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1.
Per Med ; 2021 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34873959

RESUMO

Although immunotherapy has recently revolutionized standard of care in different cancer types, prostate cancer has generally failed to show dramatic responses to immune checkpoint inhibitors. As in other tumors, the goal in prostate cancer is now to target treatments more precisely on patient's individual characteristics through precision medicine. Defects in mismatch repair, mutations in the exonuclease domain of the DNA polymerase epsilon (POLE), high tumor mutational burden and the presence of biallelic loss of CDK12 among others, are predictive biomarkers of response to immunotherapy. In the present review, we summarize the evolving landscape of immunotherapy in prostate cancer, including precision approaches and strategies to define classes of responsive patients and scale up resistance to immune checkpoint inhibitors.

2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 697298, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34858389

RESUMO

Introduction: Bone metastases (BMs) are a negative prognostic factor in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Although immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have dramatically changed the therapeutic landscape of NSCLC, little information is available on BMs from NSCLC treated with ICIs alone or in association with bone-targeted therapy (BTT) such as zoledronate or denosumab. Methods: From 2014 to 2020, 111 of the 142 patients with BMs secondary to NSCLC extrapolated from the prospective multicenter Italian BM Database were eligible for analysis. Information on blood count, comorbidities, and toxicity was retrospectively collected. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) pre- and post-treatment was calculated. Survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method, with statistical significance of survival differences assessed using the log-rank test. Results: Median age was 66 (range, 42-84) years. Performance status (PS) Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) was 0-1 in 79/111 patients. The majority of patients (89.2%) had adenocarcinoma histology. At a median follow-up of 47.4 months, median progression-free (mPFS) and overall survival (mOS) was 4.9 (95%CI, 2.8-10.0) and 11.9 (95%CI, 8.2-14.4) months, respectively. Forty-six (43.4%) patients with BM NSCLC underwent first- or further-line therapy with ICIs: 28 (60.8%) received nivolumab, 9 (19.6%) pembrolizumab, and 9 (19.6%) atezolizumab. Of the 46 patients treated with ICIs, 30 (65.2%) underwent BTT: 24 (80.0%) with zoledronate and 6 (20.0%) with denosumab. The ICI-alone group had an mOS of 15.8 months [95%CI, 8.2-not evaluable (NE)] vs. 21.8 months (95%CI, 14.5-not evaluable) for the ICI plus BTT group and 7.5 (95%CI, 6.1-10.9) months for the group receiving other treatments (p < 0.001). NLR ≤5 had a positive impact on OS. Conclusion: BTT appears to have a synergistic effect when used in combination with ICIs, improving patient survival.

3.
Expert Rev Anticancer Ther ; : 1-7, 2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cabozantinib improves survival in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) after prior antiangiogenics. The best treatment at disease progression (PD) is unknown. Being also a AXL/MET inhibitor, involved in acquired resistance, we hypothesized a prolonged tumor growth control in patients continuing cabozantinib despite PD. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This retrospective multicenter study enrolled patients receiving cabozantinib after the first line between 2014 and 2020. We compared patients maintaining cabozantinib after first PD due to clinical benefit and good tolerability with those who changed therapy. The postprogression survival (PPS) of both was our primary endpoint. RESULTS: We analyzed 89 patients: 45 received cabozantinib beyond PD and 44 switched therapy. 40.4%, 31.5%, and 28.1% of patients received 1, 2, or >2 prior treatment, respectively. 84.3% were intermediate-poor International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database risk. Patients continuing cabozantinib showed a higher response rate to cabozantinib before PD (46.7% vs 25%, p = 0.03) and were more heavily pretreated. Continuing cabozantinib showed a significantly longer PPS compared with switching therapy (median PPS 16.9 vs 13.2 months, HR 0.66, 95%CI 0.48-0.92, p = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: We observed longer PPS in patients continuing cabozantinib beyond PD, suggesting that this could be an effective option.

4.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(15)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34359706

RESUMO

Non-clear cell renal cell carcinomas (RCC) comprise several rare and poorly described diseases, often characterized by bad prognosis and with no standard treatments available. The gap in their clinical management is linked to the poor molecular characterization in handling the treatment of non clear-cell RCC with untailored therapies. Due to their rarity, non-clear RCC are in fact under-represented in prospective randomized trials. Thus, treatment choices are based on extrapolating results from clear cell RCC trials, retrospective data, or case reports. Over the last two decades, various options have been considered as the mainstay for the treatment of metastatic RCC (mRCC), including angiogenesis inhibitors, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitors, other tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), as well as MET inhibitors and mammalian targeting of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors. More recently, the therapeutic armamentarium has been enriched with immunotherapy, alone or in combination with targeted agents that have been shown to significantly improve outcomes of mRCC patients, if compared to TKI single-agent. It has been widely proven that non-clear cell RCC is a morphologically and clinically distinct entity from its clear cell counterpart but more knowledge about its biology is certainly needed. Histology-specific collaborative trials are in fact now emerging to investigate different treatments for non-clear cell RCC. This review summarizes pathogenetic mechanisms of non-clear cell RCC, the evolution of treatment paradigms over the last few decades, with a focus on immunotherapy-based trials, and future potential treatment options.

5.
Tumori ; : 3008916211037732, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405748

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To give an updated overview on clinical aspects and survival effects of lutetium-177-prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) (177Lu-PSMA) radioligand therapy (RLT), a novel treatment option for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). METHODS: PubMed/MEDLINE database was searched for relevant articles published up to March 2021. The search was restricted to English-language articles. RESULTS: Current evidence from the literature consistently demonstrated the efficacy, safety, and survival benefit of 177Lu-PSMA RLT in mCRPC. However, current data rely predominantly on retrospective analyses, showing heterogeneity of patient population and treatment protocols. More recently, results from the first randomized phase II study (TheraP) demonstrated that 177Lu-PMSA therapy significantly improved prostate-specific antigen response rate (66% vs 37%) and had fewer grade 3/4 adverse events when compared to cabazitaxel in patients with docetaxel-pretreated, progressive mCRPC. This review is intended to provide an updated overview of treatment protocols and responses, toxicity profile, and survival effects of 177Lu-PSMA RLT. CONCLUSIONS: 177Lu-PSMA RLT has emerged as a promising targeted treatment in mCRPC. It is currently applied in compassionate use programs and following exhaustion of approved therapies. Crucial for establishing this treatment in routine clinical management will be the results of the phase III VISION trial, which may confirm the encouraging patient outcomes reported to date.

6.
Ther Adv Urol ; 13: 17562872211022870, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34211586

RESUMO

Currently, conventional treatments for metastatic RCC (mRCC) include immune-based combination regimens and/or targeted therapies, the latter mainly acting on angiogenesis, a key element of the process of tumor growth and spread. Although these agents proved able to improve patients' outcomes, drug resistance and disease progression are still experienced by a substantial number of VEGFR-TKIs-treated mRCC patients. Following the inhibition of the VEGF/VEGFRs axis, two strategies have emerged: either specifically targeting resistance pathways, at the same time continuing to inhibit angiogenesis, or using a completely different approach aimed at re-activating the immune system through the use of inhibitors of specific negative immune checkpoints. These two approaches, practically represented by the use of either cabozantinib or nivolumab, seem to remain a rational therapeutic approach also when first-line immune-based combinations are used. The objective of this study is to design a preferential therapeutic pathway for the second-line treatment of mRCC. The procedure applied in this project was a group discussion, based on the Nominal Group Technique (NGT) method in a meeting session, aimed at defining the therapeutic choice for the second-line treatment of mRCC. The NGT process defined the most relevant parameters that, according to the interviewed panelists, clinicians should consider for the selection of the second-line therapy in the context of advanced renal cell carcinoma of mRCC. The algorithm developed for the treatment selection as a result of this process should thus be considered by clinicians as reference for therapy selection. Plain language summary: The result of this paper was the definition of an algorithm intended to suggest a preferential therapeutic pathway considering both the outputs of the Nominal Group Technique (NGT) process and the actual clinical practice and the experience of selected panelists. During the NGT process and the discussion phase, panelists defined the most important parameters to be included in the algorithm that are important for the treatment definition. Cabozantinib and nivolumab are identified as the most reasonable therapeutic options for patients progressing after first-line treatment and are the medication options included in the algorithm for therapy selection.

7.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(5)2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34016723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Until now, no robust data supported the efficacy, safety and recommendation for influenza vaccination in patients with cancer receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). METHODS: The prospective multicenter observational INfluenza Vaccine Indication During therapy with Immune checkpoint inhibitors (INVIDIa-2) study investigated the clinical effectiveness of influenza vaccination in patients with advanced cancer receiving ICIs, enrolled in 82 Italian centers from October 2019 to January 2020. The primary endpoint was the time-adjusted incidence of influenza-like illness (ILI) until April 30, 2020. Secondary endpoints regarded ILI severity and vaccine safety. RESULTS: The study enrolled 1279 patients; 1188 patients were evaluable for the primary endpoint analysis. Of them, 48.9% (581) received influenza vaccination. The overall ILI incidence was 8.2% (98 patients). Vaccinated patients were significantly more frequently elderly (p<0.0001), males (p=0.004), with poor European Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (p=0.009), affected by lung cancer (p=0.01), and by other non-cancer comorbidities (p<0.0001) when compared with unvaccinated. ILI incidence was not different basing on influenza vaccination: the time-to-ILI was similar in vaccinated and unvaccinated patients (p=0.62). ILI complications were significantly less frequent for patients receiving the vaccination (11.8% vs 38.3% in unvaccinated, p=0.002). ILI-related intravenous therapies were significantly less frequent in vaccinated patients than in unvaccinated (11.8% vs 29.8%, p=0.027). ILI lethality was, respectively, 0% in vaccinated and 4.3% in unvaccinated patients. Vaccine-related adverse events were rare and mild (1.5%, grades 1-2). CONCLUSION: The INVIDIa-2 study results support a positive recommendation for influenza vaccination in patients with advanced cancer receiving immunotherapy.

8.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 12: 1758835920968463, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33224275

RESUMO

Background: This prospective, multicentre, observational INVIDIa-2 study is investigating the clinical efficacy of influenza vaccination in advanced-cancer patients receiving immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), enrolled in 82 Italian centres, from October 2019 to January 2020. The primary endpoint was the incidence of influenza-like illness (ILI) until 30 April 2020. All the ILI episodes, laboratory tests, complications, hospitalizations and pneumonitis were recorded. Therefore, the study prospectively recorded all the COVID-19 ILI events. Patients and methods: Patients were included in this non-prespecified COVID-19 analysis, if alive on 31 January 2020, when the Italian government declared the national emergency. The prevalence of confirmed COVID-19 cases was detected as ILI episode with laboratory confirmation of SARS-CoV-2. Cases with clinical-radiological diagnosis of COVID-19 (COVID-like ILIs), were also reported. Results: Out of 1257 enrolled patients, 955 matched the inclusion criteria for this unplanned analysis. From 31 January to 30 April 2020, 66 patients had ILI: 9 of 955 cases were confirmed COVID-19 ILIs, with prevalence of 0.9% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.3-2.4], a hospitalization rate of 100% and a mortality rate of 77.8%. Including 5 COVID-like ILIs, the overall COVID-19 prevalence was 1.5% (95% CI: 0.5-3.1), with 100% hospitalization and 64% mortality. The presence of elderly, males and comorbidities was significantly higher among patients vaccinated against influenza versus unvaccinated (p = 0.009, p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001). Overall COVID-19 prevalence was 1.2% for vaccinated (six of 482 cases, all confirmed) and 1.7% for unvaccinated (8 of 473, 3 confirmed COVID-19 and 5 COVID-like), p = 0.52. The difference remained non-significant, considering confirmed COVID-19 only (p = 0.33). Conclusion: COVID-19 has a meaningful clinical impact on the cancer-patient population receiving ICIs, with high prevalence, hospitalization and an alarming mortality rate among symptomatic cases. Influenza vaccination does not protect from SARS-CoV-2 infection.

9.
Am J Clin Oncol ; 43(9): 621-627, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889831

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Despite the initial clinical benefit, resistance to antiangiogenic therapies develops through the activation of alternative pathways. We measured plasma levels of circulating angiogenic factors to explore their predictive role in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) patients treated with pazopanib. MATERIALS AND METHODS: mRCC patients receiving first-line pazopanib were prospectively enrolled. The levels of circulating interleuchine (IL)-6, IL-8, stromal derived factor-1, vascular endothelial growth factor-A, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), osteopontin, and E-selectin were quantified at baseline and every 4 weeks until disease progression (PD). Patients were dichotomized into "low" and "high" subgroups by a cutoff point defined by the respective median circulating angiogenic factor (CAF) value at baseline. Then, association with the objective response was determined. Changes in CAF levels between baseline and PD were also compared. RESULTS: Among 25 patients included in the final data set, 6 patients were still on treatment. As best response, 12 patients presented a partial response (48%), 9 showed stable disease, and 4 showed PD. The median follow-up was 31.9 months. The median progression-free survival was 14.8 months. Low baseline levels of IL-6, IL-8, HGF, and osteopontin were found to be significantly associated with objective response. In addition, patients with low baseline levels of HGF showed longer progression-free survival and overall survival, whereas patients with low baseline levels of IL-8 showed longer overall survival. Among patients experiencing PD, the median plasma levels of stromal derived factor-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor-A were significantly higher compared with the baseline (P=0.01; P=0.011). Conversely, the median levels of E-selectin were significantly lower compared with the baseline (P=0.017). CONCLUSION: Changes in levels of selected CAFs were associated with response/resistance to pazopanib in mRCC patients.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Renais/secundário , Quimiocina CXCL12/sangue , Progressão da Doença , Selectina E/sangue , Feminino , Fator de Crescimento de Hepatócito/sangue , Humanos , Indazóis , Interleucina-6/sangue , Interleucina-8/sangue , Neoplasias Renais/sangue , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteopontina/sangue , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Prospectivos , Critérios de Avaliação de Resposta em Tumores Sólidos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/sangue
10.
Front Oncol ; 10: 1644, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32903369

RESUMO

Introduction: In the last decades, the therapeutic decision-making approach to metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC) has dramatically changed thanks to the introduction in the treatment scenario of, first, anti-angiogenic agents and, afterward, immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). Immunotherapy is now the standard of care in pretreated mRCC patients and has recently entered even the first line setting. Nevertheless, in mRCC as well as in other tumor settings, a durable and clinically meaningful benefit from treatment with ICIs is not obtained for all patients treated. Therefore, the necessity to identify and validate predictive biomarkers of response to immunotherapy has emerged, in order to design the optimal treatment strategy for mRCC patients. Discussion: In this review, we present and discuss the most promising predictive biomarkers of response to ICIs in mRCC with the recent data available. In details, the first marker that was investigated is the immunohistochemical expression of programmed death receptor ligand 1 (PD-L1), showing a negative prognostic role in mRCC, but the debate about its potential predictive value is still open. Additionally, the high heterogeneity in PD-L1 determination methods adds complexity to this issue. Second, the tumor mutational or neoantigen burden is an emerging biomarker of increased response to immunotherapy, hypothesizing that the higher the TMB, the higher is the production of neoantigens, and thus the stimulation of anti-tumor immune response, even though controversial results have been obtained. Third, the tumor microenvironment, namely the different populations of the immune infiltrate, plays a key role in tumor progression and in the response to immunotherapy. Finally, several studies have collected evidence on the potential association of the occurrence of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) with the benefit from ICIs, first in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and melanoma, and recently even in mRCC. Conclusion: Several promising biomarkers of response to immunotherapy with ICIs have been identified, though without conclusive results upon their potential predictive value in mRCC. Therefore, the results of the exploratory analyses of the recently presented first-line trials and hopefully of future prospective, biomarker-driven studies could provide useful tools to be applied in the everyday clinical practice.

11.
Expert Rev Anticancer Ther ; 20(8): 715-726, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758032

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In prostate cancer , there has recently been an emerging interest in mutations in genes belonging to the homologous recombination repair (HRR) pathway and in the inhibition of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) proteins. AREAS COVERED: Mutations in the HRR genes, including BRCA1, BRCA2, and Ataxia-Telangiesctasia mutated (ATM), have been reported in prostate cancer, with different incidence in the localized and advanced settings. The PARP enzyme complex is involved in repair of DNA damage and its inhibition causes the accumulation of DNA mutations in HRR deficient cells. Several PARP inhibitors (PARPi) are under development, such as olaparib, talazoparib, niraparib, rucaparib, and veliparib. In metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), olaparib has been the most studied and its clinical efficacy has been validated in a phase III clinical trial. Rucaparib and niraparib have also shown promising results in the preliminary analyzes of two phase II trials, while talazoparib is currently under development. EXPERT OPINION: PARPi have become part of the treatment of mCRPC. Early results of combination therapy with PARPi and new hormonal therapy are promising and are supported by a strong biological rationale. Current results need to be validated in randomized phase III-controlled trials in order to translate the use of PARPi into real world practice.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/farmacologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Reparo do DNA/genética , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia
12.
Cancer Treat Rev ; 88: 102057, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574991

RESUMO

Despite advances in metastatic prostate cancer therapy, expected survival for patients in the castration-resistant phase of disease is poor. Immune-checkpoints inhibitors significantly prolonged life expectancy in some solid tumors and have been evaluated also in advanced stage prostate cancer. The majority of data available derive from preliminary phase I and II trials evaluating CTLA-4 and PD-1 as monotherapy or in combination with each other, vaccines, radiotherapy or targeted/hormonal therapy, achieving only limited benefits in terms of biochemical and radiologic responses. There are many reasons that may explain why prostate cancer responds poorly to modern immunotherapies, such as its characteristic low tumor mutational burden or immune-suppressive tumor microenvironment. The present review summarizes the results obtained treating advanced prostate cancer patients with immune-checkpoints inhibitors and analyzes potential mechanisms of both resistance and sensitivity, in order to hypothesize possible avenues of special interest for future research.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/terapia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Antígeno CTLA-4/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno CTLA-4/imunologia , Vacinas Anticâncer/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Humanos , Masculino , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/imunologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
13.
J Clin Med ; 9(4)2020 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32231117

RESUMO

The frontline treatment options for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) are evolving rapidly since the approval of combination immunotherapies by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMA). In particular, in combination with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKIs), immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have significantly improved the outcome of patients with mRCC compared to TKI monotherapy. Here, we review the preclinical data supporting the combination of ICIs with VEGFR TKIs. The VEGF-signaling inhibition could ideally sustain immunotherapy through a positive modulation of the tumor microenvironment (TME). Antiangiogenetics, in fact, with their inhibitory activity on myelopoiesis that indirectly reduces myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and regulatory T cells' (Tregs) frequency and function, could have a role in determining an effective anti-tumor immune response. These findings are relevant for the challenges posed to clinicians concerning the clinical impact on treatment strategies for mRCC.

14.
Curr Oncol Rep ; 22(1): 9, 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31989430

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to sum up the state of the art of urachal carcinoma (UC) in order to easily guide clinicians. RECENT FINDINGS: UC is a rare and aggressive disease with consequent few data about diagnosis and treatment. Dates are mainly based on retrospective trial and case reports with limited prospective trial. Clinical presentation is not specific, often with urinary symptoms. Diagnosis is mainly based on CT scan and MRI, useful to evaluate local invasion and nodal status and to detect the presence of distant metastases. Therefore, biopsy is needed to obtain histological confirmation. Surgery is the gold standard for localized disease, while different chemotherapy schemes have been used in metastatic setting. Novel findings based on mutational analysis of the tumor include the use of biological treatment, such as cetuximab, and immunotherapy, such as atezolizumab, with satisfactory responses, suggesting that personalized treatment could be the most suitable option for UC.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/terapia , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Cistectomia/métodos , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Prognóstico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
15.
Expert Rev Anticancer Ther ; 11(11): 1631-40, 2011 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22050012

RESUMO

Targeted therapies have improved survival in patients with metastatic renal cell cancer (RCC); however, expert opinion on the optimal therapeutic strategy is divided. This retrospective study evaluates different sequential schemes of targeted therapies in 310 patients with advanced/metastatic RCC who received different systemic agents - sorafenib, sunitinib, bevacizumab, everolimus, temsirolimus and axitinib - alone or in different sequences, until disease progression or intolerable toxicity (median follow-up: 37 months). The median overall survival (OS) was 22 months and the 5-year OS was 23.4%; differential therapeutic schemes were not associated with differences in OS. A worse performance status, no nephrectomy and a poor-risk classification according to the Motzer criteria was associated with a shorter OS. These findings support the use of targeted therapies in the treatment of RCC, even in a large unselected population from a single institution, and suggest that treatment should be tailored to meet individual circumstances and needs.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
J Obstet Gynaecol Res ; 37(12): 1864-7, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21955167

RESUMO

Granulosa cell tumors (GCT) of the ovary represent less than 5% of malignant ovarian tumors. Primary treatment of GCT is surgery. GCT present indolent growth and also tend to relapse many years after diagnosis. Radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormonal therapy are of little benefit. We report a case of a 60-year-old woman with a heavily pretreated recurrent, c-kit positive, GCT of the ovary who underwent an experimental therapy with imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Imatinib (400 mg/day during the first 2 months; 800 mg/day after) was given, without notable side-effects. Monthly positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan evaluations were performed revealing a marked reduction of disease after 6 months of treatment. To our knowledge this is the first case of highly recurrent and unresponsive GCT of the ovary responding to imatinib. Further studies evaluating this drug in recurrent and/or aggressive GCT are warranted.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Tumor de Células da Granulosa/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Benzamidas , Feminino , Humanos , Mesilato de Imatinib , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
BJU Int ; 108(8 Pt 2): E250-7, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21599821

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: •To conduct a retrospective, multicentre, cohort analysis to assess the sequential use of the tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) sorafenib and sunitinib. PATIENTS AND METHODS: •Records of 189 patients with renal-cell carcinoma (RCC) who were treated with sorafenib and sunitinib sequentially between March 2004 and April 2009 at 12 Italian study centres were analysed. •Patients were treated under European Expanded Access Programmes or, following market approval, in general clinical practice. •Interventions were sorafenib (800 mg/day) and sunitinib (50 mg every day; 4 weeks on and 2 weeks off). •Progression-free survival (PFS) during treatment with the first and second TKI was evaluated. RESULTS: •In all, 99 patients were treated with sunitinib followed by sorafenib (SuSo) and 90 were treated with sorafenib followed by sunitinib (SoSu); 104 (55%) patients had received prior systemic therapy, mostly with cytokines. •The median (range) PFS on the first TKI was similar between treatment groups [sorafenib 8.4 (1.1-28.9) months; sunitinib 7.8 (0.5-30.4) months; hazard ratio (HR) 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.78-1.40, P=0.758]. Multivariate analysis showed that good Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center status was associated with increased PFS. •After the second TKI, patients in the SoSu group had a longer median PFS than those in the SuSo group (7.9 months vs 4.2 months, respectively; HR 0.54, 95% CI 0.39-0.74, P<0.001). •Multivariate analysis showed only treatment and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (and not age, gender, study centre or previous treatment) were significantly associated with duration of PFS. CONCLUSION: •Our findings suggest a limited cross-resistance between sorafenib and sunitinib and that the sequence SoSu may result in a longer combined PFS than SuSo. This is the largest retrospective study to date, though its findings are limited in part by the retrospective nature.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Benzenossulfonatos/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Indóis/administração & dosagem , Itália , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Niacinamida/análogos & derivados , Compostos de Fenilureia , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Pirróis/administração & dosagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sorafenibe , Sunitinibe
18.
BJU Int ; 108(2): 223-7, 2011 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21078047

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: • To assess the efficacy of ketoconazole in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: • From April 2008 to November 2009, 37 patients with CRPC have been treated with ketoconazole. The primary endpoint was the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response; the secondary endpoints were progression-free survival and safety profile. • Ketoconazole was administered by oral route at a dose of 200 mg every 8 h continuous dosing until the onset of serious adverse events or disease progression. • The study was based on a two-step design with an interim efficacy analysis carried out on the first 12 patients accrued. RESULTS: • Main characteristics of population were: median age 75 years (range 60-88); baseline mean PSA 28.8 ng/mL (4.3-1000); 30 patients previously challenged with at least two lines of hormone therapy; 15 patients previously treated with chemotherapy. • Biochemical responses accounted for: two complete responses (5%), six partial responses (16%), 13 patients with stable disease (35%), and 14 with progressive disease (38%). Of 15 patients resistant to chemotherapy, overall disease control (complete plus partial responses plus stable disease) was recorded in seven of them. • Treatment was feasible without inducing grade 3-4 adverse events. The most common grade 1-2 adverse events were asthenia (27%), vomiting (8%) and abdominal pain (8%). CONCLUSION: • Treatment with low-dose ketoconazole is feasible and well tolerated. The efficacy was satisfactory in patients previously treated with chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas de Androgênios/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Cetoconazol/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma/secundário , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antagonistas de Androgênios/efeitos adversos , Androgênios/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/efeitos adversos , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Cetoconazol/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antígeno Prostático Específico/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento
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