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1.
Cereb Cortex ; 31(2): 1060-1076, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32995836

RESUMO

Feedback-related negativity (FRN) is believed to encode reward prediction error (RPE), a term describing whether the outcome is better or worse than expected. However, some studies suggest that it may reflect unsigned prediction error (UPE) instead. Some disagreement remains as to whether FRN is sensitive to the interaction of outcome valence and prediction error (PE) or merely responsive to the absolute size of PE. Moreover, few studies have compared FRN in appetitive and aversive domains to clarify the valence effect or examine PE's quantitative modulation. To investigate the impact of valence and parametrical PE on FRN, we varied the prediction and feedback magnitudes within a probabilistic learning task in valence (gain and loss domains, Experiment 1) and non-valence contexts (pure digits, Experiment 2). Experiment 3 was identical to Experiment 1 except that some blocks emphasized outcome valence, while others highlighted predictive accuracy. Experiments 1 and 2 revealed a UPE encoder; Experiment 3 found an RPE encoder when valence was emphasized and a UPE encoder when predictive accuracy was highlighted. In this investigation, we demonstrate that FRN is sensitive to outcome valence and expectancy violation, exhibiting a preferential response depending on the dimension that is emphasized.

2.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 100: 203-215, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279033

RESUMO

Photocatalytic process represents a promising approach to overcome the pollution challenge associated with the antibiotics-containing wastewater. This study provides a green, efficient and novel approach to remove cephalosporins, particularly cefoperazone sodium (CFP). Bi4O5Br2 was chosen for the first time to systematically study its degradation for CFP, including the analysis of material structure, degradation performance, the structure and toxicity of the transformation products, etc. The degradation rate results indicated that Bi4O5Br2 had an excellent catalytic activity leading to 78% CFP removal compared with the pure BiOBr (38%) within 120 min of visible light irradiation. In addition, the Bi4O5Br2 presents high stability and good organic carbon removal efficiency. The effects of the solution pH (3.12 - 8.75) on catalytic activity revealed that CFP was mainly photocatalyzed under acidic conditions and hydrolyzed under alkaline conditions. Combined with active species and degradation product identification, the photocatalytic degradation pathways of CFP by Bi4O5Br2 was proposed, including hydrolysis, oxidation, reduction and decarboxylation. Most importantly, the identified products were all hydrolysis rather than oxidation byproducts transformed from the intermediate of ß-lactam bond cleavage in CFP molecule, quite different from the mostly previous studies. Furthermore, the final products were demonstrated to be less toxic through the toxicity analysis. Overall, this study illustrates the detailed mechanism of CFP degradation by Bi4O5Br2 and confirms Bi4O5Br2 to be a promising material for the photodegradation of CFP.


Assuntos
Cefoperazona , Cefalosporinas , Catálise , Oxirredução , Fotólise
3.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 252(4): 365-372, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33342972

RESUMO

Biliary atresia (BA) is the most frequent hepatic cause of death in early childhood. Early referral and timely Kasai portoenterostomy are essential for the improvement of long-term native liver survival rate of BA patients. Screening with stool color card (SCC) has been implemented in Japan since 1994. Recently current digital edition of SCC consisted of seven digitally created images was introduced to China. Our study aimed to evaluate the repeatability and reliability of same edition of SCC used in Beijing, China and Sapporo, Japan. In Beijing from 2013 to 2014, SCCs were distributed to infants' guardians by trained nurses in maternal facilities during information sessions on neonatal screening programs. SCC was used at three checkpoints for each infant after birth for screening. The SCC data were collected from 27,561 infants (92.5%) in Beijing by 42-day health checkup, mobile phone and social network services. In Sapporo from 2012 to 2015, the SCCs with a postcard and guardian instructions were inserted into Maternal and Child Health Handbook and distributed to all pregnant women. The data were collected from a total of 37,478 (94.3%) infants in Sapporo via the postcard during the 1st month infant health checkup. We thus identified two BA patients in Sapporo and two BA patients in Beijing. High rates of sensitivity and specificity in both cities were observed. The frequency distribution of color images on SCC reported in both cities was similar. This study shows excellent repeatability and reliability of the current digital edition of SCC.

4.
Angle Orthod ; 90(3): 397-404, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378431

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate three-dimensional (3D) accuracy and reliability of nonradiographic dentofacial images integrated with a two-step method. METHODS: 3D facial images, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images and digital maxillary dental casts were obtained from 20 pre-orthodontic subjects. Digital dental casts were integrated into 3D facial images using a two-step method based on the anterior tooth area. 3D coordinate values of five dental landmarks were identified in both dentofacial images and CBCT images. The accuracy of the integration method was assessed with paired t-tests between dentofacial images and CBCT-based reference standards. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were assessed for the reliability of dentofacial images and CBCT-based images. Analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis tests evaluated the accuracy of the method in different dimensions. RESULTS: There was no statistical difference between dentofacial images and CBCT reference standards in both translational and rotational dimensions (P > .05). Translational mean absolute errors for full dentitions were within 0.42 mm and ICCs were over 0.998 in x, y, and z directions. Rotational mean absolute errors for full dentitions were within 0.92° and ICCs over 0.734 in pitch, yaw, and roll orientations. Integration errors were significantly greater in the first molar, z-translation, and pitch rotation (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Integrating 3D dentofacial images with the two-step method is precise and acceptable for clinical diagnostics and scientific purposes. Errors were greater in the molar region, z-translation, and pitch rotation.

5.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0242721, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33259519

RESUMO

Information in working memory (WM) can guide visual attention towards matched features. While recent work has suggested that cognitive control can act upon WM guidance of visual attention, little is known about how the state of memorized items retaining in WM contribute to its influence over attention. Here, we disentangle the role of inhibition and maintenance on WM-guided attention with a novel delayed match-to-sample dual-task. The results showed that active inhibition facilitated searching by diminishing sensory processing and deterring attentional guidance, indexed by an attenuated P1 amplitude and unaffected N2pc amplitude, respectively. By contrast, active maintenance impaired searching by attentional guidance while sensory processing remained unimpaired, indexed by an enhanced N2pc amplitude and unchanged P1 amplitude, respectively. Furthermore, multivariate pattern analyses could sucessfully decode maintenance and inhibition, suggesting that two states differed in modulating visual attention. We propose that remembered contents may play an anchoring role for attentional guidance, and the state of those contents retaining in WM may directly influence the shifting of attention. The maintenance could guide attention by accessing input information, while the inhibition could deter the shifting of attention by suppressing sensory processing. These findings provide a possible reinterpretation of the influence of WM on attention.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Defective rostrocaudal colonization of the gut by vagal neural crest cells (vNCCs) results in Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR), which is characterized by aganglionosis in variable lengths of the distal bowel. Skip segment Hirschsprung's disease (SSHD), referring to a ganglionated segment within an otherwise aganglionic intestine, contradicts HSCR pathogenesis and underscores a significant gap in our understanding of the development of the enteric nervous system. Here, we aimed to identify the embryonic origin of the ganglionic segments in SSHD. METHODS: Intestinal biopsy specimens from HSCR patients were prepared via the Swiss-roll technique to search for SSHD cases. NCC migration from the neural tube to the gut was spatiotemporally traced using targeted cell lineages and gene manipulation in mice. RESULTS: After invading the mesentery surrounding the foregut, vNCCs separated into 2 populations: mesenteric NCCs (mNCCs) proceeded to migrate along the mesentery, whereas enteric NCCs invaded the foregut to migrate along the gut. mNCCs not only produced neurons and glia within the gut mesentery, but also continuously complemented the enteric NCC pool. Two new cases of SSHD were identified from 183 HSCR patients, and Ednrb-mutant mice, but not Ret-/- mice, showed a high incidence rate of SSHD-like phenotypes. CONCLUSIONS: mNCCs, a subset of vNCCs that migrate into the gut via the gut mesentery to give rise to enteric neurons, could provide an embryologic explanation for SSHD. These findings lead to novel insights into the development of the enteric nervous system and the etiology of HSCR.

7.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(11)2020 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33266355

RESUMO

We observed associations of IQGAP1 downregulation with poor overall survival (OS) in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Differentially expressed genes (DEGs, n = 611) were derived from ccRCCs with (n = 111) and without IQGAP1 (n = 397) reduction using the TCGA PanCancer Atlas ccRCC dataset. These DEGs exhibit downregulations of immune response and upregulations of DNA damage repair pathways. Through randomization of the TCGA dataset into a training and testing subpopulation, a 9-gene panel (SigIQGAP1NW) was derived; it predicts poor OS in training, testing, and the full population at a hazard ratio (HR) 2.718, p < 2 × 10-16, p = 1.08 × 10-5, and p < 2 × 10-16, respectively. SigIQGAP1NW independently associates with poor OS (HR 1.80, p = 2.85 × 10-6) after adjusting for a set of clinical features, and it discriminates ccRCC mortality at time-dependent AUC values of 70% at 13.8 months, 69%/31M, 69%/49M, and 75.3%/71M. All nine component genes of SigIQGAP1NW are novel to ccRCC. The inclusion of RECQL4 (a DNA helicase) in SigIQGAP1NW agrees with IQGAP1 DEGs enhancing DNA repair. THSD7A affects kidney function; its presence in SigIQGAP1NW is consistent with our observed THSD7A downregulation in ccRCC (n = 523) compared to non-tumor kidney tissues (n = 100). Collectively, we report a novel multigene panel that robustly predicts poor OS in ccRCC.

8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 6090, 2020 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33257700

RESUMO

Intracranial aneurysm is a common life-threatening disease. Computed tomography angiography is recommended as the standard diagnosis tool; yet, interpretation can be time-consuming and challenging. We present a specific deep-learning-based model trained on 1,177 digital subtraction angiography verified bone-removal computed tomography angiography cases. The model has good tolerance to image quality and is tested with different manufacturers. Simulated real-world studies are conducted in consecutive internal and external cohorts, in which it achieves an improved patient-level sensitivity and lesion-level sensitivity compared to that of radiologists and expert neurosurgeons. A specific cohort of suspected acute ischemic stroke is employed and it is found that 99.0% predicted-negative cases can be trusted with high confidence, leading to a potential reduction in human workload. A prospective study is warranted to determine whether the algorithm could improve patients' care in comparison to clinicians' assessment.


Assuntos
Angiografia Digital/métodos , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Aprendizado Profundo , Aneurisma Intracraniano/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Algoritmos , Isquemia Encefálica , China , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Aneurisma Intracraniano/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
9.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 28(6): 1912-1918, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33283719

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the efficacy of rituximab combined with CHOP/EPOCH regimen for treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma(DLBCL) patients, and to explore the high risk factors of refractory and relapsed patients. METHODS: The clinical data of 72 patients with de novo DLBCL from December 2012 to December 2018 in the Department of Hematology, Zhongda Hospital Affiliated to Southeast University were retrospectively analyzed. The remission rate of DLBCL patients treated by rituximab combined with CHOP/EPOCH was analyzed, and survival analysis was conducted to explore the risk factors influencing refractory recurrence. RESULTS: 45 cases among 72 patients achieved complete remission (CR), 11 cases achieved partial remission (PR), the total remission rate was 77.78%. 25 cases (34.2%) refractory and relapsed. Single factor analysis showed that the B symptoms, low Hb, high NLR, low MLR, high ß2-MG, high ESR, high hs-CRP, high LDH, low ALB, low HDL were high risk factors of refractory and relapsed DLBCL. Multivariate Logistic analysis showed B symptoms, low Hb, high ß2-MG, high ESR, and high hs-CRP were significantly related with refractory relapse. Survival analysis showed that OS of refractory and relapsed group was significantly worse than that in remission group. In addition, OS of patients with B symptoms, anemia, low LMR, high ß2-MG, high hs-CRP, high LDH, low ALB and low HDL was significantly worse than that of control group. CONCLUSION: The remission rate of DLBCL patients treated by rituximab combined with CHOP/EPOCH regimen is high, but about one third of the patients still show refractory and relapsed. B Symptoms, anemia, high ß2-MG, ESR and hs-CRP are the independent prognostic factors.


Assuntos
Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Doxorrubicina/uso terapêutico , Etoposídeo , Humanos , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Prednisona/uso terapêutico , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Vincristina
10.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 11(1): 533, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303038

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biological composite scaffolds are increasingly being used in abdominal wall reconstruction but still have certain shortcomings. The present study describes here a novel three-dimensional (3D) scaffold fabricated by combining 3D printing (3DP) and electrospinning (ESP). METHODS: Biological composite scaffolds are composed of integrated 3DP interconnected macrofiber and random ESP microfiber networks. The 3DP scaffold retains intact 3D architecture and mechanical properties, while the ESP network serves as a cell entrapment system at the extracellular matrix (ECM) scale. Biological composite scaffolds are implanted in a defective rat abdominal wall to detect if it could induce early vascularization and reconstruction of the tissue defect. RESULTS: SEM analysis reveals a pore diameter of 424.47 ± 58.49 µm and a porosity of 70.46 ± 2.48% for biological composite scaffolds. In the in vitro test of cell proliferation, biological composite scaffolds do not affect rat dermal fibroblast proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The animal experiments show tissue remodeling and early angiogenesis as compared to 3DP scaffolds. CONCLUSIONS: Our experiment prepares a biological scaffold with both a macro- and microscale structure by ESP and 3DP technology. Thus, the integration of 3DP and ESP techniques provides a new set of smart scaffolds for abdominal wall defect and hernia repair.

11.
Gynecol Obstet Invest ; : 1-13, 2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326956

RESUMO

AIMS: The invasion of extravillous trophoblast (EVT) cells into maternal decidua is essential for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. Derangement of EVT cell invasion might cause pregnancy complications including recurrent miscarriage (RM). We previously reported that deficiency of monoclonal nonspecific suppressor factor beta (MNSFß) led to the early pregnancy failure in mice and the decidual MNSFß expression level in RM patients was significantly decreased, but the underlying molecular mechanism of the role that MNSFß played at the maternal-fetal interface remains unclear. Thus, in the present study, we determined effects of downregulated MNSFß expression on human EVT cell activities. METHODS: The MNSFß expression in first-trimester human decidual and placental villus tissues was detected, respectively, by immunofluorescence or immunohistochemical analyses. The MNSFß expression level in the immortalized first-trimester human EVT cell line HTR8/SVneo was downregulated by transfecting the small interfering RNA against MNSFß and upregulated by transfecting the recombinant pDsRed-MNSFß plasmids. The proliferation, migration, invasion, and apoptosis activities of HTR8/SVneo cells were, respectively, determined by cytometry assay, scratch test, transwell assay, and FITC/PI staining. The expression levels of P53, RhoA, Bcl-2, Bax, and MMP-9 in HTR8/SVneo cells, as well as the expression levels of MNSFß and RhoA in placental villi of RM patients and physically normal pregnant women (NP), were examined by Western blot analysis. RESULTS: MNSFß protein signals were observed in first-trimester human villus and extravillous trophoblast cells. The downregulated MNSFß expression significantly attenuated the proliferation, migration, and invasion abilities of HTR8/SVneo cells, accompanied with the obviously decreased expression levels of P53, RhoA, Bcl-2, Bax, and MMP-9, whereas the upregulated MNSFß expression in HTR8/SVneo cells represented the inverse effects. Furthermore, expression levels of MNSFß and RhoA in first-trimester human placental villus tissues of RM patients were significantly decreased compared to that of NP women. CONCLUSION: These data suggested that MNSFß promotes proliferation and migration of human EVT cells, probably via the P53 signaling pathway, and the deficiency of MNSFß in placental villi might lead to early pregnancy loss by reducing proliferation and invasion activities of EVTs.

12.
Am J Surg ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surgical management of patients with ventral abdominal wall defects, especially complex abdominal wall defects, remains a challenging problem for abdominal wall reconstructive surgeons. Effective surgical treatment requires appropriate preoperative assessment, surgical planning, and correct operative procedure in order to improve postoperative clinical outcomes and minimize complications. Although substantial advances have been made in surgical techniques and prosthetic technologies, there is still insufficient high-level evidence favoring a specific technique. Broad variability in existing practice patterns, including clinical pre-operative evaluation, surgical techniques and surgical procedure selection, are still common. DATA SOURCES: With the purpose of providing a best practice algorithm, a comprehensive search was conducted in Medline and PubMed. Sixty-four surgeons considered as experts on abdominal wall defect repair and reconstruction in China were solicited to develop a Chinese consensus and give recommendations to help surgeons standardize their techniques and improve clinical results. CONCLUSIONS: This consensus serves as a starting point to provide recommendations for adult ventral abdominal wall repair and reconstruction in China and may help build opportunities for international cooperation to refine AWR practice.

13.
Pest Manag Sci ; 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33236463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are used globally to kill key insect pests and provide numerous benefits, including improved pest management, increased profits, reduced insecticide use, and increased biological control. Unfortunately, such benefits are rapidly being lost by the evolution of Bt resistance by pests. RESULTS: The main strategy to delay resistance relies on the use of non-Bt refuge plants to produce sufficient susceptible insects that mate with rare resistant insects emerging from Bt crops, essentially diluting and/or removing resistance alleles from pest populations. A key assumption for the success of this refuge strategy is that inheritance of resistance is recessive. In China, dominant resistance to Cry1Ac Bt cotton by the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera is increasing and is associated with a mutation in the tetraspanin HaTSPAN1 gene, conferring more than 125-fold resistance. Here, we used amplicon sequencing to test the hypotheses that the HaTSPAN1 mutation either arose from a single event and spread or that the mutation evolved independently several times throughout northern China. From three laboratory strains and 28 field populations sampled from northern China, we identified six resistant and 50 susceptible haplotypes. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the HaTSPAN1 mutation arose from at least four independent origins and spread to their current distributions. CONCLUSION: The results provide valuable information about the evolutionary origins of dominant resistance to Cry1Ac Bt cotton in northern China and offer rationale for the rapid increase in field-evolved resistance in these areas, where the implementation of additional practical resistance management is needed.

14.
Front Chem ; 8: 799, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33195027

RESUMO

Nanoparticle synthesis using microorganisms and plants by green synthesis technology is biologically safe, cost-effective, and environment-friendly. Plants and microorganisms have established the power to devour and accumulate inorganic metal ions from their neighboring niche. The biological entities are known to synthesize nanoparticles both extra and intracellularly. The capability of a living system to utilize its intrinsic organic chemistry processes in remodeling inorganic metal ions into nanoparticles has opened up an undiscovered area of biochemical analysis. Nanotechnology in conjunction with biology gives rise to an advanced area of nanobiotechnology that involves living entities of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic origin, such as algae, cyanobacteria, actinomycetes, bacteria, viruses, yeasts, fungi, and plants. Every biological system varies in its capabilities to supply metallic nanoparticles. However, not all biological organisms can produce nanoparticles due to their enzymatic activities and intrinsic metabolic processes. Therefore, biological entities or their extracts are used for the green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles through bio-reduction of metallic particles leading to the synthesis of nanoparticles. These biosynthesized metallic nanoparticles have a range of unlimited pharmaceutical applications including delivery of drugs or genes, detection of pathogens or proteins, and tissue engineering. The effective delivery of drugs and tissue engineering through the use of nanotechnology exhibited vital contributions in translational research related to the pharmaceutical products and their applications. Collectively, this review covers the green synthesis of nanoparticles by using various biological systems as well as their applications.

15.
Sci Adv ; 6(47)2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33219021

RESUMO

Dendritic cell (DC) modification to enhance antigen presentation is a valuable strategy in cancer immune therapy. Other than focusing on regulating interactions between DC and antigens, we intend to promote cell interactions between DC and T cell by cell surface engineering. T cell activation is greatly improved and generates higher tumor toxicity with the aid of the synthetic glycopolymer modified on the DC surface, although the glycopolymer alone shows no effect. The great promotion of DC-T cell attraction is revealed by cell image tracking in terms of both frequency and duration of contacts. Our findings provide a new method of T cell activation by these engineered "sweet DCs." This strategy is beneficial for developing more efficient DC-based vaccines.

16.
J Dermatol ; 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180983

RESUMO

Diffuse plane xanthomas (DPX) is a rare, chronic, metabolic skin disease which can seriously affect the appearance of the patients and result in psychological problems. Existing treatments are seriously limited. Our objective was to assess the efficacy of and tolerance to simvastatin ointment for the treatment of skin lesions in seven DPX patients. In this study, patients were treated twice daily on the right side of the lesions for 10 months with the 1% or 5% simvastatin ointment. Meanwhile, the left body was untreated as a contralateral controlled side. Efficacy was assessed via the change of rash and was further confirmed by histological study. For all seven participants, both the 1% and 5% simvastatin ointments were effective. The histological change in DPX showed significant decrease of foam cells in skin lesions. The immunohistochemical staining of CD68, macrophage scavenger receptor type 1, oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 and Oil Red O became obviously reduced after treatment. The test medicines were safe with only some skin-related side-effects. This is the first research reported on simvastatin ointment treatment in DPX. Our results are the first to suggest that simvastatin ointment is effective in improving skin lesions of DPX clinically and histopathologically.

17.
Ann Surg ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33214446

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of the addition of preoperative hepatic and regional arterial chemotherapy (PHRAC) on prognosis of stage II and III colorectal cancer (CRC) in a multicenter setting. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Our previous single-center pilot trial suggested that PHRAC in combination with surgical resection could reduce the occurrence of liver metastasis (LM) and improve survival in CRC patients. METHODS: A prospective multi-center randomized controlled trial was conducted from December 2008 to December 2012 at 5 hospitals in China. Eligible patients with clinical stage II or III CRC who underwent curative resection were randomized to receive PHRAC plus adjuvant therapy (PHRAC arm) or adjuvant therapy alone (control arm). The primary endpoint was disease-free survival (DFS). Secondary endpoints were cumulative LM rates, overall survival (OS) and safety (NCT00643877). RESULTS: A total of 688 patients from 5 centers in China were randomly assigned (1:1) to each arm. The five-year DFS rate was 77% in the PHRAC arm and 65% in the control arm (HR = 0.61, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.81; P = 0.001). The five-year LM rates were 7% and 16% in the PHRAC and control arms, respectively (HR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.63; P < 0.001). The five-year OS rate was 84% in the PHRAC arm and 76% in the control arm (HR = 0.61, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.86; P = 0.005). There were no significant differences regarding treatment related morbidity or mortality between the two arms. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of PHRAC could improve DFS in patients with stage II and III CRC. It reduced the incidence of LM and improved OS without compromising patient safety. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00643877.

18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 6045, 2020 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33247136

RESUMO

Touch can positively influence cognition and emotion, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we report that tactile experience enrichment improves memory and alleviates anxiety by remodeling neurons along the dorsoventral axis of the dentate gyrus (DG) in adult mice. Tactile enrichment induces differential activation and structural modification of neurons in the dorsal and ventral DG, and increases the presynaptic input from the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC), which is reciprocally connected with the primary somatosensory cortex (S1), to tactile experience-activated DG neurons. Chemogenetic activation of tactile experience-tagged dorsal and ventral DG neurons enhances memory and reduces anxiety respectively, whereas inactivation of these neurons or S1-innervated LEC neurons abolishes the beneficial effects of tactile enrichment. Moreover, adulthood tactile enrichment attenuates early-life stress-induced memory deficits and anxiety-related behavior. Our findings demonstrate that enriched tactile experience retunes the pathway from S1 to DG and enhances DG neuronal plasticity to modulate cognition and emotion.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Giro Denteado/fisiopatologia , Memória/fisiologia , Tato/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Espinhas Dendríticas/fisiologia , Córtex Entorrinal/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Integrases/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Sinapses/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Front Neurosci ; 14: 885, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33013293
20.
J Exp Psychol Gen ; 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001683

RESUMO

Response errors often cause individuals to slow down their subsequent reactions (posterror slowing [PES]). Despite intensive investigations on PES, the adaptive nature of PES remains unresolved. Here, we systematically examined this issue by manipulating response-stimulus intervals (RSIs) and examining their influence on behaviors and neural dynamics of PES. Behavioral and electrophysiological (EEG) measures were recorded while male and female human participants performed a four-choice flanker task as RSIs were manipulated. Behaviorally, PES showed maladaptive features at short RSIs but some adaptive features at long RSIs. EEG results indicated that RSIs did not affect basic error-related processing, indexed by the same pattern in the contrasts between flanker errors and correct responses on the error-related negativity (ERN), error positivity (Pe), or theta band, no matter at short or long RSIs. However, RSIs significantly influenced postflanker error attentional adjustment, motor inhibition, and sensory sensitivity. At short RSIs, compared with postcorrect trials, postflanker error trials elicited larger beta band power and smaller P1 amplitude but did not affect alpha band power, suggesting that motor processing was inhibited, and subsequent sensory processing was impaired, but no attentional adjustment occurred. By contrast, at long RSIs, postflanker error trials led to smaller alpha and beta band power but did not affect P1 amplitude, indicating that attentional adjustment but not motor inhibition occurred, and sensory processing was not impaired. Together with behavioral results, the current study demonstrated that PES was adaptive at long RSIs but maladaptive at short RSIs. We further discuss the role of central resources in the adaptability of PES. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

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