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1.
Theranostics ; 10(4): 1833-1848, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32042339

RESUMO

Purpose: To determine the role of UCH-L1 in regulating ERα expression, and to evaluate whether therapeutic targeting of UCH-L1 can enhance the efficacy of anti-estrogen therapy against breast cancer with loss or reduction of ERα. Methods: Expressions of UCH-L1 and ERα were examined in breast cancer cells and patient specimens. The associations between UCH-L1 and ERα, therapeutic response and prognosis in breast cancer patients were analyzed using multiple databases. The molecular pathways by which UCH-L1 regulates ERα were analyzed using immunoblotting, qRT-PCR, immunoprecipitation, ubiquitination, luciferase and ChIP assays. The effects of UCH-L1 inhibition on the efficacy of tamoxifen in ERα (-) breast cancer cells were tested both in vivo and in vitro. Results: UCH-L1 expression was conversely correlated with ERα status in breast cancer, and the negative regulatory effect of UCH-L1 on ERα was mediated by the deubiquitinase-mediated stability of EGFR, which suppresses ERα transcription. High expression of UCH-L1 was associated with poor therapeutic response and prognosis in patients with breast cancer. Up-regulation of ERα caused by UCH-L1 inhibition could significantly enhance the efficacy of tamoxifen and fulvestrant in ERα (-) breast cancer both in vivo and in vitro. Conclusions: Our results reveal an important role of UCH-L1 in modulating ERα status and demonstrate the involvement of UCH-L1-EGFR signaling pathway, suggesting that UCH-L1 may serve as a novel adjuvant target for treatment of hormone therapy-insensitive breast cancers. Targeting UCH-L1 to sensitize ER negative breast cancer to anti-estrogen therapy might represent a new therapeutic strategy that warrants further exploration.

2.
Front Pharmacol ; 10: 391, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31057406

RESUMO

Bcl-2 family protein is an important factor in regulating apoptosis and is associated with cancer. The anti-apoptotic proteins of Bcl-2 family, such as Bcl-2, are overexpression in numerous tumors, and contribute to cancer formation, development, and therapy resistance. Therefore, Bcl-2 is a promising target for drug development, and several Bcl-2 inhibitors are currently undergoing clinical trials. In this study, we carried out a QSAR-based virtual screening approach to develop potential Bcl-2 inhibitors from the SPECS database. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) binding assay was performed to examine the interaction between Bcl-2 protein and the screened inhibitors. After that, we measured the anti-tumor activities of the 8 candidate compounds, and found that compound M1 has significant cytotoxic effect on breast cancer cells. We further proved that compound M1 downregulated Bcl-2 expression and activated apoptosis by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction. In conclusion, we identified a novel Bcl-2 inhibitor by QSAR screening, which exerted significant cytotoxic activity in breast cancer cells through inducing mitochondria-mediated apoptosis.

3.
Front Oncol ; 9: 369, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31143705

RESUMO

Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) ranks as the second most malignant type of primary liver cancer with a high degree of incidence and a very poor prognosis. Fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) functions as an eraser of the RNA m6A modification, but its roles in ICC tumorigenesis and development remain unknown. We showed here that the protein level of FTO was downregulated in clinical ICC samples and cell lines and that FTO expression was inversely correlated with the expression of CA19-9 and micro-vessel density (MVD). A Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that a low expression of FTO predicted poor prognosis in ICC. in vitro, decreased endogenous expression of FTO obviously reduced apoptosis of ICC cells. Moreover, FTO suppressed the anchorage-independent growth and mobility of ICC cells. Through mining the database, FTO was found to regulate the integrin signaling pathway, inflammation signaling pathway, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway, angiogenesis, and the pyrimidine metabolism pathway. RNA decay assay showed that oncogene TEAD2 mRNA stability was impaired by FTO. In addition, the overexpression of FTO suppressed tumor growth in vivo. In conclusion, our study demonstrated the critical roles of FTO in ICC.

4.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 40(7): 919-928, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30315250

RESUMO

Autophagy, a form of cellular self-digestion by lysosome, is associated with various disease processes including cancers, and modulating autophagy has shown promise in the treatment of various malignancies. A number of natural products display strong antitumor activity, yet their mechanisms of action remain unclear. To gain a better understanding of how traditional Chinese medicine agents exert antitumor effects, we screened 480 natural compounds for their effects on autophagy using a high content screening assay detecting GFP-LC3 puncta in HeLa cells. Tubeimoside-1 (TBMS1), a triterpenoid saponin extracted from Bolbostemma paniculatum (Maxim) Franquet (Cucurbitaceae), was identified as a potent activator of autophagy. The activation of autophagy by TBMS1 was evidenced by increased LC3-II amount and GFP-LC3 dots, observation of autophagosomes under electron microscopy, and enhanced autophagic flux. To explore the mechanisms underlying TBMS1-activated autophagy, we performed cheminformatic analyses and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) binding assay that showed a higher likelihood of the binding between Akt protein and TBMS1. In three human breast cancer cell lines, we demonstrated that Akt-mTOR-eEF-2K pathway was involved in TBMS1-induced activation of autophagy, while Akt-mediated downregulations of Mcl-1, Bcl-xl, and Bcl-2 led to the activation of apoptosis of the breast cancer cells. Inhibition of autophagy enhanced the cytotoxic effect of TBMS1 via promoting apoptosis. Our results demonstrate the role and mechanism of TBMS1 in activating autophagy, suggesting that inhibition of cytoprotective autophagy may act as a therapeutic strategy to reinforce the activity of TBMS1 against cancers.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Saponinas/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo
5.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 39(4): 642-648, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29239350

RESUMO

Recent evidence shows that raddeanin A (RA), an oleanane-type triterpenoid saponin extracted from Anemone raddeana Regel, exerts remarkable cytotoxicity against cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. In addition, RA has also been found to activate autophagy in human gastric cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying RA-induced autophagy as well as the relationship between RA-induced autophagy and its cytotoxicity in human breast cancer cells in vitro. Treatment with RA (2-8 µmol/L) dose-dependently enhanced autophagy, as evidenced by increased LC3 levels in breast cancer cell lines T47D, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. Furthermore, the Akt-mTOR-eEF-2K signaling pathway was demonstrated to be involved in RA-induced activation of autophagy in the 3 breast cancer cell lines. Treatment with RA (2-10 µmol/L) dose-dependently induced apoptosis in the 3 breast cancer cell lines. Pretreatment with the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine (CQ, 20 µmol/L) significantly enhanced RA-caused cytotoxicity via promoting apoptosis. In conclusion, our results suggest that modulating autophagy can reinforce the cytotoxicity of RA against human breast cancer cells.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Quinase do Fator 2 de Elongação/metabolismo , Saponinas/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/farmacologia , Humanos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
6.
Front Pharmacol ; 8: 804, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29163184

RESUMO

In order to survive under conditions of low oxygen, cancer cells can undergo a metabolic switch to glycolysis and suppress mitochondrial respiration in order to reduce oxygen consumption and prevent excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Nucleus accumbens-1 (NAC1), a nuclear protein of the BTB/POZ gene family, has pivotal roles in cancer development. Here, we identified that NAC1-PDK3 axis as necessary for suppression of mitochondrial function, oxygen consumption, and more harmful ROS generation and protects cancer cells from apoptosis in hypoxia. We show that NAC1 mediates suppression of mitochondrial function in hypoxia through inducing expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 3 (PDK3) by HIF-1α at the transcriptional level, thereby inactivating pyruvate dehydrogenase and attenuating mitochondrial respiration. Re-expression of PDK3 in NAC1 absent cells rescued cells from hypoxia-induced metabolic stress and restored the activity of glycolysis in a xenograft mouse model, and demonstrated that silencing of NAC1 expression can enhance the antitumor efficacy of elesclomol, a pro-oxidative agent. Our findings reveal a novel mechanism by which NAC1 facilitates oxidative stress resistance during cancer progression, and chemo-resistance in cancer therapy.

7.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 37(8): 1013-9, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27374491

RESUMO

Tumor cells rely mainly on glycolysis for energy production even in the presence of sufficient oxygen, a phenomenon termed the Warburg effect, which is the most outstanding characteristic of energy metabolism in cancer cells. This metabolic adaptation is believed to be critical for tumor cell growth and proliferation, and a number of onco-proteins and tumor suppressors, including the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway, Myc, hypoxia-inducible factor and p53, are involved in the regulation of this metabolic adaptation. Moreover, glycolytic cancer cells are often invasive and impervious to therapeutic intervention. Thus, altered energy metabolism is now appreciated as a hallmark of cancer and a promising target for cancer treatment. A better understanding of the biology and the regulatory mechanisms of aerobic glycolysis has the potential to facilitate the development of glycolysis-based therapeutic interventions for cancer. In addition, glycolysis inhibition combined with DNA damaging drugs or chemotherapeutic agents may be effective anticancer strategies through weakening cell damage repair capacity and enhancing drug cytotoxicity.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Glicólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares
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