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1.
Addiction ; 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590359

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The lack of an agreed international minimum approach to measuring cannabis use hinders the integration of multidisciplinary evidence on the psychosocial, neurocognitive, clinical and public health consequences of cannabis use. METHODS: A group of 25 international expert cannabis researchers convened to discuss a multidisciplinary framework for minimum standards to measure cannabis use globally in diverse settings. RESULTS: The expert-based consensus agreed upon a three-layered hierarchical framework. Each layer - universal measures, detailed self-report and biological measures - reflected different research priorities and minimum standards, costs and ease of implementation. Additional work is needed to develop valid and precise assessments. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent use of the proposed framework across research, public health, clinical practice and medical settings would facilitate harmonisation of international evidence on cannabis consumption, related harms and approaches to their mitigation.

2.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is considerable unexplained variability in alcohol abstinence rates (AR) in the placebo groups of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for alcohol dependence (AD). This is of particular interest because placebo responses correlate negatively with treatment effect size. Recent evidence suggests that the placebo response is lower in very heavy drinkers who show no "spontaneous improvement" prior to treatment initiation (high-severity population) than in a mild-severity population and in studies with longer treatment duration. We systematically investigated the relationship between population severity, treatment duration, and the placebo response in AR to inform a strategy aimed at reducing the placebo response and thereby increasing assay sensitivity in RCTs for AD. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature review on placebo-controlled RCTs for AD.We assigned retained RCTs to high- or mild-severity groups of studies based on baseline drinking risk levels and abstinence duration before treatment initiation. We tested the effects of population severity and treatment duration on the placebo response in AR using meta-regression analysis. RESULTS: Among the 19 retained RCTs (comprising 1996 placebo-treated patients), 11 trials were high-severity and 8 were mild-severity RCTs. The between-study variability in AR was lower in the high-severity than in the mild-severity studies (interquartile range: 7.4% vs. 20.9%). The AR in placebo groups was dependent on population severity (p = 0.004) and treatment duration (p = 0.017) and was lower in the high-severity studies (16.8% at 3 months) than the mild-severity studies (36.7% at 3 months). CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacological RCTs for AD should select high-severity patients to decrease the magnitude and variability in the placebo effect and and improve the efficiency of drug development efforts for AD.

3.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255594, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352012

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Implementation of evidence-based care for heavy drinking and depression remains low in global health systems. We tested the impact of providing community support, training, and clinical packages of varied intensity on depression screening and management for heavy drinking patients in Latin American primary healthcare. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Quasi-experimental study involving 58 primary healthcare units in Colombia, Mexico and Peru randomized to receive: (1) usual care (control); (2) training using a brief clinical package; (3) community support plus training using a brief clinical package; (4) community support plus training using a standard clinical package. Outcomes were proportion of: (1) heavy drinking patients screened for depression; (2) screen-positive patients receiving appropriate support; (3) all consulting patients screened for depression, irrespective of drinking status. RESULTS: 550/615 identified heavy drinkers were screened for depression (89.4%). 147/230 patients screening positive for depression received appropriate support (64%). Amongst identified heavy drinkers, adjusting for country, sex, age and provider profession, provision of community support and training had no impact on depression activity rates. Intensity of clinical package also did not affect delivery rates, with comparable performance for brief and standard versions. However, amongst all consulting patients, training providers resulted in significantly higher rates of alcohol measurement and in turn higher depression screening rates; 2.7 times higher compared to those not trained. CONCLUSIONS: Training using a brief clinical package increased depression screening rates in Latin American primary healthcare. It is not possible to determine the effectiveness of community support on depression activity rates due to the impact of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Alcoólicos/psicologia , Depressão/terapia , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Intoxicação Alcoólica/psicologia , Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Atenção à Saúde , Depressão/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peru/epidemiologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/tendências , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/métodos
4.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 52: 18-30, 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237655

RESUMO

Sodium oxybate (SMO) has been approved in Italy and Austria for the maintenance of abstinence in alcohol dependent (AD) patients. Although SMO is well tolerated in AD patients, cases of abuse and misuse have been reported outside the therapeutic setting. Here we report on a phase IIb double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial for the maintenance of abstinence in AD patients with a new abuse and misuse deterrent formulation of SMO. A total of 509 AD patients were randomized to 12 weeks of placebo or one of four SMO doses (0.75, 1.25, 1.75 or 2.25 g t.i.d.) followed by a one-week medication-free period. The primary endpoint was the percentage of days abstinent (PDA) at end of treatment. An unexpectedly high placebo response (mean 73%, median 92%) was observed. This probably compromised the demonstration of efficacy in the PDA, but several secondary endpoints showed statistically significant improvements. A post-hoc subgroup analysis based on baseline severity showed no improvements in the mild group, but statistically significant improvements in the severe group: PDA: mean difference +15%, Cohen's d = 0.42; abstinence: risk difference +18%, risk ratio = 2.22. No safety concerns were reported. Although the primary endpoint was not significant in the overall population, several secondary endpoints were significant in the intent-to-treat population and post-hoc results showed that treatment with SMO was associated with a significant improvement in severe AD patients which is consistent with previous findings. New trials are warranted that take baseline severity into consideration.

6.
Alcohol Alcohol ; 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212185

RESUMO

AIMS: Cognitive impairment in patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) is highly prevalent, and it negatively impacts treatment outcome. However, this condition is neither systematically assessed nor treated. Thus, we aimed to explore the usability of a virtual reality-based protocol ('Rehabilitation Gaming System', RGS) for patients with AUD. METHODS: Twenty AUD patients (50% also cognitive impairment) underwent a single session of the RGS protocol (four cognitive training tasks, 10 minutes each). System Usability Scale (SUS) and Post-Study System Usability Questionnaire (PSSUQ) were applied to assess the RGS usability and patients' satisfaction with it. Also, the Perceived Competence Scale was administered to assess the patients' feelings of competence when using the training protocol. Comparisons of the responses to these questionnaires were performed between AUD patients with cognitive impairment and those without cognitive impairment. RESULTS: RGS usability was very positively rated (median SUS score = 80, Interquartile Range, IQR = 68.13-86-88). No significant differences were found in the median SUS scores for any of the sociodemographic or clinical variables, excepting for gender (women median score = 85; IQR = 80-94.38 vs. men median score = 71.25; IQR = 61.25-89.25; P-value = 0.035). The quality of the information provided by the RGS training scenarios and the usability were positively rated (PSSUQ), and patients experienced high feelings of competence. CONCLUSIONS: The RGS has been found to be usable in the short term and patients with AUD stated to be satisfied with it. Future larger, randomized trials are needed to explore the effectiveness of this tool to help overcome the cognitive deficits in AUD patients.

7.
Fam Pract ; 2021 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary care (PC) is crucial in the care of substance use disorder (SUD) patients. However, the relationship between PC and addiction settings is complex and collaboration issues stand out. Available evidence suggests that integration of SUD and PC services can improve physical and mental health of SUD patients and reduce health expenses. OBJECTIVE: To explore the experiences, views and attitudes of PC professionals towards the interaction between PC and SUD services. METHODS: Twenty-seven GPs took part in three focus groups. The focus group sessions were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim and analysed using reflexive thematic analysis. Recurrent themes were identified. RESULTS: Four main themes were devised: (1) Differences and specificities of SUD patients, (2) Interaction between providers of PC and addiction services, (3) Patient management (4) Addiction stigma. These main themes reflect the consideration that SUD patients are a specific group with specific care needs that yield specific challenges to GPs themselves. Improved training, availability of a shared medical record system, increased feedback between GP and addiction specialists and the efficiency of the circuit are to be considered the main priority for the majority of the participants. CONCLUSIONS: An efficient and effective referral circuit, with increased feedback and shared medical records is considered key to GPs. Its implementation should keep in mind the specific features of both SUD patients and GPs.

8.
Addiction ; 2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34109685

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate changes in alcohol consumption during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic in Europe as well as its associations with income and experiences of distress related to the pandemic. DESIGN: Cross-sectional on-line survey conducted between 24 April and 22 July 2020. SETTING: Twenty-one European countries. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 31 964 adults reporting past-year drinking. MEASUREMENTS: Changes in alcohol consumption were measured by asking respondents about changes over the previous month in their drinking frequency, the quantity they consumed and incidence of heavy episodic drinking events. Individual indicators were combined into an aggregated consumption-change score and scaled to a possible range of -1 to +1. Using this score as the outcome, multi-level linear regressions tested changes in overall drinking, taking into account sampling weights and baseline alcohol consumption [Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT-C)] and country of residence serving as random intercept. Similar models were conducted for each single consumption-change indicator. FINDINGS: The aggregated consumption-change score indicated an average decrease in alcohol consumption of -0.14 [95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.18, -0.10]. Statistically significant decreases in consumption were found in all countries, except Ireland (-0.08, 95% CI = -0.17, 0.01) and the United Kingdom (+0.10, 95% CI = 0.03, 0.17). Decreases in drinking were mainly driven by a reduced frequency of heavy episodic drinking events (-0.17, 95% CI = -0.20, -0.14). Declines in consumption were less marked among those with low- or average incomes and those experiencing distress. CONCLUSIONS: On average, alcohol consumption appears to have declined during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic in Europe. Both reduced availability of alcohol and increased distress may have affected consumption, although the former seems to have had a greater impact in terms of immediate effects.

9.
Int J Methods Psychiatr Res ; 30(3): e1875, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33951258

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This contribution provides insights into the methodology of a pan-European population-based online survey, performed without external funding during the COVID-19 pandemic. We present the impact of different dissemination strategies to collect data from a non-probabilistic convenience sample and outline post-stratification weighting schemes, to provide guidance for future multi-country survey studies. METHODS: Description and comparison of dissemination strategies for five exemplary countries (Czechia, Germany, Lithuania, Norway, Spain) participating in the Alcohol Use and COVID-19 Survey. Comparison of the sample distribution with the country's actual population distribution according to sociodemographics, and development of weighting schemes. RESULTS: The dissemination of online surveys through national newspapers, paid social media adverts and dissemination with the support of national health ministries turned out to be the most effective strategies. Monitoring the responses and adapting dissemination strategies to reach under-represented groups, and the application of sample weights were helpful to achieve an analytic sample matching the respective general population profiles. CONCLUSION: Reaching a large pan-European convenience sample, including most European countries, in a short time was feasible, with the support of a broad scientific network.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , República Tcheca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lituânia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
Eur Addict Res ; : 1-15, 2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965941

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cannabis is one of the most used drugs worldwide. There is no gold standard treatment for cannabis use disorder (CUD). Motivational interviewing (MI) has shown efficacy in some substance use disorders. Therefore, a systematic review was conducted to assess the effectiveness of MI in CUD. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials or open-label studies published until September 2019 from 3 different databases (Pubmed, Scopus, and PsycINFO) were included, following the PRISMA guidelines and a predetermined set of criteria for article selection. Meta-analyses were conducted. The end point was determined as month 3, and 4 outcomes were analysed (abstinence rates, reduction in frequency of use, reduction in quantity of use, and reduction in cannabis use disorder symptoms) in 2 populations (adolescents and adults). RESULTS: Forty studies were identified, of which 24 were performed in adults and 16 in adolescents. MI showed efficacy in achieving abstinence in both adults (odds ratio [OR] = 3.84, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.40-6.16, p < 0.0001) and adolescents (OR = 2.02, 95% CI 1.42-2.89, p < 0.0001). MI showed efficacy in reducing frequency and quantity of use in adults but not in adolescents. Those adults who were in the MI group consumed less joints per day than those in the control group (mean difference = -0.69 joints per day, 95% CI -0.84 to -0.53, p < 0.001), and they consumed on less days per month (mean difference = -3.9 days per month, 95% CI -7.47 to -0.34, p = 0.0317) than those in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: MI is an effective intervention to reduce cannabis use and achieve abstinence, especially among adults and patients with no prior history of psychotic disorder. Further investigation is needed to assess the effect on CUD symptoms. MI should be included in guidelines for treating cannabis use disorder as one of the essential psychological interventions.

11.
Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy ; 16(1): 36, 2021 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33902668

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 reached Europe in early 2020 and disrupted the private and public life of its citizens, with potential implications for substance use. The objective of this study was to describe possible changes in substance use in the first months of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in Europe. METHODS: Data were obtained from a cross-sectional online survey of 36,538 adult substance users from 21 European countries conducted between April 24 and July 22 of 2020. Self-perceived changes in substance use were measured by asking respondents whether their use had decreased (slightly or substantially), increased (slightly or substantially), or not changed during the past month. The survey covered alcohol (frequency, quantity, and heavy episodic drinking occasions), tobacco, cannabis, and other illicit drug use. Sample weighted data were descriptively analysed and compared across substances. RESULTS: Across all countries, use of all substances remained unchanged for around half of the respondents, while the remainder reported either a decrease or increase in their substance use. For alcohol use, overall, a larger proportion of respondents indicated a decrease than those reporting an increase. In contrast, more respondents reported increases in their tobacco and cannabis use during the previous month compared to those reporting decreased use. No distinct direction of change was reported for other substance use. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest changes in use of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis during the initial months of the pandemic in several European countries. This study offers initial insights into changes in substance use. Other data sources, such as sales statistics, should be used to corroborate these preliminary findings.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Abuso de Maconha/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Subst Abus ; : 1-9, 2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849396

RESUMO

Background: Screening for unhealthy alcohol use in routine consultations can aid primary health care (PHC) providers in detecting patients with hazardous or harmful consumption and providing them with appropriate care. As part of larger trial testing strategies to improve implementation of alcohol screening in PHC, this study investigated the motivational (role security, therapeutic commitment, self-efficacy) and organizational context (leadership, work culture, resources, monitoring, community engagement) factors that were associated with the proportion of adult patients screened with AUDIT-C by PHC providers in Colombia, Mexico and Peru. Additionally, the study investigated whether the effect of the factors interacted with implementation strategies and the country. Methods: Pen-and-paper questionnaires were completed by 386 providers at the start of their study participation (79% female, Mage = 39.5, 37.6% doctors, 15.0% nurses, 9.6% psychologists, 37.8% other professional roles). They were allocated to one of four intervention arms: control group; short training only; short training in presence of municipal support; and standard (long) training in presence of municipal support. Providers documented their screening practice during the five-month implementation period. Data were collected between April 2019 and March 2020. Results: Negative binomial regression analysis found an inverse relationship of role security with the proportion of screened patients. Self-efficacy was associated with an increase in the proportion of screened patients only amongst Mexican providers. Support from leadership (formal leader in organization) was the only significant organizational context factor, but only in non-control arms. Conclusion: Higher self-efficacy is a relevant factor in settings where screening practice is already ongoing. Leadership support can enhance effects of implementation strategies.

13.
Eur J Emerg Med ; 28(5): 373-379, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33709997

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE: SBIRT programs (Screening Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment) for at-risk drinkers in emergency departments (ED) have shown to be effective, particularly at short term. In this article, we report mid and long-term follow-up results of a specialized SBIRT program. A short-term follow-up after 1.5 months showed encouraging results, with more than a 20% greater reduction of at-risk drinking in the intervention group and more than double of successful referrals to specialized treatment. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the mid and long-term efficacy of an SBIRT program conducted by psychiatrist specialists in addictive disorders and motivational interviewing in the ED of a tertiary hospital. DESIGN, SETTINGS AND PARTICIPANTS: We conducted a secondary analysis of a previously published randomized controlled trial of an SBIRT program conducted by alcohol specialists for at-risk drinkers presenting to the ED, measured with the AUDIT-C scale. INTERVENTION OR EXPOSURE: Patients were randomized into two groups, with the control group receiving two leaflets: one regarding alcohol use and the other giving information about the study protocol. The intervention group received the same leaflets as well as a brief motivational intervention on alcohol use and, where appropriate, a referral to specialized treatment. OUTCOMES MEASURE AND ANALYSIS: Long-term assessment primary outcome was the proportion of at-risk alcohol use measured by AUDIT-C scale. The main effectiveness analysis at 18 weeks and 12 months' follow-up was conducted with multilevel logistic regression analyses. Missing values were imputed with the last observation carried forward. MAIN RESULTS: Of 200 patients included in the study, 133 (66.5%) and 131 (65.5%) completed 18 weeks and 1-year follow-up respectively. Although the proportion of risky drinkers was substantially lower in the intervention group (38.5 vs. 57.4% at 4.5 months and 58.5 vs 68.2% at 1 year), these results did not reach statistical significance (OR = 2.15; CI, 0.87-5.33). CONCLUSIONS: In this secondary analysis for mid- and long-term effects of a specialized SBIRT program, there was no significant difference in the reduction of risky drinkers at 18 weeks and 1 year. The small size of the studied sample and the low retention rate precluded any significant conclusion, although point estimates suggest a positive effect. Overall, SBIRT programs are an effective tool to reduce alcohol use at short time and to refer patients to specialized treatment; however, its effects seem to decay over time.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Alcoolismo/terapia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Seguimentos , Humanos , Encaminhamento e Consulta
14.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 45(4): 802-807, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) are likely to suffer disproportionate harms related to the COVID-19 pandemic and related policy measures. While many surveys have been conducted, most are focused on drinking changes in the general population and validation with biological markers is lacking. METHOD: We performed a retrospective cohort study among patients with AUD attending a urine drug screening program. With mixed-effects logistic regression models, we assessed the probability of screening positive for ethyl glucuronide according to patients' main clinical characteristics and time of analysis (either prior to or after a lockdown was implemented in Spain). RESULTS: A total of 362 patients provided 2,040 urine samples (1,295 prior to lockdown, 745 during lockdown). The mean age of participants was 52.0 years (SD 12.6), and 69.2% were men. Of the 43% of patients tested for other drugs 22% screened positive. After adjusting for all covariates, the odds of screening positive for ethyl glucuronide during lockdown almost doubled (OR = 1.99, 95% CI 1.20 to 3.33, p = 0.008). Other significant covariates included testing positive for other drugs (OR = 10.79, 95% CI 4.60 to 26.97) and length of treatment (OR = 0.59, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.74). CONCLUSIONS: Our data support an association between the lockdown due to COVID-19 and increased alcohol use in patients with AUD. Thus, addiction healthcare systems could face significant challenges ahead. In light of these findings, it is essential to evaluate prospectively how patients with AUD are affected by the pandemic and how health systems respond to their needs.


Assuntos
Abstinência de Álcool/tendências , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Quarentena/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Abstinência de Álcool/psicologia , Alcoolismo/psicologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Quarentena/psicologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Gen Intern Med ; 36(9): 2663-2671, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33469752

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to test the effects of providing municipal support and training to primary health care providers compared to both training alone and to care as usual on the proportion of adult patients having their alcohol consumption measured. METHODS: We undertook a quasi-experimental study reporting on a 5-month implementation period in 58 primary health care centres from municipal areas within Bogotá (Colombia), Mexico City (Mexico), and Lima (Peru). Within the municipal areas, units were randomized to four arms: (1) care as usual (control); (2) training alone; (3) training and municipal support, designed specifically for the study, using a less intensive clinical and training package; and (4) training and municipal support, designed specifically for the study, using a more intense clinical and training package. The primary outcome was the cumulative proportion of consulting adult patients out of the population registered within the centre whose alcohol consumption was measured (coverage). RESULTS: The combination of municipal support and training did not result in higher coverage than training alone (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.6 to 0.8). Training alone resulted in higher coverage than no training (IRR = 9.8, 95% CI = 4.1 to 24.7). Coverage did not differ by intensity of the clinical and training package (coefficient = 0.8, 95% CI 0.4 to 1.5). CONCLUSIONS: Training of providers is key to increasing coverage of alcohol measurement amongst primary health care patients. Although municipal support provided no added value, it is too early to conclude this finding, since full implementation was shortened due to COVID-19 restrictions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials.gov ID: NCT03524599; Registered 15 May 2018; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03524599.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia
16.
Prim Health Care Res Dev ; 22: e4, 2021 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504413

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Providing alcohol screening and brief advice (SBA) in primary health care (PHC) can be an effective measure to reduce alcohol consumption. To aid successful implementation in an upper middle-income country context, this study investigates the perceived appropriateness of the programme and the perceived barriers to its implementation in PHC settings in three Latin American countries: Colombia, Mexico and Peru, as part of larger implementation study (SCALA). METHODS: An online survey based on the Tailored Implementation for Chronic Diseases (TICD) implementation framework was disseminated in the three countries to key stakeholders with experience in the topic and/or setting (both health professionals and other roles, for example regional health administrators and national experts). In total, 55 respondents participated (66% response rate). For responses to both appropriateness and barriers questions, frequencies were computed, and country comparisons were made using Chi square and Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric tests. RESULTS: Alcohol SBA was seen as an appropriate programme to reduce heavy alcohol use in PHC and a range of providers were considered suitable for its delivery, such as general practitioners, nurses, psychologists and social workers. Contextual factors such as patients' normalised perception of their heavy drinking, lack of on-going support for providers, difficulty of accessing referral services and lenient alcohol control laws were the highest rated barriers. Country differences were found for two barriers: Peruvian respondents rated SBA guidelines as less clear than Mexican (Mann-Whitney U = -18.10, P = 0.001), and more strongly indicated lack of available screening instruments than Colombian (Mann-Whitney U = -12.82, P = 0.035) and Mexican respondents (Mann-Whitney U = -13.56, P = 0.018). CONCLUSIONS: The study shows the need to address contextual factors for successful implementation of SBA in practice. General congruence between the countries suggests that similar approaches can be used to encourage widespread implementation of SBA in all three studied countries, with minor tailoring based on the few country-specific barriers.


Assuntos
Atenção Primária à Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Colômbia , Intervenção na Crise , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peru , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Addict Med ; 15(1): 68-73, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769772

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There are sex differences in the pattern of alcohol consumption and in the complications of alcohol use disorder (AUD). We aimed to identify sex-specific differences in the factors associated with alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) among patients that requested a first treatment for AUD. METHODS: We enrolled 313 patients (75% men) with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition) AUD diagnosis that started treatment between 2014 and 2016. We collected socio-demographics, the type and amount of alcohol and other substances consumed, and clinical and laboratory parameters. According to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition) AUD criteria, AWS occurred when patients experienced 2 or more clinical signs/symptoms and/or consumed alcohol to relieve symptoms. Logistic regression models were used to determine factors associated with AWS according to sex. RESULTS: The median age of participants was 50 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 43-54 years). The median age of starting alcohol consumption was 16 years (IQR: 14-18 years). Notably, 69% of participants smoked tobacco, and 61% had a family history of AUD; 18% currently used cannabis, and 7.7% used cocaine. Overall, 73% of patients exhibited AWS criteria, and men (76.5%) were more likely than women (64.6%) to report AWS (P = 0.038). In the adjusted analysis, factors associated with AWS were the age at starting alcohol consumption (odds ratio [OR] for every 5 years = 1.89, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.69-2.08), and cannabis use (OR = 2.8, 95% CI: 1.04-7.7) in men, and a family history of AUD in women (OR = 2.85 95% CI: 1.07-7.54). CONCLUSIONS: factors associated with AWS differ by sex which may have clinical implications for proactive management of AWS during treatment for AUD.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/epidemiologia
18.
Adicciones ; 33(1): 31-42, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31018002

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Systematic screening of problematic cannabis use does not include the motivations that lead to consumption, although from a person-centered perspective this is fundamental. The present study explores the motivations for cannabis use in adults and its relationship with cannabis use patterns and problematic use. METHOD: Adult cannabis users (previous 60 days) were recruited in the province of Barcelona (n = 468). Information on their sociodemographic data, cannabis use pattern, Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST) and the main motivation for use were collected. Motivations were categorized a posteriori according to the Marijuana Motives Measures (MMM). A descriptive and inferential analysis was carried out to link the motivations to sociodemographic variables, consumption pattern and probability of suffering problematic cannabis use (CAST). RESULTS: Using cannabis to heighten positive feelings (35%), out of habit (29%) and to cope with negative feelings (25%) were the most frequent motivations. In comparison to other motivations, coping is related to a greater quantity of cannabis used (4 vs 3 joints per day, p = 0.005), higher probability of problematic cannabis use (77% vs 64%, p = 0.05), and greater social vulnerability (unemployment 56% vs 37%, p = 0.001; and low educational level 14% vs 8%, p = 0.042). CONCLUSIONS: Coping as a motivation for cannabis use is present in one out of four users and is a marker of social vulnerability, greater quantity of cannabis used and higher risk of problematic use. Patient-centered care together with preventive (emotional and social education) and clinical strategies (psychotherapy) can be useful for this population at higher risk.

20.
Adicciones (Palma de Mallorca) ; 33(1): 31-42, 2021. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-201114

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: El cribado sistemático del consumo problemático de cannabis no incluye las motivaciones que llevan al consumo, aunque desde una perspectiva de atención centrada en la persona, este dato sea fundamental. El presente estudio explora las motivaciones de consumo de cannabis en adultos y su relación con el patrón de consumo y consumo problemático. Método. Consumidores adultos de cannabis (en los últimos 60 días) fueron reclutados en la provincia de Barcelona (n = 468). Se pasó un cuestionario para explorar datos sociodemográficos, patrón de uso, la Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST) y la motivación principal para el consumo. Los motivos de consumo se categorizaron a posteriori según la Marijuana Motives Measures (MMM). Se realizó un análisis descriptivo e inferencial para explorar la relación entre la motivación categorizada y variables sociodemográficas, patrón de consumo y puntuaciones de la CAST. RESULTADOS: Consumir cannabis para mejorar las emociones positivas (35%), por costumbre (29%) y para afrontar emociones negativas (25%) fueron las motivaciones más frecuentes. Respecto a otras motivaciones, el "afrontamiento" se relaciona con mayor cantidad consumida (4 vs 3 porros/día, p = 0,005), mayor probabilidad de tener un consumo problemático (77% vs 64%, p = 0,05), y mayor vulnerabilidad social (desempleo 56% vs 37%, p = 0,001; y bajo nivel de estudios (14% vs 8%, p = 0,042)). CONCLUSIONES: El afrontamiento está presente en uno de cada cuatro usuarios de cannabis, es un marcador de vulnerabilidad social y de mayor cantidad de consumo de cannabis y probabilidad de consumo problemático. Una atención centrada en la persona junto con estrategias preventivas (educación emocional y social) y clínicas (psicoterapia) pueden ser de utilidad en esta población de mayor riesgo


INTRODUCTION: Systematic screening of problematic cannabis use does not include the motivations that lead to consumption, although from a person-centered perspective this is fundamental. The present study explores the motivations for cannabis use in adults and its relationship with cannabis use patterns and problematic use. Method. Adult cannabis users (previous 60 days) were recruited in the province of Barcelona (n = 468). Information on their sociodemographic data, cannabis use pattern, Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST) and the main motivation for use were collected. Motivations were categorized a posteriori according to the Marijuana Motives Measures (MMM). A descriptive and inferential analysis was carried out to link the motivations to sociodemographic variables, consumption pattern and probability of suffering problematic cannabis use (CAST). RESULTS: Using cannabis to heighten positive feelings (35%), out of habit (29%) and to cope with negative feelings (25%) were the most frequent motivations. In comparison to other motivations, coping is related to a greater quantity of cannabis used (4 vs 3 joints per day, p = 0.005), higher probability of problematic cannabis use (77% vs 64%, p = 0.05), and greater social vulnerability (unemployment 56% vs 37%, p = 0.001; and low educational level 14% vs 8%, p = 0.042). CONCLUSIONS: Coping as a motivation for cannabis use is present in one out of four users and is a marker of social vulnerability, greater quantity of cannabis used and higher risk of problematic use. Patient-centered care together with preventive (emotional and social education) and clinical strategies (psychotherapy) can be useful for this population at higher risk


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Uso da Maconha/psicologia , Abuso de Maconha/psicologia , Motivação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Adaptação Psicológica , Fatores de Risco , Vulnerabilidade Social
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