNA polymerase II rapidly dissociate from several MLL-fusion target genes that are essential for AML cell proliferation, including MEIS1, PBX3, and SENP6. Our findings reveal that KAT7 is a plausible therapeutic target for this poor prognosis AML subtype.


Assuntos
Rearranjo Gênico , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Histona Acetiltransferases/genética , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Proteína de Leucina Linfoide-Mieloide/genética , Apoptose/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Gerenciamento Clínico , Epigênese Genética , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Estudos de Associação Genética , Histona Acetiltransferases/metabolismo , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/metabolismo , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/metabolismo , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Células Mieloides/patologia , Proteína de Leucina Linfoide-Mieloide/metabolismo , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Ligação Proteica
6.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 19(1): 241, 2018 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29940843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biomolecular methods for species identification are increasingly being utilised in the study of changing environments, both at the microscopic and macroscopic levels. High-throughput peptide mass fingerprinting has been largely applied to bacterial identification, but increasingly used to identify archaeological and palaeontological skeletal material to yield information on past environments and human-animal interaction. However, as applications move away from predominantly domesticate and the more abundant wild fauna to a much wider range of less common taxa that do not yet have genetically-derived sequence information, robust methods of species identification and biomarker selection need to be determined. RESULTS: Here we developed a supervised machine learning algorithm for classifying the species of ancient remains based on collagen fingerprinting. The aim was to minimise requirements on prior knowledge of known species while yielding satisfactory sensitivity and specificity. The algorithm uses iterations of a modified random forest classifier with a similarity scoring system to expand its identified samples. We tested it on a set of 6805 spectra and found that a high level of accuracy can be achieved with a training set of five identified specimens per taxon. CONCLUSIONS: This method consistently achieves higher accuracy than two-dimensional principal component analysis and similar accuracy with hierarchical clustering using optimised parameters, which greatly reduces requirements for human input. Within the vertebrata, we demonstrate that this method was able to achieve the taxonomic resolution of family or sub-family level whereas the genus- or species-level identification may require manual interpretation or further experiments. In addition, it also identifies additional species biomarkers than those previously published.


Assuntos
Colágeno/metabolismo , Impressões Digitais de DNA/métodos , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Aprendizado de Máquina Supervisionado/normas , Humanos , Especificidade da Espécie
7.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom ; 30(7): 805-12, 2016 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27408951

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Microfaunal skeletal remains can be sensitive indicators of the contemporary ecosystem in which they are sampled and are often recovered in owl pellets in large numbers. Species identification of these remains can be obtained using a range of morphological criteria established for particular skeletal elements, but typically dominated by a reliance on cranial characters. However, this can induce biases under different environmental and taphonomic conditions. The aim of this research was to develop a high-throughput method of objectively identifying rodent remains from archaeological deposits using collagen fingerprinting, most notably the identification of rats from other myomorph rodents as a means to identify disturbances in the archaeofauna through the presence of invasive taxa not contemporary with the archaeological deposits. METHODS: Collagen was extracted from complete microfaunal skeletal remains in such a manner as to leave the bones morphologically intact (i.e., weaker concentration of acid than previously used over shorter length of time). Acid-soluble collagen was then ultrafiltered into ammonium bicarbonate and digested with trypsin prior to dilution in the MALDI matrix and acquisition of peptide mass fingerprints using a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometer. RESULTS: Collagen fingerprinting was able to distinguish between Rattus, Mus, Apodemus and Micromys at the genus level; at the species level, R. rattus and R. norvegicus could be separated whereas A. flavicollis and A. sylvaticus could not. A total of 12,317 archaeological microvertebrate samples were screened for myomorph signatures but none were found to be invasive rats (Rattus) or mice (Mus). Of the contemporary murine fauna, no harvest mice (Micromys) were identified and only 24 field mouse (Apodemus) discovered. CONCLUSIONS: As a result, no evidence of recent bioturbation could be inferred from the faunal remains of these archaeological deposits. More importantly this work presents a method for high-throughput screening of specific taxa and is the first application of collagen fingerprinting to microfaunal remains of archaeological specimens.

8.
BMC Genomics ; 16: 99, 2015 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25765960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The histone variant H2A.Z, which has been reported to have both activating and repressive effects on gene expression, is known to occupy nucleosomes at the 5' ends of protein-coding genes. RESULTS: We now find that H2A.Z is also significantly enriched in gene coding regions and at the 3' ends of genes in budding yeast, where it co-localises with histone marks associated with active promoters. By comparing H2A.Z binding to global gene expression in budding yeast strains engineered so that normally unstable transcripts are abundant, we show that H2A.Z is required for normal levels of antisense transcripts as well as sense ones. High levels of H2A.Z at antisense promoters are associated with decreased antisense transcript levels when H2A.Z is deleted, indicating that H2A.Z has an activating effect on antisense transcripts. Decreases in antisense transcripts affected by H2A.Z are accompanied by increased levels of paired sense transcripts. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of H2A.Z on protein coding gene expression is a reflection of its importance for normal levels of both sense and antisense transcripts.


Assuntos
DNA Antissenso/biossíntese , Histonas/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/biossíntese , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , DNA Antissenso/genética , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Nucleossomos/genética , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
9.
Mol Syst Biol ; 7: 497, 2011 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21654674

RESUMO

The expression level of a gene is often used as a proxy for determining whether the protein or RNA product is functional in a cell or tissue. Therefore, it is of fundamental importance to understand the global distribution of gene expression levels, and to be able to interpret it mechanistically and functionally. Here we use RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) of mouse Th2 cells, coupled with a range of other techniques, to show that all genes can be separated, based on their expression abundance, into two distinct groups: one group comprised of lowly expressed and putatively non-functional mRNAs, and the other of highly expressed mRNAs with active chromatin marks at their promoters. These observations are confirmed in many other microarray and RNA-seq data sets of metazoan cell types.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Biologia Computacional , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Análise em Microsséries , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Células Th2
10.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 39(5): e27, 2011 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21131282

RESUMO

The combination of chromatin immunoprecipitation with next-generation sequencing technology (ChIP-seq) is a powerful and increasingly popular method for mapping protein-DNA interactions in a genome-wide fashion. The conventional way of analyzing this data is to identify sequencing peaks along the chromosomes that are significantly higher than the read background. For histone modifications and other epigenetic marks, it is often preferable to find a characteristic region of enrichment in sequencing reads relative to gene annotations. For instance, many histone modifications are typically enriched around transcription start sites. Calculating the optimal window that describes this enrichment allows one to quantify modification levels for each individual gene. Using data sets for the H3K9/14ac histone modification in Th cells and an accompanying IgG control, we present an analysis strategy that alternates between single gene and global data distribution levels and allows a clear distinction between experimental background and signal. Curve fitting permits false discovery rate-based classification of genes as modified versus unmodified. We have developed a software package called EpiChIP that carries out this type of analysis, including integration with and visualization of gene expression data.


Assuntos
Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina , Epigênese Genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Software , Acetilação , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
11.
Environ Microbiol Rep ; 2(3): 440-8, 2010 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23766118

RESUMO

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a model organism for the study of intercellular communication and biofilm formation. As such, P. aeruginosa has been the subject of several microarray analyses comparing gene expression in biofilms and planktonic cultures. In the current work, we carried out a meta-analysis of these data sets to try and identify genes that are generically associated with biofilm formation in all of the conditions examined. Although the total number of transcripts modulated in the biofilms was large within the individual studies, the overlap between the data sets was small. Indeed, only five transcripts were upregulated and six transcripts were downregulated by more than twofold in the three data sets analysed. However, when the threshold modulation was relaxed to less than twofold, the overlap between the data sets increased, revealing a set of transcripts common to all of the studies. Transcriptional fusions and quantitative real-time PCR were used to independently confirm a selection of the observed modulations. Notably, we found that the expression profile of genes encoding the catabolic pathways for branched chain and aromatic amino acids was altered in biofilms, and that these alterations correlated with the onset of anaerobic growth. These findings were confirmed by quantitative amino acid analysis of culture supernatants. A mutant in one of the genes that we identified showed diminished biofilm formation in an attachment assay. The relatively small number of common biofilm-specific endpoint transcripts throws doubt on the suggestion that biofim formation proceeds through a pre-determined developmental pathway.

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