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1.
Phys Rev Lett ; 127(21): 214301, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34860093

RESUMO

The interplay between real-space topological lattice defects and the reciprocal-space topology of energy bands can give rise to novel phenomena, such as one-dimensional topological modes bound to screw dislocations in three-dimensional topological insulators. We obtain direct experimental observations of dislocation-induced helical modes in an acoustic analog of a weak three-dimensional topological insulator. The spatial distribution of the helical modes is found through spin-resolved field mapping, and verified numerically by tight-binding and finite-element calculations. These one-dimensional helical channels can serve as robust waveguides in three-dimensional media. Our experiment paves the way to studying novel physical modes and functionalities enabled by topological lattice defects in three-dimensional classical topological materials.

2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6297, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34728639

RESUMO

The recently discovered non-Hermitian skin effect (NHSE) manifests the breakdown of current classification of topological phases in energy-nonconservative systems, and necessitates the introduction of non-Hermitian band topology. So far, all NHSE observations are based on one type of non-Hermitian band topology, in which the complex energy spectrum winds along a closed loop. As recently characterized along a synthetic dimension on a photonic platform, non-Hermitian band topology can exhibit almost arbitrary windings in momentum space, but their actual phenomena in real physical systems remain unclear. Here, we report the experimental realization of NHSE in a one-dimensional (1D) non-reciprocal acoustic crystal. With direct acoustic measurement, we demonstrate that a twisted winding, whose topology consists of two oppositely oriented loops in contact rather than a single loop, will dramatically change the NHSE, following previous predictions of unique features such as the bipolar localization and the Bloch point for a Bloch-wave-like extended state. This work reveals previously unnoticed features of NHSE, and provides the observation of physical phenomena originating from complex non-Hermitian winding topology.

3.
Fitoterapia ; 155: 105038, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600094

RESUMO

Phenolic bisabolane-type sesquiterpenoids (PBS) represent a rare class of natural products with diverse biological activities. In this study, chemical investigations of the fungus Aspergillus flavipes 297 resulted in the isolation and identification of seven PBS, including a pair of new enantiomers (+)-1a and (-)-1b, a new derivative 2, and five previously reported ones 3-7. The chemical structures of the isolated PBS were determined by extensive NMR and HRESIMS spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configurations of the separated enantiomers (+)-1a and (-)-1b were solved by comparison of the experimental ECD spectra with those of the TDDFT-ECD calculated spectra. The new compounds 1 and 2 represent rare cases of PBS bearing a methylsulfinyl group, which was distinct from the commonly-observed PBS structurally. All the isolated compounds 1-7 were evaluated their antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. As a result, the tested compounds showed selective antimicrobial activity against several pathogenic bacteria and fungi with the MIC (minimum inhibiting concentrations) values ranging from 2 to 64 µg/mL. Moreover, enantiomers (+)-1a and (-)-1b, together with compound 2, exhibited promising cytotoxicity against MKN-45 and HepG2 cell lines, respectively, indicating that the methylsulfinyl substituent enhanced cytotoxicity to a certain degree.

4.
Plant Dis ; 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668407

RESUMO

American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium) is a valuable medicinal plant that is commercially cultivated in China. In May 2020, Sclerotinia root rot of American ginseng was observed on 4-year-old plants in Fusong County in northeastern China, which is the most important part of the country for American ginseng cultivation. The pathogen only infected the tuberous ginseng roots, with sclerotia tightly attached to the root surface. Infected roots, which were brownish and had a watery soft rotted appearance (Fig. 1), eventually became hollow and filled with sclerotia. There were no significant changes to the aboveground plant parts during the initial infection stage, but as the disease progressed, the foliage became discolored and wilted because of the damaged roots. More than 31% of the plants in a 30-ha field were infected. Symptomatic roots were collected and sclerotia were removed from the diseased tissue, immersed in 1% NaClO for 1 min, rinsed three times with sterile water, and placed on acidified potato dextrose agar (PDA) in Petri dishes. After an incubation in darkness at 20 °C for 2-3 days, 21 suspected Sclerotinia isolates were obtained. Isolates JH1 and JH2 were randomly selected for identification. On PDA, colonies produced sparse, white, and cottony aerial mycelia (i.e., wool-like appearance), with septate, branched, and hyaline hyphae. Within 4 days of incubation, the PDA surface was covered with white hyphae. Small and white sclerotial primordia formed 3 days later and were irregularly distributed in the middle and along the edge of the Petri dish. After maturing, the hardened and black sclerotia had an irregular shape and size, ranging from 1.4 × 1.5 to 4.1 × 7.5 mm (n = 50). Most of the sclerotia developed separately, with approximately 15-25 per plate (Fig. 2). On the basis of their morphology, the isolates were initially identified as Sclerotinia sp. (Mordue and Holliday 1976; Kohn 1979). Using the JH1 and JH2 rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region (GenBank accession no. MZ031405 and MZ031406) and the aspartyl protease gene specific to S. sclerotiorum (MZ292709 and MZ292710) in GenBank as queries, BLAST searches revealed that the sequences were respectively 99%-100% similar to S. sclerotiorum sequences KF859933 and AF271387. The primer pairs for amplifying the ITS region and the aspartyl protease gene were respectively ITS4/ITS5 (White et al. 1990) and SSaspr F/SSaspr R (Abd-Elmagid et al. 2013). The pathogenicity of JH1 and JH2 was evaluated using healthy plants. The roots of 4-year-old ginseng plants were washed, wiped with 75% alcohol, and transferred to flower pots containing sterile sand and sorghum grain (10:1 v/v) infested with 10-day-old isolates. For both isolates, 12 plants were inoculated, with four plants per pot. Control plants were transferred to flower pots containing sorghum grain lacking fungus. The inoculated samples were incubated in a greenhouse (12 h photoperiod and 25 °C) for 25 days before they were examined. The test was repeated twice. The inoculated roots exhibited the same symptoms as those observed in the field, whereas the controls remained symptomless. The same fungus was reisolated from all infected roots and resequencing results confirmed its identity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of S. sclerotiorum causing Sclerotinia root rot on American ginseng in China. Because this disease is detrimental to the production of American ginseng, effective management strategies will need to be developed.

5.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(10)2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34680747

RESUMO

Xanthomonas oryzae severely impacts the yield and quality of rice. Antibiotics are the most common control measure for this pathogen; however, the overuse of antibiotics in past decades has caused bacterial resistance to these antibiotics. The agricultural context is of particular importance as antibiotic-resistant bacteria are prevalent, but the resistance mechanism largely remains unexplored. Herein, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), we demonstrated that zhongshengmycin-resistant X. oryzae (Xoo-Rzs) and zhongshengmycin-sensitive X. oryzae (Xoo-S) have distinct metabolic profiles. We found that the resistance to zhongshengmycin (ZS) in X. oryzae is related to increased fatty acid biosynthesis. This was demonstrated by measuring the Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) activity, the expression levels of enzyme genes involved in the fatty acid biosynthesis and degradation pathways, and adding exogenous materials, i.e., triclosan and fatty acids. Our work provides a basis for the subsequent control of the production of antibiotic-resistant strains of X. oryzae and the development of coping strategies.

6.
Brain Behav Immun Health ; 18: 100364, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34693367

RESUMO

About a third of all United States veterans who served in the 1991 Gulf War (GW) report a range of chronic health symptoms including fatigue, neurocognitive symptoms, and musculoskeletal pain. There is growing evidence supporting the detrimental effects of maladaptive neuroimmune reactions in this multi-symptom illness. Indeed, recent studies using positron emission tomography (PET) using the radioligand [11C]PBR28, which binds the neuroinflammation marker 18 â€‹kDa translocator protein (TSPO), and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) have independently identified the anterior cingulate (ACC) and midcingulate cortices (MCC) as key regions for differentiating GWI veterans from healthy controls (HC). Here, we used integrated (i.e., simultaneous) PET/MRI imaging techniques, paired with dMRI processing methods (neurite density imaging, NDI, and free-water diffusion tensor model to single-shell high-order dMRI), to directly evaluate the relationship between ACC and MCC microstructural tissue parameters, TSPO signal and clinical parameters in the same cohorts of 10 GWI veterans and 19 â€‹HCs. Within the regions evaluated, TSPO signal elevations were associated with restricted diffusivity in the extracellular compartment, while clinical measures were best explained by neurite density and cellular structure complexity measures. Our study is the first to provide evidence of a relationship between PET and dMRI modalities in GWI and suggests that microstructural changes in the ACC and MCC are correlated to mood symptoms and cognitive performances in GWI veterans.

7.
Cell Death Differ ; 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635817

RESUMO

Many integral membrane proteins might act as indispensable coordinators in specific functional microdomains to maintain the normal operation of known receptors, such as Notch. Gm364 is a multi-pass transmembrane protein that has been screened as a potential female fertility factor. However, there have been no reports to date about its function in female fertility. Here, we found that global knockout of Gm364 decreased the numbers of primordial follicles and growing follicles, impaired oocyte quality as indicated by increased ROS and γ-H2AX, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, decreased oocyte maturation, and increased aneuploidy. Mechanistically, Gm364 directly binds and anchors MIB2, a ubiquitin ligase, on the membrane. Subsequently, membrane MIB2 ubiquitinates and activates DLL3. Next, the activated DLL3 binds and activates Notch2, which is subsequently cleaved within the cytoplasm to produce NICD2, the intracellular active domain of Notch2. Finally, NICD2 can directly activate AKT within the cytoplasm to regulate oocyte meiosis and quality.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wilms tumor (WT) is the most common primary renal malignancy in children. Autophagy plays dual roles in the promotion and suppression of various cancers. OBJECTIVE: The goal of our study was to develop a novel autophagy-related gene (ARG) prognostic nomogram for WT. METHODS: The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database was used. We screened the expression profiles of ARGs in 136 WT patients. The differentially expressed prognostic ARGs were evaluated by multivariate Cox regression analysis and survival analysis. A novel prognostic nomogram based on the ARGs and clinical characteristics was established using multivariate Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: First, 69 differentially expressed ARGs were identified in WT patients. Then, multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to determine 4 key prognostic ARGs (CC3CL1, ERBB2, HIF-α and CXCR4) in WT. According to their ARG expression levels, the patients were clustered into high- and low-risk groups. Next, survival analysis indicated that high-risk patients had significantly poorer overall survival than low-risk patients. The results of functional enrichment analysis suggested that autophagy may play a tumor-suppressive role in the initiation of WT. Finally, a prognostic nomogram with a Harrell's concordance index (C-index) of 0.841 was used to predict the survival probability of WT patients by integrating clinical characteristics and the 4-ARG signature. The calibration curve indicated its excellent predictive performance. CONCLUSION: In summary, the ARG signature could be a promising biomarker for monitoring the outcomes of WT. We established a novel nomogram based on the ARG signature, which accurately predicts the overall survival of WT patients.

10.
J Occup Med Toxicol ; 16(1): 40, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The immunomodulatory abnormalities of silicosis are related to the lymphocyte oxidative stress state. The potential effect of antioxidant therapy on silicosis may depend on the variation in nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2)-regulated antioxidant genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). As NRF2 is a redox-sensitive transcription factor, its possible roles and underlying mechanism in the treatment of silicosis need to be clarified. METHODS: Ninety-two male patients with silicosis and 87 male healthy volunteers were randomly selected. PBMCs were isolated from fresh blood from patients with silicosis and healthy controls. The lymphocyte oxidative stress state was investigated by evaluating NRF2 expression and NRF2-dependent antioxidative genes in PBMCs from patients with silicosis. Key differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and signaling pathways were identified utilizing RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) and bioinformatics technology. Gene set enrichment analysis was used to identify the differences in NRF2 signaling networks between patients with silicosis and healthy controls. RESULTS: The number of monocytes was significantly higher in patients with silicosis than that of healthy controls. Furthermore, RNA-Seq findings were confirmed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and revealed that NRF2-regulated DEGs were associated with glutathione metabolism, transforming growth factor-ß, and the extracellular matrix receptor interaction signaling pathway in PBMCs from patients with silicosis. The top 10 hub genes were identified by PPI analysis: SMAD2, MAPK3, THBS1, SMAD3, ITGB3, integrin alpha-V (ITGAV), von Willebrand factor (VWF), BMP4, CD44, and SMAD7. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that NRF2 signaling regulates the lymphocyte oxidative stress state and may contribute to fibrogenic responses in human PBMCs. Therefore, NRF2 might serve as a novel preventive and therapeutic candidate for silicosis.

11.
J Cheminform ; 13(1): 68, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544480

RESUMO

Natural products from traditional medicine inherit bioactivity from their source herbs. However, the pharmacological mechanism of natural products is often unclear and studied insufficiently. Pathway fingerprint similarity based on "drug-target-pathway" heterogeneous network provides new insight into Mechanism of Action (MoA) for natural products compared with reference drugs, which are selected approved drugs with similar bioactivity. Natural products with similar pathway fingerprints may have similar MoA to approved drugs. In our study, XYPI, an andrographolide derivative, had similar anti-inflammatory activity to Glucocorticoids (GCs) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and GCs and NSAIDs have completely different MoA. Based on similarity evaluation, XYPI has similar pathway fingerprints as NSAIDs, but has similar target profile with GCs. The expression pattern of genes in LPS-activated macrophages after XYPI treatment is similar to that after NSAID but not GC treatment, and this experimental result is consistent with the computational prediction based on pathway fingerprints. These results imply that the pathway fingerprints of drugs have potential for drug similarity evaluation. This study used XYPI as an example to propose a new approach for investigating the pharmacological mechanism of natural products using pathway fingerprint similarity based on a "drug-target-pathway" heterogeneous network.

12.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 1881-1889, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490832

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 has been the causative pathogen of the pandemic of COVID-19, resulting in catastrophic health issues globally. It is important to develop human-like animal models for investigating the mechanisms that SARS-CoV-2 uses to infect humans and cause COVID-19. Several studies demonstrated that the non-human primate (NHP) is permissive for SARS-CoV-2 infection to cause typical clinical symptoms including fever, cough, breathing difficulty, and other diagnostic abnormalities such as immunopathogenesis and hyperplastic lesions in the lung. These NHP models have been used for investigating the potential infection route and host immune response to SARS-CoV-2, as well as testing vaccines and drugs. This review aims to summarize the benefits and caveats of NHP models currently available for SARS-CoV-2, and to discuss key topics including model optimization, extended application, and clinical translation.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Primatas/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Animais , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/patologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Humanos , Primatas/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética
13.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 676897, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34336945

RESUMO

Background: The clinical significance and outcomes of ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VTa) in patients undergoing valve replacement have rarely been reported. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the incidence and outcome of VTa after surgical valve replacement. Methods: We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study using data obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. In total, 10,212 patients were selected after 1:1 propensity-score matching based on the type of prosthetic valve used (mechanical vs. bioprosthetic). Various outcomes during long-term follow-up were analyzed. Results: After a median follow-up period of 59.6 months, the crude incidence rate of VTa after surgical valve replacement was 4.8/1,000 person-years, and the cumulative incidence of VTa persistently increased after surgery. Furthermore, the occurrences of VTa after valve replacement significantly increased the risk of cardiovascular (CV) death (P < 0.001, HR 1.67, 95% CI 1.41-1.96), stroke- (P < 0.001, HR 1.66, 95% CI 1.37-2.01), atrial fibrillation- (P < 0.001, HR 2.80, 95% CI 2.42-3.24), and congestive heart failure-related hospitalization (P < 0.001, HR 2.61, 95% CI 2.30-2.95). Among patients with VTa, all-cause mortality (P = 0.001, HR 0.49, 95% CI 0.32-0.75) and CV death (P = 0.047, HR 0.58, 95% CI 0.34-0.99) in those with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation were lower than those without. Conclusion: The crude incidence rate of VTa after surgical valve replacement was 4.8/1,000 person-years, and the cumulative incidence of VTa persistently increased during follow-up. The presence of VTa after surgical valve replacement increases hospitalization and CV death, while ICD implantation reduced the mortality rate in these patients.

14.
J Cell Sci ; 134(18)2021 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34409458

RESUMO

Emerging evidence has demonstrated that nucleoporins (Nups) play a pivotal role in cell-type-specific gene regulation, but how they control the expression and activity of ion channel genes in the heart remains unclear. Here, we show that Nup50, which is localized in the nucleus of cardiomyocytes, selectively induces an increase in the transcription and translation of Kcna4. The Kcna4 gene encodes a K+ voltage-gated channel of shaker-related subfamily member 4 and is essential for regulating the action potential in cardiac membranes. Using immunofluorescence imaging, luciferase assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we identified that the direct binding of the FG-repeat domain within Nup50 to the proximity of the Kcna4 promoter was required to activate the transcription and subsequent translation of Kcna4. Functionally, Nup50 overexpression increased the currents of KCNA4-encoded Ito,s channels, and reverse knockdown of Nup50 resulted in a remarkable decrease in the amplitude of Ito,s currents in cardiomyocytes. Moreover, a positive correlation between Nup50 and Kcna4 mRNA and protein expression was observed in heart tissues subjected to ischemic insults. These findings provide insights into the homeostatic control of cardiac electrophysiology through Nup-mediated regulation.


Assuntos
Miócitos Cardíacos , Complexo de Proteínas Formadoras de Poros Nucleares , Potenciais de Ação , Complexo de Proteínas Formadoras de Poros Nucleares/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , RNA Mensageiro
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14934, 2021 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34294773

RESUMO

Kidney cancer is the third most common malignancy of the urinary system, of which, kidney renal clear cell carcinoma (KIRC) accounts for the vast majority. Runt-related transcription factors (RUNX) are involved in multiple cellular functions. However, the diverse expression patterns and prognostic values of RUNX genes in kidney cancer remained to be elucidated. In our study, we mined the DNA methylation, transcriptional and survival data of RUNX genes in patients with different kinds of kidney cancer through Oncomine, Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis, UALCAN, Kaplan-Meier Plotter, cBioPortal and LinkedOmics. We found that RUNX1 and RUNX3 were upregulated in KIRC tissues compared with those in normal tissues. The survival analysis results indicated a high transcription level of RUNX1 was associated with poor overall survival (OS) in KIRC patients. Furthermore, KIRC tumor tissues had significantly lower levels of RUNX1 promoter methylation than that in paracancerous tissues, with decreased DNA methylation of RUNX1 notably associated with poor OS in KIRC. In conclusion, our results revealed that RUNX1 may be a potential therapeutic target for treating KIRC, and RUNX1 promoter methylation level shows promise as a novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarker, which laid a foundation for further study.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/mortalidade , Subunidade alfa 2 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/genética , Subunidade alfa 3 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/genética , Neoplasias Renais/mortalidade , Regulação para Cima , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Análise de Sobrevida
16.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(606)2021 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34285130

RESUMO

Multiple safe and effective vaccines that elicit immune responses against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are necessary to respond to the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Here, we developed a protein subunit vaccine composed of spike ectodomain protein (StriFK) plus a nitrogen bisphosphonate-modified zinc-aluminum hybrid adjuvant (FH002C). StriFK-FH002C generated substantially higher neutralizing antibody titers in mice, hamsters, and cynomolgus monkeys than those observed in plasma isolated from COVID-19 convalescent individuals. StriFK-FH002C also induced both TH1- and TH2-polarized helper T cell responses in mice. In hamsters, StriFK-FH002C immunization protected animals against SARS-CoV-2 challenge, as shown by the absence of virus-induced weight loss, fewer symptoms of disease, and reduced lung pathology. Vaccination of hamsters with StriFK-FH002C also reduced within-cage virus transmission to unvaccinated, cohoused hamsters. In summary, StriFK-FH002C represents an effective, protein subunit-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Cricetinae , Humanos , Camundongos , Subunidades Proteicas , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética
17.
Amino Acids ; 53(8): 1229-1240, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34254213

RESUMO

Mitochondrial dysfunction in proximal tubular epithelial cells is a key event in acute kidney injury (AKI), which is a risk factor for the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Apelin is a bioactive peptide that protects against AKI by alleviating inflammation, inhibiting apoptosis, and preventing lipid oxidation, but its role in protecting against mitochondrial damage remains unknown. Herein, we examined the protective effects of apelin on mitochondria in cisplatin-stimulated human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells and evaluated its therapeutic efficacy in cisplatin-induced AKI mice. In vitro, apelin inhibited the cisplatin-induced mitochondrial fission factor (MFF) upregulation and the fusion-promoting protein optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) downregulation. Apelin co-treatment reversed the decreased levels of the deacetylase, Sirt3, and the increased levels of protein acetylation in mitochondria of cisplatin-stimulated cells. Overall, apelin improved the mitochondrial morphology and membrane potential in vitro. In the AKI model, apelin administration significantly attenuated mitochondrial damage, as evidenced by longer mitochondrial profiles and increased ATP levels in the renal cortex. Suppression of MFF expression, and maintenance of Sirt3 and OPA1 expression in apelin-treated AKI mice was also observed. Finally, exogenous administration of apelin normalized the serum level of creatinine and urea nitrogen and the urine levels of NGAL and Kim-1. We also confirmed a regulatory pathway that drives mitochondrial homeostasis including PGC-1α, ERRα and Sirt3. In conclusion, we demonstrated that apelin ameliorates renal functions by protecting tubular mitochondria through Sirt3 upregulation, which is a novel protective mechanism of apelin in AKI. These results suggest that apelin has potential renoprotective effects and may be an effective agent for AKI treatment to significantly retard CKD progression.

18.
Plant Dis ; 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282929

RESUMO

Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng) is a valuable medicinal plant that is commercially cultivated in China. A long postharvest storage period is required before ginseng is processed. From October 2019 to May 2020, snow rot was observed on the roots of 4- and 5-year-old fresh ginseng stored in three cold storage facilities located in Tonghua and Changbai cities in northeastern China, which are the most important regions for Asian ginseng production. We sampled 1,000 ginseng roots from the three cold storage facilities, and the average disease incidence was 21%. Initially, sparse hyphae and microsclerotia appeared on the root epidermis. Lesions gradually softened and the epidermis detached easily. Multiple infected sites slowly converged, resulting in the formation of a dense complex of multiple sclerotia and thick hyphae on the surface of the ginseng root as well as internal decay. The infection eventually spread to the adjacent ginseng roots (Fig. 1). Sixteen diseased ginseng roots were collected and then sclerotia were removed from the root surface, immersed in 1% NaClO for 2 min, rinsed three times with sterile water, and placed on potato dextrose agar (PDA) containing streptomycin (40 µg/mL) in Petri dishes. After a 3-day incubation at 20 °C in darkness, 22 suspected Sclerotinia isolates were obtained. Isolates SN1 and SN2 were randomly selected for identification. On PDA, fast-growing colonies produced white, sparse, powdery, and cotton-like aerial mycelia, and the reverse side showed the same color (Fig. 2). Small and white sclerotial primordia formed 3 days later and a ring of sclerotia was detected at the plate periphery. At 7 to 10 days after incubation, the mature sclerotia were black, spherical-to-subspherical, and elongated or fused to form irregular shapes. Each Petri dish produced 55-65 sclerotia, measuring 1.1 × 1.2 to 3.2 × 3.9 mm (n = 100). The sclerotia were firmly attached to the agar surface. The isolates were initially identified as Sclerotinia sp. (Saito 1997). After sequencing the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (MW927134 and MW927135) and the ß-tubulin gene (MW929179 and MW929180) (White et al. 1990; Glass and Donaldson 1995), BLAST searches revealed 100% homology with JX262268 and JX296007 of the published S. nivalis strain KGC-S0601, respectively. The pathogenicity of the two isolates was tested using detached ginseng roots. Briefly, healthy roots were washed, surface-disinfested with 75% alcohol, and rinsed with sterile water. Mycelial plugs (5 mm diameter) removed from the margin of actively growing colonies on PDA were placed on the ginseng roots. For each isolate, four roots were inoculated, with two plugs per root. Additionally, PDA plugs without mycelia were used as the negative control. The roots were placed in a fresh-keeping box at 20 °C in darkness and evaluated after 7 days. The pathogenicity test was repeated twice. The symptoms on the inoculated roots were the same as those observed on the roots during cold storage, whereas the control roots remained symptomless. The same fungus was reisolated consistently from all infected roots and its identity was confirmed by resequencing, thereby fulfilling Koch's postulates. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of S. nivalis causing postharvest snow rot on Asian ginseng in China. The occurrence of this disease threatens the postharvest storage of Asian ginseng. Hence, effective management strategies must be developed.

19.
Bioengineered ; 12(1): 3503-3515, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34233591

RESUMO

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) increases the risk of fetal heart malformations, though little is known about the mechanism of hyperglycemia-induced heart malformations. Thus, we aimed to reveal the global landscape of miRNAs and mRNAs in GDM-exposed fetoplacental arterial endothelial cells (dAECs) and establish regulatory networks for exploring the pathophysiological mechanism of fetal heart malformations in maternal hyperglycemia. Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets were used, and identification of differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) and genes (DEGs) in GDM was based on a previous sequencing analysis of dAECs. A miRNA-mRNA network containing 20 DEMs and 65 DEGs was established using DEMs altered in opposite directions to DEGs. In an in vivo study, we established a streptozotocin-induced pregestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM) mouse model and found the fetal cardiac wall thickness in different regions to be dramatically increased in the PGDM grouValidation of DEMs and DEGs in the fetal heart showed significantly upregulated expression of let-7e-5p, miR-139-5p and miR-195-5p and downregulated expression of SGOL1, RRM2, RGS5, CDK1 and CENPA. In summary, we reveal the miRNA-mRNA regulatory network related to fetal cardiac development disorders in offspring, which may shed light on the potential molecular mechanisms of fetal cardiac development disorders during maternal hyperglycemia.

20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3654, 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34135328

RESUMO

Crystalline materials can host topological lattice defects that are robust against local deformations, and such defects can interact in interesting ways with the topological features of the underlying band structure. We design and implement a three dimensional acoustic Weyl metamaterial hosting robust modes bound to a one-dimensional topological lattice defect. The modes are related to topological features of the bulk bands, and carry nonzero orbital angular momentum locked to the direction of propagation. They span a range of axial wavenumbers defined by the projections of two bulk Weyl points to a one-dimensional subspace, in a manner analogous to the formation of Fermi arc surface states. We use acoustic experiments to probe their dispersion relation, orbital angular momentum locked waveguiding, and ability to emit acoustic vortices into free space. These results point to new possibilities for creating and exploiting topological modes in three-dimensional structures through the interplay between band topology in momentum space and topological lattice defects in real space.

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