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1.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pericardial adipose tissue (PAT) is a cardiometabolic risk factor influenced by race/ethnicity, inflammation, and metabolic dysfunction. Omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) and saturated FAs (SFAs) are known to affect these latter phenomena and may influence PAT accumulation. We aimed to determine whether plasma levels of these FAs are related to PAT volume and its rate of change over a median 3-year follow-up. METHODS: Cardiac computed tomography assessed PAT in 6785 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis participants. Gas chromatography flame-ionization estimated plasma phospholipid FAs. Regression analyses estimated associations of FAs with PAT volume and its rate of change with adjustments for other risk factors. Race-interactions were tested. RESULTS: In cross-section, top tertiles of omega-3 FAs and odd-chained SFAs were associated with 2.8 and 4.93 cm3 lower PAT volumes, respectively; race/ethnicity was a significant modifying variable (p < 0.002). Even-chained SFAs were associated with 3.5 cm3 greater PAT volume. With stratification by race/ethnicity, Chinese Americans in the top tertile of omega-3 FAs showed 10.5 cm3 greater PAT volume than those in the referent tertile. Black individuals in the top tertile of odd-chained SFAs showed 5.0 cm3 lower PAT compared to referents. Black and Chinese Americans in top tertiles of even-chained SFAs showed respective 3.7 and 5.9 cm3 greater PAT volumes compared to referents. Two associations were observed in prospective analyses among Caucasians; race interactions were non-significant. CONCLUSIONS: Cross-sectional and prospective findings provide inconclusive evidence as to whether plasma FAs are related to PAT in healthy individuals. Cohort studies with longer follow-up periods are warranted.

2.
Contemp Clin Trials ; : 106238, 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33285280

RESUMO

The Ready Steady 3.0 trial is designed to test the main and interactive effects of two behavior change intervention components, within an 8-week physical activity intervention, on older adults' physical activity (PA). Each component is comprised of behavior change strategies that emphasize two different evidence-based ways to motivate older adults to be active: interpersonal and intrapersonal. 308 adults ≥70 years old will be randomized to 1 of 4 conditions in a 2 × 2 full factorial trial in which the two factors represent the receipt (No, Yes) of interpersonal or intrapersonal behavior change strategies. Participants will also receive two core intervention components: the Otago Exercise Program adapted for small groups and a PA monitor. Interventions across conditions will be delivered during 8 weekly, small group, meetings in community settings. The primary outcome of PA, measured objectively, and secondary outcomes of falls and the quality of life will be assessed at baseline and post-intervention: 1 week, 6 months, and 12 months. Findings will enable the identification of behavior change content that contributes to physical activity outcomes within a physical activity intervention for older adults. This study is one of the first to use the MOST framework to guide the development of a community-based physical activity intervention for older adults to reduce the public health problems of low PA and falls. The results will enable the optimization of behavior change content within a PA intervention for older adults and, in turn, other PA interventions for older adults.

3.
ACS Omega ; 5(41): 26710-26719, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33110997

RESUMO

Herein, a new clean extraction technology for the decomposition of bastnasite concentrate by utilizing the microwave radiation is proposed, which prevented Ce(III) from being oxidized to its tetravalent form. The process includes microwave radiation roasting to nonoxidatively decompose the bastnasite concentrate, mechanism analysis of Ce(III) not being oxidized to Ce(IV), hydrochloric acid leaching of the nonoxidative roasted ore, and kinetics analysis of the leaching process. The experiments were carried out concentrating on the effect of roasting temperature and holding time on the decomposition rate of the bastnasite concentrate and the oxidation rate of cerium and the effect of acidity, liquid-solid ratio, leaching temperature, and stirring rate on the leaching kinetics of the nonoxidative roasting ore. When the roasting temperature is 1100 °C, the holding time is 20 min, and the m(C)/m(REFCO3) ratio is 0.2, the results show that the leaching efficiency of rare earths can reach 85.45% under the conditions 3 mol/L HCl, 90 °C, 60 min, 9 mL/g liquid-solid ratio, and 300 rpm stirring rate. The X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analyses of the samples before and after acid leaching show that the rare earth oxides were completely leached and Ce(III) was not oxidized to its tetravalent form. The apparent activation energies of leaching rare earths were calculated as 14.326 kJ/mol, and the HCl leaching process can be described by a new variant of the shrinking-core model, in which both the interfacial transfer and the diffusion through the product layer influenced the reaction rate. Furthermore, a semiempirical rate equation was created to describe the leaching process of the nonoxidative roasted ore.

4.
Epigenomics ; 12(17): 1483-1499, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901515

RESUMO

Aim: We conducted a methylome-wide association study to examine associations between DNA methylation in whole blood and central adiposity and body fat distribution, measured as waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and waist-to-height ratio adjusted for body mass index, in 2684 African-American adults in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. Materials & methods: We validated significantly associated cytosine-phosphate-guanine methylation sites (CpGs) among adults using the Women's Health Initiative and Framingham Heart Study participants (combined n = 5743) and generalized associations in adolescents from The Raine Study (n = 820). Results & conclusion: We identified 11 CpGs that were robustly associated with one or more central adiposity trait in adults and two in adolescents, including CpG site associations near TXNIP, ADCY7, SREBF1 and RAP1GAP2 that had not previously been associated with obesity-related traits.

5.
Genet Epidemiol ; 44(8): 893-907, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783273

RESUMO

Genetic matching between transplant donor and recipient pairs has traditionally focused on the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) regions of the genome, but recent studies suggest that matching for non-HLA regions may be important as well. We assess four genetic matching scores for use in association analyses of transplant outcomes. These scores describe genetic ancestry distance using identity-by-state, or genetic incompatibility or mismatch of the two genomes and therefore may reflect different underlying biological mechanisms for donor and recipient genes to influence transplant outcomes. Our simulation studies show that jointly testing these scores with the recipient genotype is a powerful method for preliminary screening and discovery of transplant outcome related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and gene regions. Following these joint tests with marginal testing of the recipient genotype and matching score separately can lead to further understanding of the biological mechanisms behind transplant outcomes. In addition, we present results of a liver transplant data analysis that shows joint testing can detect SNPs significantly associated with acute rejection in liver transplant.

6.
J Clin Pharm Ther ; 45(6): 1457-1465, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32662547

RESUMO

WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Pharmacogenomic biomarkers are now used in many clinical care settings and represent one of the successes of precision medicine. Genetic variants are associated with pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes leading to medication adverse effects and changes in clinical response. Actionable pharmacogenomic variants are common in transplant recipients and have implications for medications used in transplant, but yet are not broadly incorporated into practice. METHODS: From the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium and Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group guidelines, and PharmGKB databases, 12 pharmacogenomic genes with 30 variants were selected and used to create diplotypes and actionable pharmacogenomic phenotypes. A total of 853 kidney allograft recipients who had genomic information available from a genome-wide association study were included. RESULTS: Each recipient had at least one actionable pharmacogenomic diplotype/phenotype, whereas the majority (58%) had three or four actionable diplotypes/phenotypes and 17.4% had five or more among the 12 genes. The participants carried actionable diplotypes/phenotypes for multiple medications, including tacrolimus, azathioprine, clopidogrel, warfarin, simvastatin, voriconazole, antidepressants and proton-pump inhibitors. WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION: Pharmacogenomic variants are common in transplant recipients, and transplant recipients receive medications that have actionable variants. CLINICAL TRIAL: Genomics of Transplantation, clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01714440).

7.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(14): 14092-14124, 2020 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697766

RESUMO

DNA methylation has fundamental roles in gene programming and aging that may help predict mortality. However, no large-scale study has investigated whether site-specific DNA methylation predicts all-cause mortality. We used the Illumina-HumanMethylation450-BeadChip to identify blood DNA methylation sites associated with all-cause mortality for 12, 300 participants in 12 Cohorts of the Heart and Aging Research in Genetic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Consortium. Over an average 10-year follow-up, there were 2,561 deaths across the cohorts. Nine sites mapping to three intergenic and six gene-specific regions were associated with mortality (P < 9.3x10-7) independently of age and other mortality predictors. Six sites (cg14866069, cg23666362, cg20045320, cg07839457, cg07677157, cg09615688)-mapping respectively to BMPR1B, MIR1973, IFITM3, NLRC5, and two intergenic regions-were associated with reduced mortality risk. The remaining three sites (cg17086398, cg12619262, cg18424841)-mapping respectively to SERINC2, CHST12, and an intergenic region-were associated with increased mortality risk. DNA methylation at each site predicted 5%-15% of all deaths. We also assessed the causal association of those sites to age-related chronic diseases by using Mendelian randomization, identifying weak causal relationship between cg18424841 and cg09615688 with coronary heart disease. Of the nine sites, three (cg20045320, cg07839457, cg07677157) were associated with lower incidence of heart disease risk and two (cg20045320, cg07839457) with smoking and inflammation in prior CHARGE analyses. Methylation of cg20045320, cg07839457, and cg17086398 was associated with decreased expression of nearby genes (IFITM3, IRF, NLRC5, MT1, MT2, MARCKSL1) linked to immune responses and cardiometabolic diseases. These sites may serve as useful clinical tools for mortality risk assessment and preventative care.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] is a risk factor for coronary heart disease and calcific aortic valve disease. We determined the relationships of Lp(a) with prevalence and progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC), mitral annular calcification (MAC), and thoracic aortic calcification (TAC) in a multi-ethnic cohort of middle to older-aged adults. METHODS: This analysis included 6705 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis participants. Lp(a) was measured with a turbidimetric immunoassay. CAC, MAC, and TAC were assessed by cardiac computed tomography both at baseline and once during follow-up. RESULTS: In adjusted relative risk regression cross-sectional analysis, a Lp(a) level ≥50 mg/dL was associated with a 22% higher prevalence of MAC (relative risk (RR) = 1.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00, 1.49). No significant associations were observed for prevalent CAC or TAC. In adjusted prospective analyses, participants with Lp(a) ≥50 mg/dL were at significantly higher risk for rapid CAC progression (median follow-up = 8.9 years), defined as ≥100 units/year, compared to those with lower Lp(a) levels (RR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.23, 2.27). The association between higher Lp(a) levels and incident CHD was no longer significant after adjusting for CAC progression. No significant associations were observed for MAC or TAC progression (median follow-up = 2.6 years). CONCLUSIONS: Higher Lp(a) levels are associated with more rapid CAC progression. Additional study is needed to better understand how this relationship can further improve the ability of Lp(a) to enhance cardiovascular disease risk prediction.

9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 9360, 2020 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32518239

RESUMO

Activation of toll-like receptors (TLR1, TLR5, TLR6) and downstream markers (CCR1, MAPK14, ICAM1) leads to increased systemic inflammation. Our objective was to study the association between the gene expression levels of these six genes and lung function (Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1), Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC). We studied gene expression levels and lung function in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study. Spirometry testing was used to measure lung function and gene expression levels were measured using the Nanostring platform. Multivariate linear regression models were used to study the association between lung function measured at year 30, 10-year decline from year 20 to year 30, and gene expression levels (highest quartile divided into two levels - 75th to 95th and>95th to 100th percentile) adjusting for center, smoking and BMI, measured at year 25. Year 30 FEV1 and FVC were lower in the highest level of TLR5 compared to the lowest quartile with difference of 4.00% (p for trend: 0.04) and 3.90% (p for trend: 0.05), respectively. The 10-year decline of FEV1 was faster in the highest level of CCR1 as compared to the lowest quartile with a difference of 1.69% (p for trend: 0.01). There was no association between gene expression and FEV1/FVC. Higher gene expression levels in TLR5 and CCR1 are associated with lower lung function and faster decline in FEV1 over 10 years, in a threshold manner, providing new insights into the role of inflammation in lung function.

10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 9956, 2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561760

RESUMO

The rapid urbanization in China has been associated with a growing hunger for energy consumption and steadily-increasing CO2 emissions. In this paper, an integrated system dynamics model composed of four sub-models is developed to simulate the urbanization and energy consumption in China from 1998 to 2050. Three scenarios are provided: accelerated economic development, emission reduction constraint, and low-carbon oriented. The result reveals that rapid economic growth and sufficient energy supply will foster China's urbanization in all three scenarios. Under the low carbon transition scenario, China's urbanization rate is expected to reach 76.41% in 2050, both reducing carbon emissions and promoting eco-friendly development. All three scenarios witness a dramatic growth of residential energy consumption and a steady increase of industrial energy consumption. China still has a long way to achieve the low-carbon transition goal. China should promote renewable resources and energy, pursue a low-carbon lifestyle, and reduce energy intensity over the next few decades.

11.
Nanotechnology ; 31(39): 395202, 2020 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526718

RESUMO

Focused electron and laser beams have shown the ability to form nanoscale pores in SiN x membranes. During the fabrication process, areas beyond the final nanopore location will inevitably be exposed to the electron beams or the laser beams due to the need for localization, alignment and focus. It remains unclear how these unintended exposures affect the integrity of the membrane. In this work, we demonstrate the use of confocal scanning photoluminescence (PL) for mapping the microscopic changes in SiN x nanopores when exposed to electron and laser beams. We developed and validated a model for the quantitative interpretation of the scanned PL result. The model shows that the scanning PL result is insensitive to the nanopore size. Instead, it is dominated by the product of two microscopic material factors: quantum yield profile (i.e. variations in electronic structure) and thickness profile (i.e. thinning of the membrane). We experimentally demonstrated that the electron and laser beams could alter the material electronic structures (i.e. quantum yield) even when no thinning of the membrane occurs. Our results suggest that minimizing the unintended e-beam or laser beam to the SiN x during the fabrication is crucial if one desires the microscopic integrity of the membrane.

12.
ACS Sens ; 5(5): 1273-1280, 2020 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32370494

RESUMO

Nucleic acid detection methods are crucial for many fields such as pathogen detection and genotyping. Solid-state nanopore sensors represent a promising platform for nucleic acid detection due to its unique single molecule sensitivity and label-free electronic sensing. Here, we demonstrated the use of the glass nanopore for highly sensitive quantification of single-stranded circular DNAs (reporters), which could be degraded under the trans-cleavage activity of the target-specific CRISPR-Cas12a. We developed and optimized the Cas12a assay for HIV-1 analysis. We validated the concept of the solid-state CRISPR-Cas12a-assisted nanopores (SCAN) to specifically detect the HIV-1 DNAs. We showed that the glass nanopore sensor is effective in monitoring the cleavage activity of the target DNA-activated Cas12a. We developed a model to predict the total experimental time needed for making a statistically confident positive/negative call in a qualitative test. The SCAN concept combines the much-needed specificity and sensitivity into a single platform, and we anticipate that the SCAN would provide a compact, rapid, and low-cost method for nucleic acid detection at the point of care.

13.
Clin Epigenetics ; 12(1): 60, 2020 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354366

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal inflammation has been proposed as an important mediating factor in several adverse pregnancy outcomes. C-reactive protein (CRP) is an inflammatory cytokine easily measured in blood. It has clinical value due to its reliability as a biomarker for systemic inflammation and can indicate cellular injury and disease severity. Elevated levels of CRP in adulthood are associated with alterations in DNA methylation. However, no studies have prospectively investigated the relationship between maternal CRP levels and newborn DNA methylation measured by microarray in cord blood with reasonable epigenome-wide coverage. Importantly, the timing of inflammation exposure during pregnancy may also result in different effects. Thus, our objective was to evaluate this prospective association of CRP levels measured during multiple periods of pregnancy and in cord blood at delivery which was available in one cohort (i.e., Effects of Aspirin in Gestation and Reproduction trial), and also to conduct a meta-analysis with available data at one point in pregnancy from three other cohorts from the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics consortium (PACE). Secondarily, the impact of maternal randomization to low dose aspirin prior to pregnancy on methylation was assessed. RESULTS: Maternal CRP levels were not associated with newborn DNA methylation regardless of gestational age of measurement (i.e., CRP at approximately 8, 20, and 36 weeks among 358 newborns in EAGeR). There also was no association in the meta-analyses (all p > 0.5) with a larger sample size (n = 1603) from all participating PACE cohorts with available CRP data from first trimester (< 18 weeks gestation). Randomization to aspirin was not associated with DNA methylation. On the other hand, newborn CRP levels were significantly associated with DNA methylation in the EAGeR trial, with 33 CpGs identified (FDR corrected p < 0.05) when both CRP and methylation were measured at the same time point in cord blood. The top 7 CpGs most strongly associated with CRP resided in inflammation and vascular-related genes. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal CRP levels measured during each trimester were not associated with cord blood DNA methylation. Rather, DNA methylation was associated with CRP levels measured in cord blood, particularly in gene regions predominately associated with angiogenic and inflammatory pathways. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00467363, Registered April 30, 2007, http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00467363.

15.
Clin Nutr ; 39(10): 3031-3041, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008872

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been shown to relate to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D), but influence of race/ethnicity has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to determine whether omega-6 PUFAs, and estimated desaturase enzyme activity, are associated with fasting glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and incident T2D, and whether associations differ by race/ethnicity. METHODS: This study was conducted in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) (N = 6282). Associations between baseline plasma phospholipid fatty acids (LA, Linoleic Acid; GLA, γ-linoleic acid; DGLA, Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid; AA, arachidonic acid; D5D, delta-5 desaturase; D6D, delta-6 desaturase), fasting glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR [(fasting insulin - fasting glucose)/22.5] were evaluated using linear regression. Associations between omega-6 PUFAs (N = 5508 after excluding diabetics at baseline) and T2D incidence were assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression. Analyses were replicated/stratified by race/ethnicity (White, Black, Chinese, Hispanic) and tests for interaction were assessed by inclusion of a cross-product term in models. RESULTS: In fully adjusted models, insulin and HOMA-IR were positively associated with LA (insulin: 0.213 per SD, p = 0.01; HOMA-IR: 0.252 per SD, p < 0.001), GLA (insulin: 0.010 per SD, p < 0.001; HOMA-IR: 0.006 per SD, p < 0.001), DGLA (insulin: 0.279 per SD, p < 0.001; HOMA-IR: 0.175 per SD, p < 0.001) and D6D activity (insulin: 0.001 per SD, p < 0.001; HOMA-IR: 0.006 per SD, p < 0.001), and inversely associated with AA (insulin -0.272 per SD, p < 0.001; HOMA-IR: -0.125 per SD, p = 0.03) and D5D activity (insulin: -0.530 per SD, p < 0.001; HOMA-IR: -0.322 per SD, p < 0.001), while weak or no associations were observed with fasting glucose, and associations appeared to differ by race/ethnicity. After accounting for HOMA-IR at baseline, LA was inversely (HR: 0.87, p = 0.003) and DGLA (HR: 1.17, p < 0.001) and AA (HR: 1.15, p = 0.001) were positively associated with T2D in the overall population, but associations were attenuated or no longer present when stratified by race/ethnicity (P-interaction >0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Results confirm previous reports that omega-6 PUFAs are associated with hyperinsulinemia. Findings suggest omega-6 PUFAs are more likely markers of hyperinsulinemia rather than a protective/risk factor for T2D and indicate racial/ethnic differences in associations, but further research is needed to confirm findings.

16.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(3): e013934, 2020 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013703

RESUMO

Background While elevated homocysteine has been associated with calcification in several studies, its importance as a cardiovascular risk factor remains unclear. This study examines the relationship between homocysteine and vascular and valve calcification in the MESA (Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) cohort. Methods and Results MESA participants with baseline homocysteine measurements and cardiac computed tomography scans were included (N=6789). Baseline and follow-up assessment of vascular (coronary artery [CAC], descending thoracic aorta [DTAC]) and valve (aortic valve [AVC], mitral annular [MAC]) calcification was performed. Prevalence ratio/relative risk regression was used to assess the relationship of homocysteine with prevalent and incident calcification, and multivariable logistic regression was used to assess associations between homocysteine and calcification progression. Elevated homocysteine was associated with greater relative risk of prevalent and incident CAC and incident DTAC. We also identified a strong association between elevated homocysteine and CAC and DTAC progression. Elevated homocysteine was found to confer a >2-fold increased risk of severe CAC progression (defined as ΔCAC ≥100/year) and an ≈1.5-fold increased risk for severe DTAC progression (defined as ΔDTAC ≥100/year). Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating an association between elevated homocysteine and both incidence and progression of coronary and extra-coronary vascular calcification. Our findings suggest a potential role for elevated homocysteine as a risk factor for severe vascular calcification progression. Future studies are warranted to further assess the utility of homocysteine as a biomarker for vascular calcification incidence and progression. Clinical Trial Registration https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/. Unique identifier: NCT00005487.

17.
Environ Health Perspect ; 128(1): 17004, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31903802

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory effects of ambient particulate matter (PM) air pollution exposures may underlie PM-related increases in cardiovascular disease risk and mortality, although evidence of PM-associated leukocytosis is inconsistent and largely based on small, cross-sectional, and/or unrepresentative study populations. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to estimate PM-leukocyte associations among U.S. women and men in the Women's Health Initiative and Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study (n=165,675). METHODS: We based the PM-leukocyte estimations on up to four study visits per participant, at which peripheral blood leukocytes and geocoded address-specific concentrations of PM≤10, ≤2.5, and 2.5-10µm in diameter (PM10, PM2.5, and PM2.5-10, respectively) were available. We multiply imputed missing data using chained equations and estimated PM-leukocyte count associations over daily to yearly PM exposure averaging periods using center-specific, linear, mixed, longitudinal models weighted for attrition and adjusted for sociodemographic, behavioral, meteorological, and geographic covariates. In a subset of participants with available data (n=8,457), we also estimated PM-leukocyte proportion associations in compositional data analyses. RESULTS: We found a 12 cells/µL (95% confidence interval: -9, 33) higher leukocyte count, a 1.2% (0.6%, 1.8%) higher granulocyte proportion, and a -1.1% (-1.9%, -0.3%) lower CD8+ T-cell proportion per 10-µg/m3 increase in 1-month mean PM2.5. However, shorter-duration PM10 exposures were inversely and only modestly associated with leukocyte count. DISCUSSION: The PM2.5-leukocyte estimates, albeit imprecise, suggest that among racially, ethnically, and environmentally diverse U.S. populations, sustained, ambient exposure to fine PM may induce subclinical, but epidemiologically important, inflammatory effects. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP5360.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Feminino , Humanos , Leucócitos , Saúde da Mulher
18.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 75(3): 473-480, 2020 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630168

RESUMO

Methylation levels measured at defined sites across the genome have recently been shown to be correlated with an individual's chronological age. Age acceleration, or the difference between age estimated from DNA methylation status and chronological age, has been proposed as a novel biomarker of aging. In this study, the cross-sectional association between two different measures of age acceleration and cognitive function was investigated using whole blood samples from 2,157 African American participants 47-70 years of age in the population-based Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Cognition was evaluated using three domain-specific tests. A significant inverse association between a 1-year increase in age acceleration calculated using a blood-based age predictor and scores on the Word Fluency Test was found using a general linear model adjusted for chronological age, gender, and years of education (ß = -0.140 words; p = .001) and after adding other potential confounding variables (ß = -0.104 words, p = .023). The results were replicated in 1,670 European participants in the Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (fully adjusted model: ß = -0.199 words; p = .034). A significant association was also identified in a trans-ethnic meta-analysis across cohorts that included an additional 708 European American ARIC study participants (fully adjusted model: ß = -0.110 words, p = .003). There were no associations found using an estimate of age acceleration derived from multiple tissues. These findings provide evidence that age acceleration is a correlate of performance on a test of verbal fluency in middle-aged adults.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Envelhecimento/genética , Cognição , Epigênese Genética , Idoso , Envelhecimento/sangue , Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Aterosclerose/genética , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
19.
West J Nurs Res ; 42(8): 581-592, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470769

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to examine psychosocial constructs targeted as potential mediators in a prior physical activity (PA) intervention study. This secondary analysis used data from 102 older adults randomized to one of four conditions-within a 2 (Interpersonal Strategies: yes, no) x 2 (Intrapersonal Strategies: yes, no) factorial design. We tested intervention effects on social support, self-efficacy, self-regulation, and goal attainment, and whether these constructs mediated intervention effects on PA. Participants who received interventions with interpersonal strategies, compared to those who did not, increased their readiness (post-intervention), the self-regulation subscale of self-assessment, and goal attainment (post-intervention, 6-months). Participants who received interventions with intrapersonal strategies, compared to those who did not, increased their social support from family (post-intervention). There was no statistically significant mediation. To understand mechanisms through which interventions increase older adults' PA and to improve intervention effectiveness, researchers should continue to examine potential psychosocial mediators.Clinical Trial Registry: NCT02433249.

20.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 59(1): 92-97, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680049

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A recently published genome wide association study of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), based on pooled case control data of European ancestry, identified four new loci for AAA: SMYD2 (top single nucleotide polymorphism [SNP] rs1795061), LINC00540 (rs9316871), PCIF1/MMP9/ZNF335 (rs3827066), and ERG (rs2836411). Of the four, rs1795061 and rs2836411 showed significant heterogeneity across studies and the p value for rs9316871 did not reach the genome wide significance threshold until discovery and replication data were pooled together in that study. The objective of this study was to replicate these newly identified genetic associations for AAA in a US based prospective cohort study, the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study, and a Greece based case control study. METHODS: ARIC identified 408 clinically diagnosed AAAs among 8 962 individuals of European ancestry during a median of 22 years of follow up. The Greek case control study included 341 AAAs of European ancestry recruited in a tertiary referral centre and 292 geographically and ethnically matched controls recruited from the same institution. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to analyse the ARIC data and logistic regression to analyse the Greek data. RESULTS: In ARIC, rs9316871 and rs3827066 were significantly associated with AAA risk (HR [p] was 0.77 [.004] and 1.22 [.03], respectively), rs2836411 was associated at borderline significance (1.13 [.08]), whereas rs1795061 was not associated (p = .55). In the Greek case control study, rs1795061 and rs2836411 were significantly associated with AAA (OR [p] was 1.66 [< .001] and 1.29 [.04], respectively), whereas rs9316871 was not (p = .81). Genotyping of rs3827066 did not succeed. In the meta-analysis of the two studies, the association for rs9316871and rs2836411 was statistically significant and consistent between the two studies: p = .02 and .007, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Associations between rs9316871and rs2836411 and AAA risk were replicated in the meta-analysis of the two independent cohorts, providing further support for the importance of these loci in the aetiology of AAA.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/epidemiologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Grécia/epidemiologia , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Humanos , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Regulador Transcricional ERG/genética , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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