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1.
Infectio ; 23(supl.1): 73-91, dic. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-984511

RESUMO

Resumen: Los pacientes con infección por VIH tienen una mayor incidencia de eventos cardiovasculares en comparación con la población general; los factores que contribuyen al incremento del riesgo de eventos cardiovasculares son la prevalencia de factores de riesgo cardiovascular tradicionales (FRCV), la infección por VIH que condiciona tanto un proceso de inflamación crónica como alteración de la función endotelial y la exposición a los antirretrovirales. Los factores que deben ser objeto de intervención son los FRCV tradicionales, en especial la alta tasa de fumadores entre este grupo de pacientes, la tamización y tratamiento de HTA, el síndrome metabólico y el acceso temprano a la terapia antirretroviral con medicamentos con mayor perfil de seguridad . Esta guía pretende proveer información y recomendaciones en el ámbito nacional acerca de la relación entre la infección por VIH/SIDA (Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida), uso de antirretrovirales y riesgo cardiovascular.


Abstract: Patients with VIH infection have greater risk for cardiovascular diseases compared to general population. Risk factors that increase the frequency of cardiovascular events are: presence of cardiovascular traditional risk factors, chronic inflammation by HIV that impairs endothelial function and the exposure to antiretrovirals. The factors that should be the target for intervention are the traditional know cardiovascular factors such, especially high rate of smokers, screening and treatment for hypertension, metabolic syndrome and early access to HAART. The present guidelines provides information about the use of antiretrovirals in patients with HIV and its relation with cardiovascular risk.

2.
Infectio ; 23(supl.1): 106-128, dic. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-984514

RESUMO

Resumen Los inhibidores de transferencia de la cadena de integrasa (INSTI) son medicamentos cuyo mecanismo de acción consiste en bloquear el proceso de integración del ADN proviral al ADN del hospedero mediante la unión al sitio catalítico de la integrasa viral y de esta manera evitar su replicación. Actualmente se cuenta con la aprobación INSTI de primera y segunda generación, presentan similitud en su mecanismo de acción, cambios en su estructura que modifican su barrera genética, pero mantienen su perfil de seguridad y efectividad. Desde su aprobación en el año 2007, se han llevado a cabo múltiples estudios clínicos cuyos resultados han permitido avanzar en el conocimiento de su efectividad en diferentes escenarios clínicos; (pacientes naive, experimentados, esquemas de simplificación y profilaxis, así, como en el conocimiento de su perfil de mutaciones de resistencia). En el presente artículo se hizo una revisión de los miembros de esta familia de antirretrovirales (ARV).


Abstract: Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTI) are drugs whose mechanism of action consists of blocking the integration process of the proviral DNA to the host DNA by binding to the catalytic site of the viral integration and thus preventing its replication. Currently it has the approval of INSTI of first generation, two of second generation and in process of approval of a third of second generation. The two generations has similitude in its mechanisms of action, changes in its structures that modify its genetic barrier, but keeping his security and effectiveness profile. Since the approval of INSTI´s in 2007 to date, multiple clinical studies have been carried out, whose results have allowed us to advance in the knowledge of their effectiveness in different clinical scenarios; (naive patients, experienced patients, simplification and prophylaxis schemes, as well as in the knowledge of their profile of resistance mutations). In the present article, we made a review of the members of this family of antiretrovirals (ARV).

3.
Int J Infect Dis ; 87: 60-66, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330321

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) represent a major clinical problem in Colombia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors associated with MRSA SSTI in Colombia. METHODS: A multicenter cohort study with nested case-control design was performed. Patients with an SSTI with at least 48h of inpatient care were included. Patients with an MRSA SSTI were considered the case group and patients with either a non-MRSA SSTI or with an Methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) SSTI were the control groups. A multivariate logistic regression approach was used to evaluate risk factors associated with MRSA SSTI with two different statistical models. RESULTS: A total 1134 patients were included. Cultures were positive for 498 patients, of which 52% (n=259) were Staphylococcus aureus. MRSA was confirmed in 68.3% of the S. aureus cultures. In the first model, independent risk factors for MRSA SSTI were identified as the presence of abscess (P<0.0001), cellulitis (P=0.0007), age 18-44 years (P=0.001), and previous outpatient treatment in the previous index visit (P=0.003); surgical site infection was a protective factor (P=0.008). In the second model, the main risk factor found was previous outpatient treatment in the previous index visit (P=0.013). CONCLUSIONS: Community-acquired SSTIs in Colombia are commonly caused by MRSA. Therefore, clinicians should consider MRSA when designing the initial empirical treatment for purulent SSTI in Colombia, although there seems to be low awareness of this fact.

4.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 38(4): 507-513, oct.-dic. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-983960

RESUMO

Introducción. Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina (SARM) causa infecciones graves de la piel y los tejidos blandos en los hospitales y, en los últimos años, en la comunidad. El tedizolid es una nueva oxazolidinona cuya potencia in vitro ha demostrado ser mayor que la del linezolid frente a este microorganismo. Objetivo. Conocer la actividad antimicrobiana del tedizolid y de algunos antibióticos de comparación en aislamientos de SARM causante de infecciones de piel y tejidos blandos en hospitales de Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio multicéntrico prospectivo y descriptivo a lo largo de doce meses en siete hospitales de tercer nivel de Colombia. Se recolectaron aislamientos de SARM de pacientes adultos con infección de piel y tejidos blandos. Se determinó la concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM) mediante la técnica de ETEST® (bioMérieux) del tedizolid, el linezolid, la vancomicina, la daptomicina, el trimetoprim-sulfametoxazol y la clindamicina. Resultados. Se obtuvieron aislamientos de SARM de 102 pacientes, de los cuales 56 (54,9 %) eran hombres; el promedio de edad fue de 46,8 años. La infección tuvo origen en la comunidad en 77 casos (75,4 %). El tipo de muestra que predominó fue el absceso (69 pacientes: 67,6 %). Todos los aislamientos fueron sensibles a tedizolid, linezolid, daptomicina, trimetoprim-sulfametoxazol y vancomicina. La actividad in vitro del tedizolid fue mayor que la del linezolid. Los intervalos de la CIM del tedizolid oscilaron entre 0,125 µg/ml y 0,5 µg/ml en tanto que los del linezolid fluctuaron entre 1 µg/m y 2 µg/ml. Conclusiones. Las cepas circulantes de SARM en Colombia presentaron una gran sensibilidad al tedizolid, por lo cual sería una alternativa terapéutica para las infecciones de piel y tejidos blandos en nuestro medio.


Introduction: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) causes severe skin and soft tissue infections in hospitals and, more recently, in the community. Tedizolid is a new second-generation oxazolidinone derivative having greater in vitro potency than linezolid against this type of microorganism. Objectives: To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of tedizolid and other comparator antibiotics in MRSA isolates causing skin and soft tissue infections in Colombian hospitals. Materials and methods: We conducted a prospective, multi-center descriptive study in seven tertiary-level hospitals in Colombia along a 12-month period. MRSA isolates were collected from adult patients with skin and soft tissue infections. Tedizolid, linezolid, vancomycin, daptomycin, trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole, and clindamycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by ETEST® (bioMérieux). Results: MRSA isolates were obtained from 102 patients with an average age of 46.8 years of whom 56 (54.9%) were men. Infection was community-acquired in 77 cases (75.4%). Abscess-related samples predominated (69 patients: 67.6%). All isolates were susceptible to tedizolid, linezolid, daptomycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and vancomycin. Tedizolid had greater in vitro activity than linezolid. Tedizolid MIC intervals ranged from 0.125 µg/mL to 0.5 µg/mL while those of linezolid ranged from 1µg/mL to 2µg/mL. Conclusions: MRSA strains circulating in Colombia are highly susceptible to tedizolid and can be considered a therapeutic alternative for hospitals and/or community-acquired skin and soft tissue infections.


Assuntos
Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Colômbia , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles , Oxazolidinonas
5.
Front Immunol ; 9: 2291, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30337929

RESUMO

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an oncogenic virus associated with the development of aggressive and poor-prognosis B-cell lymphomas in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV+ patients). The most important risk factors for these malignancies include immune dysfunction, chronic immune activation, and loss of T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire. The combination of all these factors can favor the reactivation of EBV, malignant cell transformation, and clinical progression toward B-cell lymphomas. The overarching aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency, phenotype, functionality, and distribution of TCR clonotypes for EBV-specific T-cell subpopulations in HIV+ patients at different clinical stages and for HIV+ patients with B-cell lymphoma, as well as to establish their association with clinical variables of prognostic value. Factors were studied in 56 HIV+ patients at different clinical stages and in six HIV+ subjects with diagnosed B-cell lymphoma. We found a significant decrease in all subpopulations of EBV-specific CD4+ T cells from HIV+ patients at stage 3 and with B-cell lymphoma. EBV-specific effector CD8+ T cells, particularly effector memory cells, were also reduced in HIV+ patients with B-cell lymphoma. Interestingly, these cells were unable to produce IFN-γ and lacked multifunctionality in HIV+ patients. The TCR-Vß repertoire, which is key for protection against EBV in healthy individuals, was less diverse in HIV+ patients due to a lower frequency of TCR-Vß2+, Vß4+, Vß7.1+, Vß9+, Vß13.6+, Vß14+, Vß17+, Vß22+ CD4+, Vß14+, and Vß17+ CD8+ T cells. HIV+ patients with positive plasma EBV loads (EBV+HIV+) had a noteworthy decrease in the levels of both TNF-α+ and multifunctional TNF-α+/IL-2+ and TNF-α+/IFN-γ+ CD8+ T cells. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that HIV+ patients have significant alterations in the immune response to EBV (poor-quality immunity) that can favor viral reactivation, escalating the risk for developing EBV-associated B-cell lymphomas.

6.
Biomedica ; 38(4): 507-513, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30653864

RESUMO

Introduction: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) causes severe skin and soft tissue infections in hospitals and, more recently, in the community. Tedizolid is a new second-generation oxazolidinone derivative having greater in vitro potency than linezolid against this type of microorganism. Objectives: To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of tedizolid and other comparator antibiotics in MRSA isolates causing skin and soft tissue infections in Colombian hospitals. Materials and methods: We conducted a prospective, multi-center descriptive study in seven tertiary-level hospitals in Colombia along a 12-month period. MRSA isolates were collected from adult patients with skin and soft tissue infections. Tedizolid, linezolid, vancomycin, daptomycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and clindamycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by ETEST® (bioMérieux). Results: MRSA isolates were obtained from 102 patients with an average age of 46.8 years of whom 56 (54.9%) were men. Infection was community-acquired in 77 cases (75.4%). Abscess-related samples predominated (69 patients: 67.6%). All isolates were susceptible to tedizolid, linezolid, daptomycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and vancomycin. Tedizolid had greater in vitro activity than linezolid. Tedizolid MIC intervals ranged from 0.125 µg/mL to 0.5 µg/mL while those of linezolid ranged from 1µg/mL to 2µg/mL. Conclusions: MRSA strains circulating in Colombia are highly susceptible to tedizolid and can be considered a therapeutic alternative for hospitals and/or community-acquired skin and soft tissue infections.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxazolidinonas/farmacologia , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Cutâneas Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Tetrazóis/farmacologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Colômbia , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/microbiologia , Infecções Cutâneas Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Univ. med ; 59(4): 1-10, 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-995622

RESUMO

La neumonía adquirida en la comunidad (NAC) continúa siendo una de las principales causas de mortalidad en Colombia, pues es responsable de 13 de cada 100.000 muertes. Su principal agente etiológico es el Streptococcus pneumoniae, seguido por Haemophilus influenzae y Staphylococcus aureus. Se han identificado algunos factores de riesgo como comorbilidades y factores de exposición epidemiológica, los cuales incrementan la posibilidad de contraer una infección por microrganismos específicos. Su diagnóstico debe basarse tanto en la clínica como en hallazgos paraclínicos e imagenológicos. Herramientas como las escalas CURB-65 y PSI asociadas al criterio clínico permiten calcular el riesgo de mortalidad y el área de atención del paciente según su clasificación. En esta revisión se consideran los diferentes elementos para una adecuada evaluación y manejo del paciente que cursa con NAC, el uso de algunos biomarcadores, situaciones especiales para apreciar, como la neumonía severa, y estrategias para una adecuada prevención.


Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is one of the first mortality causes in Colombia it accounts for 13 of every 100,000 deaths per year. Its principal etiologic agent is still Streptococcus pneumoniae, followed by Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus. Several risk factors have been described for CAP and specific pathoghens, such as coomorbidities and exposition factors. Diagnosis is made by clinical findings associated to laboratory workup and radiological evidence. CURB-65 and PSI are the most known and used tools that, in association with clinical evaluation, calculate the mortality risk and evaluate the setting of management. This literature review aims to consider crucial aspects for the correct assessment of CAP patients, biomarkers used in CAP, particular situations such as severe CAP as well as prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pneumonia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Biomarcadores , Pneumonia Bacteriana
8.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 37(4): 466-472, oct.-dic. 2017. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-888491

RESUMO

Resumen Introducción. Clostridium difficile es el principal responsable de la diarrea asociada al uso de antibióticos. En Colombia y en Latinoamérica, el conocimiento sobre el comportamiento epidemiológico de la infección por C. difficile todavía es limitado. Objetivo. Describir las características de una serie de pacientes con infección por C.difficile . Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio descriptivo de una serie de casos de pacientes con infección por C. difficile atendidos en la Fundación Clínica Shaio, entre enero de 2012 y noviembre de 2015. Resultados. Se estudiaron 36 pacientes con una edad promedio de 65 años. Se determinaron los siguientes factores relacionados con la infección por C. difficile: uso previo de antimicrobianos (94,4 %), hospitalización en los últimos tres meses (66,7 %) y uso de inhibidores de la bomba de protones (50 %). Las comorbilidades más comunes fueron la enfermedad renal crónica (41,7 %) y la diabetes mellitus (30,6 %). Los síntomas más frecuentes fueron más de tres deposiciones diarreicas (97,1 %) y dolor abdominal (42,9 %). En cuanto a la gravedad de los casos, 44,4 % se clasificó como leve a moderado, 38,9 % como grave, y 11,1 % como complicado o grave. El método de diagnóstico más utilizado (63,8% de los pacientes) fue la identificación de la toxina mediante reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR). La mortalidad global durante la hospitalización fue de 8 %. Se identificaron cuatro cepas del serotipo NAP1/027 y nueve muestras fueron positivas para la toxina binaria. Conclusión. La infección por C. difficile debe sospecharse en pacientes con deposiciones diarreicas y factores asociados tradicionalmente a esta enfermedad. Se reportó la circulación de cepas hipervirulentas del serotipo NAP1/027 en Colombia, lo cual debe enfrentarse con la vigilancia epidemiológica y el diagnóstico temprano.


Abstract Introduction: Clostridium difficile is the main pathogen related to healthcare-associated diarrhea and it is the cause of 20 to 30% of diarrhea cases caused by antibiotics. In Colombia and Latin America, the knowledge about the epidemiological behavior of this infection is limited. Objective: To describe the characteristics of a series of patients with C. difficile infection. Materials and methods: We performed a descriptive case series study of patients with C. difficile infection hospitalized in the Fundación Clínica Shaio from January, 2012, to November, 2015. Results: We analyzed 36 patients. The average age was 65 years. The risk factors associated with the infection were: previous use of antibiotics (94.4%), prior hospitalization in the last three months (66.7%) and use of proton pump inhibitors (50%). The most common comorbidities were chronic kidney disease (41.7%) and diabetes mellitus (30.6%). The most frequent symptoms were more than three loose stools per day (97.1%) and abdominal pain (42.9%). According to the severity of the disease, 44.4% of cases were classified as mild to moderate, 38.9% as severe, and 11.1% as complicated or severe. The detection of the toxin by PCR (GeneXpert) was the most common diagnostic procedure (63.8%). Global mortality during hospitalization was 8%. We identified four strains with serotype NAP1/027 and nine samples positive for binary toxin. Conclusion: Clostridium difficile infection should be suspected in patients with diarrhea and traditional risk factors associated with this disease. We report the circulation of the hypervirulent strain serotype NAP1/027 in Colombia, which should be countered with epidemiological surveillance and a prompt diagnosis.

9.
Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc ; 55(3): 292-299, 2017 May-Jun.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28440982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Mexico, artisans frequently use lead oxide or greta in order to produce utensils, which are destined to preparation and storage of food and drinks. Additionally, the risk of lead poisoning of artisans and their families is greater than in general population, and within these families, children are the most susceptible to lead poisoning. The aim of this study was to estimate IQ loss in Mexican children from potter families exposed to lead. METHODS: Lead concentrations in soil were determined in 19 potter's homes that functioned as pottery workshops in seven Mexican states between 2009 and 2012. This information was used to estimate blood lead levels through the integrated exposure uptake biokinetic (IEUBK) model. The loss of IQ points was then estimated according to the Lanphear and Schwartz models. RESULTS: The mean lead concentration found in the workshops' soil was 1098.4 ppm. Blood lead levels estimated in children under 8 years old were 26.4 µg/dL and the loss of IQ points comprised from 7.13 to 8.84 points depending on the model. CONCLUSIONS: It is possible that 11 children from families of artisans in Mexico may be losing between 7.13 to 8.84 IQ points, due to lead exposure in their houses-workshops. This loss in IQ points could have important health, economic and social impacts.


Assuntos
Utensílios de Alimentação e Culinária , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Inteligência/efeitos dos fármacos , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Chumbo na Infância/etiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Testes de Inteligência , Chumbo/análise , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Chumbo na Infância/diagnóstico , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Chumbo na Infância/epidemiologia , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Características de Residência , Fatores de Risco , Solo/química
10.
Biomedica ; 37(4): 466-472, 2017 Dec 01.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29373767

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Clostridium difficile is the main pathogen related to healthcare-associated diarrhea and it is the cause of 20 to 30% of diarrhea cases caused by antibiotics. In Colombia and Latin America, the knowledge about the epidemiological behavior of this infection is limited. OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of a series of patients with C. difficile infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a descriptive case series study of patients with C. difficile infection hospitalized in the Fundación Clínica Shaio from January, 2012, to November, 2015. RESULTS: We analyzed 36 patients. The average age was 65 years. The risk factors associated with the infection were: previous use of antibiotics (94.4%), prior hospitalization in the last three months (66.7%) and use of proton pump inhibitors (50%). The most common comorbidities were chronic kidney disease (41.7%) and diabetes mellitus (30.6%). The most frequent symptoms were more than three loose stools per day (97.1%) and abdominal pain (42.9%). According to the severity of the disease, 44.4% of cases were classified as mild to moderate, 38.9% as severe, and 11.1% as complicated or severe. The detection of the toxin by PCR (GeneXpert) was the most common diagnostic procedure (63.8%). Global mortality during hospitalization was 8%. We identified four strains with serotype NAP1/027 and nine samples positive for binary toxin. CONCLUSION: Clostridium difficile infection should be suspected in patients with diarrhea and traditional risk factors associated with this disease. We report the circulation of the hypervirulent strain serotype NAP1/027 in Colombia, which should be countered with epidemiological surveillance and a prompt diagnosis.

11.
Infectio ; 20(4): 281-285, jul.-dic. 2016. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-953975

RESUMO

Resumen: La opción de un injerto vascular es una medida correctiva para pacientes con enfermedad arterial periférica o aneurismas y para acceso arteriovenoso en pacientes con hemodiálisis crónica. A partir de la colocación de una prótesis de injerto vascular se puede desarrollar infección asociada en el 1-6% de los pacientes, con una alta incidencia de mortalidad del 13 al 58%. El diagnóstico de una infección asociada a injerto vascular se realiza a partir de hallazgos clínicos, microbiológicos e imagenológicos, para así definir, además de su presencia, su compromiso y extensión. El manejo ideal requiere de tratamiento quirúrgico y antibioticoterapia; sin embargo, el tratamiento quirúrgico no siempre es posible. Reportamos este caso de manejo médico exitoso de una infección de injerto vascular de aorta en la cual el 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT) presentó utilidad como método diagnóstico y de seguimiento.


Abstract: The option of a vascular graft is a corrective intervention for patients with peripheral artery disease, aneurisms, and to achieve arterio-venous access in patients on chronic hemodialysis. Infections from a prosthetic vascular graft occurs in 1 to 6% of patients, and this development is related to the incidence of mortality of 13 to 58%. The diagnosis of a vascular graft infection is made via the combination of clinical, microbiologic and imaging findings that allow a definition of not only the presence of infection but also its severity and spread. The ideal approach requires both surgical and antimicrobial therapy; however, the former is not always possible. We report a case of successful medical management of an aortic vascular graft infection and the usefulness of a 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computedtomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT) scan as a tool for diagnosis and follow-up.

12.
Ann Glob Health ; 80(4): 269-77, 2014 Jul-Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25459328

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although there has been success in reducing lead exposure with the phase-out of leaded gasoline, exposure to lead in Mexico continues to threaten the health of millions, much of which is from lead-based glazes used in pottery that leaches into food. OBJECTIVES: An extensive historical review and analysis of available data on blood lead levels in Mexican populations was conducted. We used a calculated geometric mean to evaluate the effect of lead on the pediatric burden of disease. METHODS: An extensive bibliographic search identified 83 published articles from 1978 to 2010 with blood lead level (BLL) data in Mexican populations representing 150 data points from more than 50,000 study participants. Values from these publications were categorized into various groupings. We then calculated the incidence of disease and disability-adjusted life-years resulting from these BLLs using the World Health Organization's burden of disease spreadsheets for mild mental retardation. RESULTS: Reviewing all relevant studies, the geometric means of Mexican BLLs in urban and rural areas were found to be 8.85 and 22.24 ug/dL, respectively. Since the phase-out of leaded gasoline, the mean in urban areas was found to be 5.36 ug/dL and the average in rural areas is expected to be much higher. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) upper limit of blood lead in children under the age of 6 years is 5 ug/dL and the current U.S. average is 1.2 ug/dL. Our results indicate that more than 15% of the population will experience a decrement of more than 5 IQ points from lead exposure. The analysis also leads us to believe that lead is responsible for 820,000 disability-adjusted life-years for lead-induced mild mental retardation for children aged 0 to 4 years. CONCLUSION: Lead continues to threaten the health of millions and remains a significant cause of disability in Mexico. Additional interventions in reducing or managing lead-based ceramic glazes are necessary to protect the public health.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Deficiência Intelectual/epidemiologia , Chumbo/sangue , Chumbo/toxicidade , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Deficiência Intelectual/induzido quimicamente , México/epidemiologia , População Rural , População Urbana
13.
Ann Glob Health ; 80(4): 278-85, 2014 Jul-Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25459329

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), chemical exposures in the environment due to hazardous waste sites and toxic pollutants are typically poorly documented and their health impacts insufficiently quantified. Furthermore, there often is only limited understanding of the health and environmental consequences of point source pollution problems, and little consensus on how to assess and rank them. The contributions of toxic environmental exposures to the global burden of disease are not well characterized. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe the simple but effective approach taken by Blacksmith Institute's Toxic Sites Identification Program to quantify and rank toxic exposures in LMICs. This system is already in use at more than 3000 sites in 48 countries such as India, Indonesia, China, Ghana, Kenya, Tanzania, Peru, Bolivia, Argentina, Uruguay, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Ukraine. METHODS: A hazard ranking system formula, the Blacksmith Index (BI), takes into account important factors such as the scale of the pollution source, the size of the population possibly affected, and the exposure pathways, and is designed for use reliably in low-resource settings by local personnel provided with limited training. FINDINGS: Four representative case studies are presented, with varying locations, populations, pollutants, and exposure pathways. The BI was successfully applied to assess the extent and severity of environmental pollution problems at these sites. CONCLUSIONS: The BI is a risk-ranking tool that provides direct and straightforward characterization, quantification, and prioritization of toxic pollution sites in settings where time, money, or resources are limited. It will be an important and useful tool for addressing toxic pollution problems in LMICs. Although the BI does not have the sophistication of the US Environmental Protection Agency's Hazard Ranking System, the case studies presented here document the effectiveness of the BI in the field, especially in low-resource settings. Understanding of the risks posed by toxic pollution sites helps assure better use of resources to manage sites and mitigate risks to public health. Quantification of these hazards is an important input to assessments of the global burden of disease.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Exposição Ambiental/classificação , Locais de Resíduos Perigosos/classificação , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Arsênico/análise , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Contaminação de Alimentos , Gana , Humanos , Índia , Cazaquistão , Metais Pesados/análise , Peru , Medição de Risco/métodos , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes da Água/análise
14.
Clin Infect Dis ; 43(6): e57-9, 2006 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16912935

RESUMO

We describe 2 patients with severe orbital myiasis due to Cochliomyia hominivorax (of the order Diptera and the family Calliphoridae) who had underlying skin carcinomas and were treated with oral ivermectin and debridement. We suggest that ivermectin plays an important role in the treatment of severe cases of myiasis.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/uso terapêutico , Dípteros/patogenicidade , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Miíase/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Orbitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Animais , Carcinoma/complicações , Terapia Combinada , Comorbidade , Desbridamento , Face/parasitologia , Face/patologia , Face/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Miíase/parasitologia , Miíase/patologia , Doenças Orbitárias/parasitologia , Doenças Orbitárias/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/complicações
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