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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668743

RESUMO

This article reviews fellowship training in adult cardiac, thoracic, and vascular anesthesia and critical care from the perspective of European program initiators and educational leaders in these subspecialties together with current training fellows. Currently, the European Association of Cardiothoracic Anaesthesiology (EACTA) network has 20 certified fellowship positions each year in 10 hosting centers within 7 European countries, with 2 positions outside Europe (São Paulo, Brazil). Since 2009, 42 fellows have completed the fellowship training. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the rationale, requirements, and contributions of the fellows, in the context of the developmental progression of the EACTA fellowship in adult cardiac, thoracic, and vascular anesthesia and critical care from inception to present. A summary of the program structure, accreditation of host centers, requirements to join the program, teaching and assessment tools, certification, and training requirements in transesophageal electrocardiography is outlined. In addition, a description of the current state of EACTA fellowships across Europe, and a perspective for future steps and challenges to the educational program, is provided.

3.
Crit Care ; 23(1): 288, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455421

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This pilot study was designed to develop a fully automatic and quantitative scoring system of B-lines (QLUSS: quantitative lung ultrasound score) involving the pleural line and to compare it with previously described semi-quantitative scores in the measurement of extravascular lung water as determined by standard thermo-dilution. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study of 12 patients admitted in the intensive care unit with acute respiratory distress and each provided with 12 lung ultrasound (LUS) frames. Data collected from each patient consisted in five different scores, four semi-quantitative (nLUSS, cLUSS, qLUSS, %LUSS) and quantitative scores (QLUSS). The association between LUS scores and extravascular lung water (EVLW) was determined by simple linear regression (SLR) and robust linear regression (RLR) methods. A correlation analysis between the LUS scores was performed by using the Spearman rank test. Inter-observer variability was tested by computing intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) in two-way models for agreement, basing on scores obtained by different raters blinded to patients' conditions and clinical history. RESULTS: In the SLR, QLUSS showed a stronger association with EVLW (R2 = 0.57) than cLUSS (R2 = 0.45) and nLUSS (R2 = 0.000), while a lower association than qLUSS (R2 = 0.85) and %LUSS (R2 = 0.72) occurred. By applying RLR, QLUSS showed an association for EVLW (R2 = 0.86) comparable to qLUSS (R2 = 0.85) and stronger than %LUSS (R2 = 0.72). QLUSS was significantly correlated with qLUSS (r = 0.772; p = 0.003) and %LUSS (r = 0.757; p = 0.005), but not with cLUSS (r = 0.561; p = 0.058) and nLUSS (r = 0.105; p = 0.744). Moreover, QLUSS showed the highest ICC (0.998; 95%CI from 0.996 to 0.999) among the LUS scores. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that computer-aided scoring of the pleural line percentage affected by B-lines has the potential to assess EVLW. QLUSS may have a significant impact, once validated with a larger dataset composed by multiple real-time frames. This approach has the potentials to be advantageous in terms of faster data analysis and applicability to large sets of data without increased costs. On the contrary, it is not useful in pleural effusion or consolidations.

4.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12248, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439913

RESUMO

This was a single-center, observational, prospective study designed to compare the effectiveness of a real-time, ultrasound- with landmark-guided technique for subclavian vein cannulation. Two groups of 74 consecutive patients each underwent subclavian vein catheterization. One group included patients from intensive care unit, studied by using an ultrasound-guided technique. The other group included patients from surgery or emergency units, studied by using a landmark technique. The primary outcome for comparison between techniques was the success rate of catheterization. Secondary outcomes were the number of attempts, cannulation failure, and mechanical complications. Although there was no difference in total success rate between ultrasound-guided and landmark groups (71 vs. 68, p = 0.464), the ultrasound-guided technique was more frequently successful at first attempt (64 vs. 30, p < 0.001) and required less attempts (1 to 2 vs. 1 to 6, p < 0.001) than landmark technique. Moreover, the ultrasound-guided technique was associated with less complications (2 vs. 13, p < 0.001), interruptions of mechanical ventilation (1 vs. 57, p < 0.001), and post-procedure chest X-ray (43 vs. 62, p = 0.001). In comparison with landmark-guided technique, the use of an ultrasound-guided technique for subclavian catheterization offers advantages in terms of reduced number of attempts and complications.

5.
Int J Cardiol ; 288: 1-4, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31056414

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute heart failure (AHF) after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is usually treated with inotropic support or vasoactive medications. In this study, we aimed at investigating the role of levosimendan on cardiovascular determinants of contractility and afterload in patients with AHF following STEMI treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS: Forty-eight consecutive STEMI patients were retrospectively enrolled. Non-invasive assessment of left ventricular elastance (Ees) and arterial elastance (Ea) and their relationship, ventriculo-arterial coupling (VAC) was performed before and after levosimendan infusion. RESULTS: After infusion of levosimendan a significant increase in SV was detected in all patients (from 48 ±â€¯17 to 60 ±â€¯21 ml, p < 0.001). VAC slightly decreased from 1.74 ±â€¯0.8 to 1.66 ±â€¯0.7 (p = NS) as a result of a profound reduction in arterial elastance (Ea 2.34 ±â€¯1.09 to 1.74 ±â€¯0.5 mm Hg/ml, p < 0.001) and in ventricular elastance (Ees 1.57 ±â€¯0.12 to 1.24 ±â€¯0.09 mm Hg/ml, p = 0.021). Ejection fraction (EF) (from 0.29 ±â€¯0.1 to 0.32 ±â€¯0.1, p < 0.01) and WMSI, (from 2.16 ±â€¯0.47 to 2.05 ±â€¯0.54, p < 0.05) also, significantly improved. Finally, baseline VAC was able to predict the use of norepinephrine (NE) and early and one-year mortality of patients treated. CONCLUSION: In STEMI patients with AHF the use of levosimendan significantly increases stroke volume after 24-hour treatment through Ea reduction. Baseline VAC seemed to predict early and late mortality and early and prolonged use of NE, however, this needs to be tested in larger series of patients and multivariate adjustments for other prognostic predictors.

6.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 20(5): 289-334, 2019 May.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066371

RESUMO

Acute heart failure (AHF) represents a relevant burden for emergency departments worldwide. AHF patients have markedly worse long-term outcomes than patients with other acute cardiac diseases (e.g. acute coronary syndromes); mortality or readmissions rates at 3 months approximate 33%, whereas 1-year mortality from index discharge ranges from 25% to 50%.The multiplicity of healthcare professionals acting across the care pathway of AHF patients represents a critical factor, which generates the need for integrating the different expertise and competence of general practitioners, emergency physicians, cardiologists, internists, and intensive care physicians to focus on care goals able to improve clinical outcomes.This consensus document results from the cooperation of the scientific societies representing the different healthcare professionals involved in the care of AHF patients and describes shared strategies and pathways aimed at ensuring both high quality care and better outcomes. The document describes the patient journey from symptom onset to the clinical suspicion of AHF and home management or referral to emergency care and transportation to the hospital, through the clinical diagnostic pathway in the emergency department, acute treatment, risk stratification and discharge from the emergency department to ordinary wards or home. The document analyzes the potential role of a cardiology fast-track and Observation Units and the transition to outpatient care by general practitioners and specialist heart failure clinics.The increasing care burden and complex problems generated by AHF are unlikely to be solved without an integrated multidisciplinary approach. Efficient networking among emergency departments, intensive care units, ordinary wards and primary care settings is crucial to achieve better outcomes. Thanks to the joint effort of qualified scientific societies, this document aims to achieve this goal through an integrated, shared and applicable pathway that will contribute to a homogeneous care management of AHF patients across the country.

7.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 85(8): 871-885, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30938121

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Proper management of patients undergoing robotic-assisted urologic and gynecologic surgery must consider a series of peculiarities in the procedures for anesthesiology, critical care medicine, respiratory care, and pain management. Although the indications for robotic-assisted urogynecologic surgeries have increased in recent years, specific guidance documents are still lacking. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A multidisciplinary group including anesthesiologists, gynecologists, urologists, and a clinical epidemiologist systematically reviewed the relevant literature and provided a set of recommendations and unmet needs on peculiar aspects of anesthesia in this field. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Nine core contents were identified, according to their requirements in urogynecologic robotic-assisted surgery: patient position, pneumoperitoneum and ventilation strategies, hemodynamic variations and fluid therapy, neuromuscular block, renal surgery and prevention of acute kidney injury, monitoring the Department of anesthesia, postoperative delirium and cognitive dysfunction, prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting, and pain management in endometriosis. CONCLUSIONS: This consensus document provides guidance for the management of urologic and gynecologic patients scheduled for robotic-assisted surgery. Moreover, the identified unmet needs highlight the requirement for further prospective randomized studies.

8.
Crit Care ; 23(1): 118, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30987647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that the cardiovascular responses to Surviving Sepsis Guidelines (SSG)-defined resuscitation are predictable based on the cardiovascular state. METHODS: Fifty-five septic patients treated by SSG were studied before and after volume expansion (VE), and if needed norepinephrine (NE) and dobutamine. We measured mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac index (CI), and right atrial pressure (Pra) and calculated pulse pressure and stroke volume variation (PPV and SVV), dynamic arterial elastance (Eadyn), arterial elastance (Ea) and left ventricular (LV) end-systolic elastance (Ees), Ees/Ea (VAC), LV ejection efficiency (LVeff), mean systemic pressure analogue (Pmsa), venous return pressure gradient (Pvr), and cardiac performance (Eh), using standard formulae. RESULTS: All patients were hypotensive (MAP 56.8 ± 3.1 mmHg) and tachycardic (113.1 ± 7.5 beat min-1), with increased lactate levels (lactate = 5.0 ± 4.2 mmol L-1) with a worsened VAC. CI was variable but > 2 L min-1 M-2 in 74%. Twenty-eight-day mortality was 48% and associated with admission lactate, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine levels but not cardiovascular state. In all patients, both MAP and CI improved following VE, as well as cardiac contractility (Ees). Fluid administration improved Pra, Pmsa, and Pvr in all patients, whereas both HR and Ea decreased after VE, thus normalizing VAC. CI increases were proportional to baseline PPV and SVV. CI increases proportionally decreased PPV and SVV. VE increased MAP > 65 mmHg in 35/55 patients. MAP responders had higher PPV, SVV, and Eadyn than non-responders. NE was given to 20/55 patients in septic shock, but increased MAP > 65 mmHg in only 12. NE increased Ea, Eadyn, Pra, Pmsa, and VAC while decreasing HR, PPV, SVV, and LVeff. MAP responders had higher pre-NE Ees and lower VAC. Dobutamine was given to 6/8 patients who remained hypotensive following NE. It increased Ees, MAP, CI, and LVeff, while decreasing HR, Pra, and VAC. At all times and all steps of the protocol, CI changes were proportional to Pvr changes independent of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The cardiovascular response to SSG-based resuscitation is highly heterogeneous but predictable from pre-treatment measures of cardiovascular state.

9.
Int J Cardiol ; 289: 37-42, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30711263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing cardiac surgery are subject to severe alterations of the coagulation system. The four cardiac surgery centers in Tuscany (Italy) structured and shared an algorithm (Granducato Patient Blood Management algorithm, G-PBMa) with predefined interventions for patient blood management. The aim of the study is to analyze the impact of that algorithm on the transfusion needs and bleeding-related outcomes in a large patient population. METHODS: Multicenter retrospective observational study on 3839 patients undergoing cardiac surgery at the four cardiac centers in Tuscany. The G-PBMa was released at the end of 2015 and it was structured in three parts: pre-, intra-, and post-operative. The year 2014, before the G-PBMa (1955 patients) and the year 2016 (1884 patients) after the G-PBMa in place were compared. Logistic regression analyses were used. RESULTS: The main changes introduced were the routine application of viscoelastic tests in bleeding patients (+72%) and the use of fibrinogen and prothrombin complex concentrate (+67%). The G-PBMa resulted in a significant reduction in the overall transfusion rate and in the transfusion rate of the separate blood products (relative risk for transfusions: 0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.65-0.85, P = 0.001). For preoperative hemoglobin values of between 8 and 10 g/dL, the absolute difference in RBC transfusion rate before and after the G-PBMa introduction ranged around 15%-17%. The G-PBMa introduction determined lower (P = 0.02) chest drain blood loss, lower (P = 0.001) postoperative acute kidney injury and shorter (P = 0.001) hospital stay. CONCLUSIONS: The G-PBMa was effective in reducing blood loss, transfusion requirements, and resulted in a better outcome.

11.
EuroIntervention ; 14(16): 1639-1647, 2019 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30561369

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine the long-term outcomes of high-risk patients who underwent transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) with the third-generation CoreValve device, according to the 2017 EAPCI/ESC/EACTS definition of valve durability. METHODS AND RESULTS: Between 2007 and 2013, 278 consecutive patients were enrolled in our prospective single-centre CoreValve registry (mean age 82±6 years, mean STS score 6.4±5.0%). The median follow-up of survivors was 6.8 years. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify independent predictors of HF rehospitalisation and all-cause mortality. Predictors of HF rehospitalisation were LVEF, MR and PVL at the last echocardiographic follow-up. The majority of patients were in NYHA Class I or II and showed mild/trivial paravalvular leak throughout follow-up. Mean pressure gradients remained stable over time. The overall crude cumulative incidences of structural valve deterioration and bioprosthetic valve failure were 3.6% and 2.5%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Although overall mortality was high in this elderly patient cohort, the CoreValve bioprosthesis showed good durability at seven-year follow-up.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Bioprótese , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Valva Aórtica , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Trials ; 19(1): 637, 2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30454042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with septic shock, the presence of an elevated heart rate (HR) after fluid resuscitation marks a subgroup of patients with a particularly poor prognosis. Several studies have shown that HR control in this population is safe and can potentially improve outcomes. However, all were conducted in a single-center setting. The aim of this multicenter study is to demonstrate that administration of the highly beta1-selective and ultrashort-acting beta blocker landiolol in patients with septic shock and persistent tachycardia (HR ≥ 95 beats per minute [bpm]) is effective in reducing and maintaining HR without increasing vasopressor requirements. METHODS: A phase IV, multicenter, prospective, randomized, open-label, controlled study is being conducted. The study will enroll a total of 200 patients with septic shock as defined by The Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock criteria and tachycardia (HR ≥ 95 bpm) despite a hemodynamic optimization period of 24-36 h. Patients are randomized (1:1) to receive either standard treatment (according to the Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines 2016) and continuous landiolol infusion to reach a target HR of 80-94 bpm or standard treatment alone. The primary endpoint is HR response (HR 80-94 bpm), the maintenance thereof, and the absence of increased vasopressor requirements during the first 24 h after initiating treatment. DISCUSSION: Despite recent studies, the role of beta blockers in the treatment of patients with septic shock remains unclear. This study will investigate whether HR control using landiolol is safe, feasible, and effective, and further enhance the understanding of beta blockade in patients with septic shock. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EU Clinical Trials Register; EudraCT, 2017-002138-22 . Registered on 8 August 2017.

13.
Eur Heart J Suppl ; 20(Suppl A): A19-A24, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30188957

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation (AFib) is frequently associated with heart failure. Guidelines for AFib management have been recently updated and include an algorithm for acute heart rate control based on left ventricular ejection fraction and haemodynamics. Landiolol is an injectable ultra-short beta-blocker with very high beta-1 selectivity, listed in Japanese Guidelines for AFib management as potential option for rate control of patient with heart failure. Landiolol is now available in Europe with indication of controlling heart rate in AFib and supraventricular tachycardia. This review discusses existing clinical data in Japan and perspectives of landiolol use for acute rate control of AFib patients with cardiac dysfunction.

14.
Eur Heart J Suppl ; 20(Suppl A): A4-A9, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30188961

RESUMO

Landiolol is an intravenous ultra-short acting beta-blocker which has been used in Japan for many years to prevent and/or to treat post-operative atrial fibrillation following cardiac surgery. The drug is now available in Europe. This article is a systematic review of literature regarding the use of landiolol in that specific surgical setting.

16.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 84(10): 1189-1208, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29648413

RESUMO

Minimally invasive surgical procedures have revolutionized the world of surgery in the past decades. While laparoscopy, the first minimally invasive surgical technique to be developed, is widely used and has been addressed by several guidelines and recommendations, the implementation of robotic-assisted surgery is still hindered by the lack of consensus documents that support healthcare professionals in the management of this novel surgical procedure. Here we summarize the available evidence and provide expert opinion aimed at improving the implementation and resolution of issues derived from robotic abdominal surgery procedures. A joint task force of Italian surgeons, anesthesiologists and clinical epidemiologists reviewed the available evidence on robotic abdominal surgery. Recommendations were graded according to the strength of evidence. Statements and recommendations are provided for general issues regarding robotic abdominal surgery, operating theatre organization, preoperative patient assessment and preparation, intraoperative management, and postoperative procedures and discharge. The consensus document provides evidence-based recommendations and expert statements aimed at improving the implementation and management of robotic abdominal surgery.

17.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 32(5): 2152-2159, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29580796

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs frequently after cardiac surgery. Levosimendan might reduce the incidence of AKI in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The authors investigated whether levosimendan administration could reduce AKI incidence in a high-risk cardiac surgical population. DESIGN: Post hoc analysis of a multicenter randomized trial. SETTING: Cardiac surgery operating rooms and intensive care units of 14 centers in 3 countries. PARTICIPANTS: The study comprised 90 patients who underwent mitral valve surgery with an estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and perioperative myocardial dysfunction. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were assigned randomly to receive levosimendan (0.025-0.2 µg/kg/min) or placebo in addition to standard inotropic treatment. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Forty-six patients were assigned to receive levosimendan and 44 to receive placebo. Postoperative AKI occurred in 14 (30%) patients in the levosimendan group versus 23 (52%) in the placebo group (absolute difference -21.8; 95% confidence interval -41.7 to -1.97; p = 0.035). The incidence of major complications also was lower (18 [39%]) in the levosimendan group versus that in the placebo group (29 [66%]) (absolute difference -26.8 [-46.7 to -6.90]; p = 0.011). A trend toward lower serum creatinine at intensive care unit discharge was observed in the levosimendan group (1.18 [0.99-1.49] mg/dL) versus that in the placebo group (1.39 [1.05-1.76] mg/dL) (95% confidence interval -0.23 [-0.49 to 0.01]; p = 0.07). CONCLUSIONS: Levosimendan may improve renal outcome in cardiac surgery patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing mitral valve surgery who develop perioperative myocardial dysfunction. Results of this exploratory analysis should be investigated in future properly designed randomized controlled trials.

18.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 84(7): 858-864, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29338148

RESUMO

Hemodynamic monitoring is essential during the treatment of the critically ill in order to address the hemodynamic alterations and assess the response to treatment. Traditionally classified causes of shock and underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are often neglected by resuscitative strategies included in the guidelines. Most of hemodynamic management focuses on the ability to early recognize patients susceptible to increase cardiac output (CO) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) after a defined fluid challenge by eliciting Starling's law of the heart, and less is known of the ones presenting in shock and not volume responsive. All this influences the application of hemodynamic monitoring tools and their interpretation. Functional hemodynamic monitoring strategies, aiming to overcome limitations of traditional static pressures measurements, have been developed and recently acknowledged by guidelines for the treatment of septic shock. Nevertheless, those techniques share the same limitations of previous ones, being poorly reliable in various common situations such as in spontaneous breathing patients, right ventricular dysfunction of several causes or if arrhythmia occurs. Echocardiography has now become commonplace in the evaluation of the hemodynamic profile in the critically ill and mastering this technique is important in order to interpret pathophysiological patterns behind hemodynamic alteration while at the same time, screening for unexpected findings. More recently, pathophysiological and echocardiographic-based approaches have been introduced to investigate ventriculo-arterial coupling, the relationship between both left and right heart and the relative circulatory bed. Such techniques allowed establishing that in many critically ill scenarios, coupling between the heart and the circulation is inefficient and probably that is the reason why in this case hemodynamic restoration cannot be achieved by standard approaches. Combining echocardiography to better understand and treat in real-time pathophysiological determinants of altered hemodynamic states with functional approaches seems to be the key to plumb hemodynamic states although it remains to be demonstrated if this tailored approach will improve patient outcome.

19.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 84(2): 150-151, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29160660
20.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol ; 71(1): 1-9, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29076887

RESUMO

Levosimendan is a calcium sensitizer and adenosine triphosphate-dependent potassium channel opener, which exerts sustained hemodynamic, symptomatic, and organ-protective effects. It is registered for the treatment of acute heart failure, and when inotropic support is considered appropriate. In the past 15 years, levosimendan has been widely used in clinical practice and has also been tested in clinical trials to stabilize at-risk patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Recently, 3 randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter studies (LICORN, CHEETAH, and LEVO-CTS) have been published reporting on the perioperative use of levosimendan in patients with compromised cardiac ventricular function. Taken together, many smaller trials conducted in the past suggested beneficial outcomes with levosimendan in perioperative settings. By contrast, the latest 3 studies were neutral or inconclusive. To understand the reasons for such dissimilarity, a group of experts from Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, and Russia, including investigators from the 3 most recent studies, met to discuss the study results in the light of both the previous literature and current clinical practice. Despite the fact that the null hypothesis could not be ruled out in the recent multicenter trials, we conclude that levosimendan can still be viewed as a safe and effective inodilator in cardiac surgery.

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