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1.
Bioorg Chem ; 104: 104246, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911197

RESUMO

Cryptotanshinone (1), a major bioactive constituent in the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Dan-Shen Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, has been reported to possess remarkable pharmacological activities. To improve its bioactivities and physicochemical properties, in the present study, cryptotanshinone (1) was biotransformed with the fungus Cunninghamella elegans AS3.2028. Three oxygenated products (2-4) at C-3 of cryptotanshinone (1) were obtained, among them 2 was a new compound. Their structures were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis including HRESIMS, NMR and ECD data. All of the biotransformation products (2-4) were found to inhibit significantly lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in BV2 microglia cells with the IC50 values of 0.16-1.16 µM, approximately 2-20 folds stronger than the substrate (1). These biotransformation products also displayed remarkably improved inhibitory effects on the production of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α, COX-2 and iNOS) in BV-2 cells via targeting TLR4 compared to substrate (1). The underlying mechanism of 2 was elucidated by comparative transcriptome analysis, which suggested that it reduced neuroinflammatory mainly through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Western blotting results revealed that 2 downregulated LPS-induced phosphorylation of JNK, ERK, and p38 in MAPK signaling pathway. These findings provide a basal material for the discovery of candidates in treating Alzheimer's disease.

2.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 243, 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758223

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung cancer has the highest morbidity and mortality in the world and novel treatment strategies are still needed. Haimufang decoction (HMF) is a patented clinical prescription of traditional Chinese medicine for lung cancer treatment. HMF is composed of four herbs and has been applied clinically in advanced cancer patients. However, its therapeutic mechanisms are still unclear. This study aims to elucidate the possible mechanisms of HMF for the treatment of lung cancer. METHODS: 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide assay was applied for evaluating the proliferative effect of HMF in lung cancer cells and monocyte macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Flow cytometer was used to detect the effects of HMF on cell cycle and apoptosis, and western blotting was employed to explore the potential apoptotic mechanisms of HMF on lung cancer cells. For immunomodulatory effect, co-culture system was used to detect the activation of macrophage RAW264.7 cells when treated with HMF, and neutral red assay was used to measure the effect of HMF on the phagocytosis of the activated macrophages. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, flow cytometer, and immunofluorescence staining method were employed for the investigation on the underlying mechanisms of the immunomodulatory effect on RAW264.7 induced by HMF. RESULTS: HMF inhibited the proliferation, induced S phase cell cycle arrest, and stimulated apoptosis in lung cancer NCI-H1975 cells, while had negligible cytotoxicity on macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Moreover, HMF could activate macrophage RAW264.7 cells and promote the inhibition activity of RAW264.7 cells against lung cancer cells. And also, HMF activated macrophages and increased their phagocytic activity in a concentration-dependent manner. HMF increased the expression of macrophage activation marker CD40, the level of nitric oxide, the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species, as well as M1 macrophages cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1ß, interleukin 12 p70, and interleukin 6. Further investigation showed that HMF induced M1 but not M2 phenotype polarization in RAW264.7 cells. CONCLUSIONS: HMF can mainly exert anticancer activity via (1) cytotoxicity to human lung cancer cells by proliferation inhibition, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis induction; and also via (2) immunomodulation via macrophage cells activation and M1 phenotype polarization induction.

3.
Mar Drugs ; 18(3)2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32110865

RESUMO

Aspergillus terreus has been reported to produce many secondary metabolites that exhibit potential bioactivities, such as antibiotic, hypoglycemic, and lipid-lowering activities. In the present study, two new thiodiketopiperazines, emestrins L (1) and M (2), together with five known analogues (3-7), and five known dihydroisocoumarins (8-12), were obtained from the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus terreus RA2905. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by analysis of the comprehensive spectroscopic data, including high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HRESIMS), one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) data. This is the first time that the spectroscopic data of compounds 3, 8, and 9 have been reported. Compound 3 displayed antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 32 µg/mL) and antifungal activity against Candida albicans (MIC = 32 µg/mL). In addition, compound 3 exhibited an inhibitory effect on protein tyrosine phosphatase 1 B (PTP1B), an important hypoglycemic target, with an inhibitory concentration (IC)50 value of 12.25 µM.

4.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 116: 109002, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154270

RESUMO

Berberine (BBR) is a non-prescription drug to treat various bacteria-associated diarrheas. However, BBR has also been reported to cause diarrhea in clinic, with underlying mechanisms poorly understood. Because altered gut microbial ecology is a potential basis for diarrhea, this study was conducted to investigate the impact of BBR on gut microbiota of treatment-emergent diarrhea. BBR treatment (200 mg/kg, i.g.) in normal rats exhibited no significant changes in serum biochemical parameters but mild diarrhea occurred, accompanied with the decreased gastrointestinal transit time and increased fecal moisture, suggestive of the local effects of BBR in the intestine. Colon histology revealed the decreased abundance of mucus-filled goblet cells in BBR group. Although BBR-treated rats had the enlarged cecum with watery caecal digesta, short-chain fatty acids concentration was significantly lower than control group. Additionally, BBR caused gut microbiota dysbiosis by evaluating the decreased observed species number and Shannon index. BBR increased the relative abundances of families Porphyromonadaceae and Prevotellaceae as well as genera Parabacteroides, Prevotellaceae_UCG-001 and Prevotellaceae_NK3B31_group. Spearman's correlation analysis revealed family Prevotellaceae and genus Prevotellaceae_UCG-001 as the most prominent drivers of the BBR treatment-emergent diarrhea, correlating positively with fecal moisture but negatively with gastrointestinal transit time. This study therefore demonstrated that the treatment-emergent mild diarrhea of BBR was most likely due to the dysbiosis of the gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Berberina/efeitos adversos , Diarreia/induzido quimicamente , Diarreia/microbiologia , Disbiose/complicações , Disbiose/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Biodiversidade , Ceco/patologia , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/patologia , Colo/fisiopatologia , Diarreia/fisiopatologia , Disbiose/fisiopatologia , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trânsito Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Ratos Wistar , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
5.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 316(1): E73-E85, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30422704

RESUMO

Increased circulating branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) have been involved in the pathogenesis of obesity and insulin resistance (IR). However, evidence relating berberine (BBR), gut microbiota, BCAAs, and IR is limited. Here, we showed that BBR could effectively rectify steatohepatitis and glucose intolerance in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. BBR reorganized gut microbiota populations under both the normal chow diet (NCD) and HFD. Particularly, BBR noticeably decreased the relative abundance of BCAA-producing bacteria, including order Clostridiales; families Streptococcaceae, Clostridiaceae, and Prevotellaceae; and genera Streptococcus and Prevotella. Compared with the HFD group, predictive metagenomics indicated a reduction in the proportion of gut microbiota genes involved in BCAA biosynthesis but the enrichment genes for BCAA degradation and transport by BBR treatment. Accordingly, the elevated serum BCAAs of HFD group were significantly decreased by BBR. Furthermore, the Western blotting results implied that BBR could promote the BCAA catabolism in the liver and epididymal white adipose tissues of HFD-fed mice by activation of the multienzyme branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC), whereas by inhibition of the phosphorylation state of BCKDHA (E1α subunit) and branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase kinase (BCKDK). The ex vivo assay further confirmed that BBR could increase BCAA catabolism in both AML12 hepatocytes and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Finally, data from healthy subjects and diabetics confirmed that BBR could improve glycemic control and modulate circulating BCAAs. Together, our findings clarified BBR improving IR associated not only with gut microbiota alteration in BCAA biosynthesis but also with BCAA catabolism in liver and adipose tissues.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Branco/efeitos dos fármacos , Aminoácidos de Cadeia Ramificada/efeitos dos fármacos , Berberina/farmacologia , Disbiose/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência à Insulina , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/metabolismo , 3-Metil-2-Oxobutanoato Desidrogenase (Lipoamida)/metabolismo , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Adulto , Aminoácidos de Cadeia Ramificada/metabolismo , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Fígado Gorduroso , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Intolerância à Glucose , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Metagenômica , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Quinases
6.
Molecules ; 23(6)2018 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29874868

RESUMO

Phyllodiumpulchellum has been traditionally used as a medicinal herb because of its health-promoting effects, such as its hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities. In the present study, the petroleum ether fraction, ethyl acetate fraction, n-butanol fraction, and aqueous fraction were successively obtained from the ethanol extract of P. pulchellum. Two fractions, ethyl acetate fraction and n-butanol fraction, were found to display hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities. Further chemical investigation of the active fractions led to the isolation of its main constituents, including 11 flavonoids (1⁻11) and 8 indole alkaloids (12⁻19). There were 9 flavonoids (1⁻9) that were obtained from the ethyl acetate fraction, and 2 flavonoids (10 and 11) and 8 alkaloids (12⁻19) from the n-butanol fraction. Compounds 1⁻11 and 16⁻19 were isolated for the first time from P. pulchellum, and 1, 2, 8, 11, and 18 were obtained from the genus Phyllodium initially. Subsequently, the isolated compounds were evaluated for their in vitro hepatoprotective effects on the human normal hepatocyte cell line L-O2 injured by d-galactosamine and radical scavenging activities against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The flavonoids (-)-epigallocatechin (5) and (-)-epicatechin (6) exhibited prominent hepatoprotective activities with higher cell viability values (65.53% and 62.40% at 10 µM·mL-1, respectively) than the positive control, silymarin (61.85% at 10 µM·mL-1). In addition, compared with the positive control of vitamin C (IC50: 5.14 µg·mL-1), (-)-gallocatechin (3) and (-)-epigallocatechin (5) exhibited stronger antioxidant activities with IC50 values of 3.80 and 3.97 µg·mL-1, respectively. Furthermore, the total flavonoids from P. pulchellum were characterized using a high-performance liquid chromatography-linear ion trap quadrupole-Orbitrap-mass spectrometry (HPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS). In total, 34 flavonoids were tentatively identified, which had not been previously reported from P. pulchellum. In addition, we performed a semi-quantitative analysis of the isolated flavonoids. The contents of compounds 1⁻11 were 3.88, 17.73, 140.35, 41.93, 27.80, 4.34, 0.01, 0.20, 9.67, 795.85, and 5.23 µg·g-1, respectively. In conclusion, this study revealed that the flavonoids that were isolated from P. pulchellum showed hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities, indicating that, besides alkaloids, the flavonoids should be the potential pharmacodynamic ingredients that are responsible for the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of P. pulchellum.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fabaceae/química , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes/química , Linhagem Celular , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
7.
Carbohydr Polym ; 194: 365-374, 2018 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29801851

RESUMO

Propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS), a sulfated polysaccharide derivative, has been used as a heparinoid drug to prevent and treat hyperlipidemia and ischemic cardio-cerebrovascular diseases in China for 30 years. But its bleeding risk should not be overlooked. Here we clarified the reasons and mechanism leading to bleeding side effect of PSS. It was found that PSS fractions with low mannuronic acid (M)/guluronic acid (G) ratio and high molecular weight (Mw) can excessively extend activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and thrombin time (TT), over-inhibit the thrombin (FIIa) activity mediated by anti-thrombin III (ATIII) to induce bleeding risk. In addition, the fraction of low M/G ratio can suppress platelet aggregation mediated by adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and induce platelet reduction by improving platelet antibody (PA)-IgA/G in serum and by inhibiting or damaging the bone marrow hematopoietic function. And the fraction of high Mw can restrain the reticulated platelet (RP) production, then reduce mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet-large cell counts or ratio, and finally decrease platelet amount by inhibiting or damaging the bone marrow hematopoietic function. In brief, PSS fractions with low M/G ratio and high Mw were the main reasons to bring about bleeding by excessively suppressing coagulant factors activities and weakening platelet function. Our results suggested that it is very necessary to control the M/G ratio and the range of Mw of PSS to guarantee its safety and effectiveness in clinical.


Assuntos
Alginatos/efeitos adversos , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/tratamento farmacológico , Polissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Sulfatos/efeitos adversos , Alginatos/química , Alginatos/farmacologia , Animais , Anticoagulantes/química , Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , Testes de Coagulação Sanguínea , Configuração de Carboidratos , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Sulfatos/química , Sulfatos/farmacologia
8.
Front Pharmacol ; 8: 694, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29051733

RESUMO

The rapidly increasing diabetes mellitus (DM) is becoming a major global public health issue. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has a long history of the treatment of DM with good efficacy. Huangqi and Huanglian are one of the most frequently prescribed herbs for DM, and the combination of them occurs frequently in antidiabetic formulae. However, the synergistic mechanism of Huangqi (Radix Astragali) and Huanglian (Rhizoma Coptidis) has not been clearly elucidated. To address this problem, a feasible system pharmacology model based on chemical, pharmacokinetic and pharmacological data was developed via network construction approach to clarify the synergistic mechanisms of these two herbs. Forty-three active ingredients of Huangqi (mainly astragalosides and isoflavonoids) and Huanglian (primarily isoquinoline alkaloids) possessing favorable pharmacokinetic profiles and biological activities were selected, interacting with 50 DM-related targets to provide potential synergistic therapeutic actions. Systematic analysis of the constructed networks revealed that these targets such as GLUT2, NOS2, PTP1B, and IGF1R were mainly involved in PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, insulin resistance, insulin signaling pathway, and HIF-1 signaling pathway, and were mainly located in retina, pancreatic islet, smooth muscle, immunity-related organ tissues, and whole blood. The contribution index of every active ingredient also indicated five compounds, including berberine (BBR), astragaloside IV (AIV), quercetin, palmatine, and astragalus polysaccharides, as the principal components of this herb combination. These results successfully explained the polypharmcological and synergistic mechanisms underlying the efficiency of Huangqi and Huanglian for the treatment of DM and its complications.

9.
Mar Drugs ; 15(7)2017 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28698495

RESUMO

Currently, DNA topoisomerase I (Topo I) inhibitors constitute a family of antitumor agents with demonstrated clinical effects on human malignancies. However, the clinical uses of these agents have been greatly limited due to their severe toxic effects. Therefore, it is urgent to find and develop novel low toxic Topo I inhibitors. In recent years, during our ongoing research on natural antitumor products, a collection of low cytotoxic or non-cytotoxic compounds with various structures were identified from marine invertebrates, plants, and their symbiotic microorganisms. In the present study, new Topo I inhibitors were discovered from low cytotoxic and non-cytotoxic natural products by virtual screening with docking simulations in combination with bioassay test. In total, eight potent Topo I inhibitors were found from 138 low cytotoxic or non-cytotoxic compounds from coral-derived fungi and plants. All of these Topo I inhibitors demonstrated activities against Topo I-mediated relaxation of supercoiled DNA at the concentrations of 5-100 µM. Notably, the flavonoids showed higher Topo I inhibitory activities than other compounds. These newly discovered Topo I inhibitors exhibited structurally diverse and could be considered as a good starting point for the development of new antitumor lead compounds.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , DNA Topoisomerases Tipo I/metabolismo , Inibidores da Topoisomerase I/química , Inibidores da Topoisomerase I/farmacologia , Animais , Antozoários/química , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Fungos/química , Humanos , Plantas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
10.
J Org Chem ; 82(9): 4774-4783, 2017 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28421761

RESUMO

The asymmetric organocatalyzed diversity-oriented one-pot synthesis has been developed to construct chroman-2-one derivatives and other heterocyclic compounds with excellent efficiency and stereoselectivity. The reactions represent a challenging issue, since it altered the inherent selectivity profiles exhibited by the substrates of 2-hydroxycinnamaldehyde 1 and trans-ß-nitrostyrene 2, which was previously reported as the asymmetric oxa-Michael-Michael cascade to generate chiral chromans. It should be noted that polycyclic O,O-acetal-containing compounds, which are found in numerous natural products and biologically interesting molecules, could also be achieved in good yields with excellent enantioselectivity as a single diastereoisomer with five continuous stereogenic centers.

11.
Sci Rep ; 7: 40318, 2017 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28074863

RESUMO

Herb pair Danggui-Honghua has been frequently used for treatment of blood stasis syndrome (BSS) in China, one of the most common clinical pathological syndromes in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, its therapeutic mechanism has not been clearly elucidated. In the present study, a feasible system pharmacology model based on chemical, pharmacokinetic and pharmacological data was developed via network construction approach to clarify the mechanisms of this herb pair. Thirty-one active ingredients of Danggui-Honghua possessing favorable pharmacokinetic profiles and biological activities were selected, interacting with 42 BSS-related targets to provide potential synergistic therapeutic actions. Systematic analysis of the constructed networks revealed that these targets such as HMOX1, NOS2, NOS3, HIF1A and PTGS2 were mainly involved in TNF signaling pathway, HIF-1 signaling pathway, estrogen signaling pathway and neurotrophin signaling pathway. The contribution index of every active ingredient also indicated six compounds, including hydroxysafflor yellow A, safflor yellow A, safflor yellow B, Z-ligustilide, ferulic acid, and Z-butylidenephthalide, as the principal components of this herb pair. These results successfully explained the polypharmcological mechanisms underlying the efficiency of Danggui-Honghua for BSS treatment, and also probed into the potential novel therapeutic strategies for BSS in TCM.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Carthamus tinctorius/química , Linhagem Celular , Quimioterapia Combinada , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Humanos , Síndrome
12.
Carbohydr Polym ; 144: 330-7, 2016 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27083824

RESUMO

The combination of biological and chemical analysis methods was developed to improve quality control of propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS), a sulfated polysaccharide drug. The allergic and anticoagulant assays revealed that PSS fractions with higher Mw and lower M/G ratio may have allergic response and bleeding risks. HPLC with pre-column derivatization, HPGPC and IC methods were combined to analyze 10 batches of PSS samples from different manufacturers. The results showed that the quality of these PSSs varied greatly which in turn led to the unstable anticoagulant activity and side effects. The study indicated that PSS with high purity, M/G ratio above 1.5, Mw of ∼9kD and DS of 9.0-13.0% can ensure clinical efficacy and low incidence of adverse drug reactions. In conclusion, the combined methods would be in favor of guiding manufacture and quality control of PSS to guarantee its effectiveness and safety.


Assuntos
Alginatos/química , Anticoagulantes/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Alginatos/farmacologia , Animais , Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/etiologia , Camundongos , Peso Molecular , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Controle de Qualidade , Enxofre/química
13.
Eur J Med Chem ; 114: 33-40, 2016 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26974373

RESUMO

Propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS), a sulfated polysaccharide derivative, has been used as a heparinoid drug to prevent and treat hyperlipidemia and ischemic cardio-cerebrovascular diseases in China for nearly 30 years. To extend the applications of PSS, a series of low-molecular-weight PSSs (named FPs) were prepared by oxidative-reductive depolymerization, and the antithrombotic activities were investigated thoroughly in vitro and in vivo. The bioactivity evaluation demonstrated a positive correlation between the molecular weight and the anticoagulant and antithrombotic activities of FPs. FPs could prolong the APTT and clotting time and reduce platelet aggregation significantly. FPs could also effectively inhibit factor IIa in the presence of AT-III and HC-II. FPs decreased the wet weights and lengths of the thrombus and increased occlusion times in vivo. FP-6k, a PSS fragment with a molecular weight of 6 kDa, is an optimal antithrombotic candidate for further study and showed little chance for hemorrhagic action.


Assuntos
Alginatos/farmacologia , Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , Fibrinolíticos/farmacologia , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Sulfatos/farmacologia , Trombose/tratamento farmacológico , Alginatos/síntese química , Alginatos/química , Animais , Anticoagulantes/síntese química , Anticoagulantes/química , Testes de Coagulação Sanguínea , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Fibrinolíticos/síntese química , Fibrinolíticos/química , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Estrutura Molecular , Peso Molecular , Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Sulfatos/síntese química , Sulfatos/química
14.
Food Funct ; 6(9): 3056-64, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26205038

RESUMO

Muscle wasting is associated with a variety of chronic or inflammatory disorders. Evidence suggests that inflammatory cytokines play a vital role in muscle inflammatory pathology and this may result in oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle. In our study, we used microwave degradation to prepare a water-soluble low molecular weight guluronate (LMG) of 3000 Da from Fucus vesiculosus obtained from Canada, the Atlantic Ocean. We demonstrated the structural characteristics, using HPLC, FTIR and NMR of LMG and investigated its effects on oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), a cell inflammatory cytokine. The results indicated that LMG could alleviate mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, increase the activities of antioxidant enzymes (GSH and SOD), promote mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and upregulate the expression of mitochondrial respiratory chain protein in TNF-α-induced C2C12 cells. LMG supplement also increased the mitochondrial DNA copy number and mitochondrial biogenesis related genes in TNF-α-induced C2C12 cells. LMG may exert these protective effects through the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway. These suggest that LMG is capable of protecting TNF-α-induced C2C12 cells against oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction.


Assuntos
Caquexia/metabolismo , Fucus/química , Ácidos Hexurônicos/farmacologia , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Musculares/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Animais , Caquexia/tratamento farmacológico , Caquexia/enzimologia , Linhagem Celular , Glutationa/metabolismo , Ácidos Hexurônicos/química , Humanos , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Peso Molecular , Células Musculares/enzimologia , Células Musculares/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/enzimologia , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Alga Marinha/química , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
15.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 40(21): 4223-8, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27071261

RESUMO

A comparable study were carried out by determination of trace elements on five marine-derived shell traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) (Ostreae Concha, Haliotidis Concha, Margaritifera Concha, Meretricis Concha, and Arcae Concha), which were recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010 version). Seven trace elements in 51 batches of this type of shell TCM were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), combined with principal component analysis (PCA) methods. The content of element Se, which exhibited significant differences among different drugs, could be used as a key element to distinguish this type of drugs. Meanwhile, the contents of elements Co, Cu, Mo, and Ba in Haliotidis Concha, Co and As in Margaritifera Concha, Mo and As in Meretricis Concha, Mo, As, and Ba in Arcae Concha, and Zn in Meretricis Concha were relatively stable. In the PCA plot, Arcae Concha and Meretricis Concha could be efficiently distinguished from Ostreae Concha together with Haliotidis Concha, and Margaritifera Concha. The results also showed a correlation with their medicinal function. In conclusion, trace elements in marine-derived shell TCM could not be neglected for their quality control.


Assuntos
Exoesqueleto/química , Organismos Aquáticos/química , Bivalves/química , Oligoelementos/análise , Animais , Espectrometria de Massas , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
16.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 39(17): 3291-4, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25522614

RESUMO

The identification of five marine-derived shell traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia were studied. Using near infrared technology (NIR) combined with principal component analysis (PCA) methods, Ostreae Concha, Haliotidis Concha, and Margaritifera Concha could be efficiently distinguished from Meretricis Concha together with Arcae Concha. In the first principal components, Ostreae Concha exhibited obvious differences with high loadings in 4 236, 5 263, 7 142 cm(-1) concerning to the contents of CaCO3 and H2O in the samples. Arcae Concha and Meretricis Concha displayed significant differences with others in the second principal components, which can be illustrated by high loadings in 5 000 -4 430 cm(-1) areas. It is indicated that the second principal components might be related to organics which contained NH and CH groups, for example proteins. Meanwhile, our data showed a correlation between the function of these shell TCM and their distribution in the PCA plot. These results suggested that organic components in marine-derived shell TCM could not be neglected for their quality control.


Assuntos
Exoesqueleto/química , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Moluscos/química , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Animais , Carbonato de Cálcio/análise , Moluscos/classificação , Análise de Componente Principal , Água do Mar , Especificidade da Espécie
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 62(46): 11157-62, 2014 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25363514

RESUMO

The chemical composition of monogalactosyldiacylglycerols (MGDGs) from brown alga Sargassum horneri and their inhibitory effects on lipid accumulation were investigated in this study. A total of 10 molecular species of MGDGs were identified using nuclear magnetic resonance, alkaline hydrolysis, gas chromatography-flame ionization detector, and high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods. Individual molecular species of MGDGs, including (2S)-1-O-myristoyl-2-O-palmitoleoyl-3-O-ß-D-galactopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (1), (2S)-1-O-myristoyl-2-O-linoleyl-3-O-ß-D-galactopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (3), (2S)-1-O-palmitoyl-2-O-linolenoyl-3-O-ß-D-galactopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (5), (2S)-1-O-myristoyl-2-O-oleyl-3-O-ß-D-galactopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (7), (2S)-1-O-palmitoyl-2-O-palmitoleoyl-3-O-ß-D-galactopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (8), (2S)-1-O-palmitoyl-2-O-linoleyl-3-O-ß-D-galactopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (9), and (2S)-1-O-palmitoyl-2-O-oleyl-3-O-ß-D-galactopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (10), were then furnished using semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography, and their inhibitory effects on triglyceride (TG) accumulation and free fatty acid (FFA) levels in 3T3-L1 adipocytes were evaluated. Compounds 3 and 9 showed inhibitory effects on TG and FFA accumulation, with TG levels of 1.568 ± 0.2808 and 1.701 ± 0.1460 µmol/L and FFA levels of 0.149 ± 0.0258 and 0.198 ± 0.0229 mequiv/L, respectively, which were more effective than other compounds. The primary structure-activity relationship suggested that linoleyl [18:2(ω-6)] in the sn-2 position played an important role on triglyceride accumulation inhibition.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Galactolipídeos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sargassum/química , Alga Marinha/química , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Células 3T3 , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Galactolipídeos/química , Galactolipídeos/isolamento & purificação , Espectrometria de Massas , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Verduras/química
18.
Mar Drugs ; 12(4): 2019-35, 2014 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24705500

RESUMO

Recently, the studies on the prevention and treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV) which is closely related to the cervical cancer and other genital diseases are attracting more and more attention all over the world. Marine-derived polysaccharides and other bioactive compounds have been shown to possess a variety of anti-HPV and related cancer activities. This paper will review the recent progress in research on the potential anti-HPV and related cancer agents from marine resources. In particular, it will provide an update on the anti-HPV actions of heparinoid polysaccharides and bioactive compounds present in marine organisms, as well as the therapeutic vaccines relating to marine organisms. In addition, the possible mechanisms of anti-HPV actions of marine bioactive compounds and their potential for therapeutic application will also be summarized in detail.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Organismos Aquáticos/metabolismo , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas/isolamento & purificação
19.
Neurobiol Aging ; 35(7): 1781.e1-8, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24582639

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have identified the bridging integrator 1 (BIN1) gene as the most important genetic susceptibility locus in late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) after apolipoprotein E for individuals of European ancestry. To further characterize this association and to isolate the variants within BIN1 contributing to LOAD in Han Chinese individuals, we conducted a 2-step design study in our cohort of 1133 LOAD patients and 1159 control subjects. Sequencing analysis identified 44 variants within BIN1. Follow-up genotyping analysis revealed that a novel missense mutation P318L appeared to exert risk effect for development of LOAD; and rs67327804 was also significantly associated with LOAD risk even after adjusting for age, gender, and apolipoprotein E ε4 status. Haplotype analysis confirmed that the "GA" haplotype derived from single-nucleotide polymorphisms in rs67327804 and rs1060743 showed a 1.4-fold increased risk of LOAD. Our findings provided the first independent evidence that variants in BIN1 were significantly associated with LOAD in Han Chinese individuals.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Risco , Análise de Sequência de DNA
20.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 38(3): 633-46, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24047617

RESUMO

Progressively increased proinflammatory status is a major characteristic of the aging process and associated with age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's diseases (AD). However, the regulation and role of common proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-12 (IL-12) and IL-23, in the aged brain are still unclear. Using the senescence-accelerated mouse prone-8 (SAMP8) model, we screened the cerebral expression of IL-12/23 in 3-, 7-, and 11-month-old mice and observed that their levels in the brain were upregulated during aging. To further examine whether the heightened activation of inflammatory cytokines may contribute to age-related brain dysfunction, we employed direct in vivo infusion of nonviral small interfering RNA (siRNA) to knock down the common IL-12/23 signaling subunit p40 in the brain. We found that these p40-deficient mice had significantly decreased cerebral amyloid-ß levels, reduced synaptic and neuronal loss, and reversed cognitive impairments. Furthermore, in vivo delivery of a neutralizing p40-specific antibody likewise ameliorated AD-associated pathology and cognitive deficits in SAMP8 mice. Thus, our data indicate that the upregulated cerebral IL-12/23 during aging is involved in age-associated brain dysfunction and point to the modulation of IL-12/23 signaling molecule p40 as a promising strategy for the development of an AD therapy.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Doença de Alzheimer , Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Subunidade p40 da Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Transtornos da Memória/etiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/complicações , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Animais , Anticorpos/uso terapêutico , Córtex Cerebral/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Subunidade p40 da Interleucina-12/genética , Subunidade p40 da Interleucina-12/imunologia , Transtornos da Memória/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos , Camundongos Mutantes Neurológicos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/uso terapêutico , Tempo de Reação/efeitos dos fármacos , Tempo de Reação/genética , Sinaptofisina/metabolismo , Proteínas tau/genética , Proteínas tau/metabolismo
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