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1.
J Infect Dis ; 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Annual influenza immunization is recommended for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by all major COPD clinical practice guidelines. We sought to determine the seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) against laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated hospitalizations among older adults with COPD. METHODS: We conducted a test-negative study of influenza VE in community-dwelling older adults with COPD in Ontario, Canada using health administrative data and respiratory specimens collected from patients tested for influenza during the 2010-11 to 2015-16 influenza seasons. Influenza vaccination was ascertained from physician and pharmacist billing claims. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratio of influenza vaccination in people with, compared to those without, laboratory-confirmed influenza. RESULTS: Receipt of seasonal influenza vaccine was associated with an adjusted 22% (95% confidence interval [CI], 15%-27%) reduction in laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated hospitalization. Adjustment for potential misclassification of vaccination status increased this to 43% (95% CI, 35%-52%). Vaccine effectiveness was not found to vary by patient- or influenza-related variables. CONCLUSIONS: During the studied influenza seasons, influenza vaccination was at least modestly effective in reducing laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated hospitalizations in people with COPD. The imperfect effectiveness emphasizes the need for better influenza vaccines and other preventive strategies.

2.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(30): 2795-2804, 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465264

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Seasonal influenza vaccination is recommended for patients with cancer despite concerns of disease or treatment-associated immunosuppression. The objective of this study was to evaluate vaccine effectiveness (VE) against laboratory-confirmed influenza for patients with cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted an observational test-negative design study of previously diagnosed patients with cancer 18 years of age and older who underwent influenza testing during the 2010-2011 to 2015-2016 influenza seasons in Ontario, Canada. We linked individual-level cancer registry, respiratory virus testing, and health administrative data to identify the study population and outcomes. Vaccination status was determined from physician and pharmacist billing claims. We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate VE, adjusting for age, sex, rurality, income quintile, cancer characteristics, chemotherapy exposure, comorbidities, previous health care use, influenza season, and calendar time. RESULTS: We identified 26,463 patients with cancer who underwent influenza testing, with 4,320 test-positive cases (16%) and 11,783 (45%) vaccinated. Mean age was 70 years, 52% were male, mean time since diagnosis was 6 years, 69% had solid tumor malignancies, and 23% received active chemotherapy. VE against laboratory-confirmed influenza was 21% (95% CI, 15% to 26%), and VE against laboratory-confirmed influenza hospitalization was 20% (95% CI, 13% to 26%). For patients with solid tumor malignancies, VE was 25% (95% CI, 18% to 31%), compared with 8% (95% CI, -5% to 19%) for patients with hematologic malignancies (P = .015). Active chemotherapy usage did not significantly affect VE, especially among patients with solid tumor cancer. CONCLUSION: Our results support recommendations for influenza vaccination for patients with cancer. VE was decreased for patients with hematologic malignancies, and there was no significant difference in VE among patients with solid tumor cancer receiving active chemotherapy. Strategies to optimize influenza prevention among patients with cancer are warranted.

3.
Vaccine ; 37(31): 4392-4400, 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221563

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Linking data on laboratory specimens collected during clinical practice with health administrative data permits highly powered vaccine effectiveness (VE) studies to be conducted at relatively low cost, but bias from using convenience samples is a concern. We evaluated the validity of using such data for estimating VE. METHODS: We created the Flu and Other Respiratory Viruses Research (FOREVER) Cohort by linking individual-level data on respiratory virus laboratory tests, hospitalizations, emergency department visits, and physician services. For community-dwelling adults aged > 65 years, we assessed the presence and magnitude of information and selection biases, generated VE estimates under various conditions, and compared our VE estimates with those from other studies. RESULTS: We included 65,648 unique testing episodes obtained from 54,434 individuals during the 2010-11 to 2015-16 influenza seasons. To examine information bias, we found the proportion testing positive for influenza for patients with unknown interval from illness onset to specimen collection was more similar to patients for whom illness onset date was ≤ 7 days before specimen collection than to patients for whom illness onset was > 7 days before specimen collection. To assess the presence of selection bias, we found the likelihood of influenza testing was comparable between vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals, although the adjusted odds ratios were significantly greater than 1 for some healthcare settings and during some influenza seasons. Over 6 seasons, VE estimates ranged between 36% (95%CI, 27-44%) in 2010-11 and 5% (95%CI, -2, 11%) in 2014-15. VE estimates were similar under a range of conditions, but were consistently higher when accounting for misclassification of vaccination status through a quantitative sensitivity analysis. VE estimates from the FOREVER Cohort were comparable to those from other studies. CONCLUSIONS: Routinely collected laboratory and health administrative data contained in the FOREVER Cohort can be used to estimate influenza VE in community-dwelling older adults.

4.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-9, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184979

RESUMO

Canada eliminated measles in 1998. We conducted a sero-epidemiology study to estimate population immunity to measles in the province of Ontario, Canada and to identify groups at higher risk of outbreaks. We used a previously developed modified enzyme immunoassay to test 1,199 residual sera from patients aged 1-39 years. We re-tested negative and equivocal sera using a plaque reduction neutralization assay. We interpreted our results in the context of Ontario's immunization program and vaccine coverage data. Of 1,199 sera, 1035 (86.3%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 84.4, 88.2) were above the measles threshold for protection, 70 (5.8%, 95% CI 4.5, 7.2) were equivocal and 94 (7.8%, 95% CI 6.3, 9.4) were negative. The proportion of positive sera was highest for those 1-5 years, with 180/199 (90.5%, 95% CI 86.4, 94.5) positive sera, and lowest for those age 12-19 years, at 158/199 (79.4%, 95% CI 73.8, 85.0). Adjusted for age, females were more likely than males to have antibody titers above the threshold of protection (odds ratio = 1.60, 95% CI 1.14, 2.24). Most of the study cohort were eligible for two measles vaccine doses, and vaccine uptake in Ontario is >90% for school-aged cohorts. We observed a higher than expected proportion of sera with antibody levels below the threshold of protection, suggesting that immunity in some Ontario age-groups may be waning, despite high vaccine coverage. Alternatively, the traditional measles correlates of protection may not be an appropriate measure of population protection in measles-eliminated settings.

5.
J Occup Environ Hyg ; 16(5): 341-348, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050610

RESUMO

Transmission in hospital settings of seasonal influenza viruses and novel agents such as the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is well-described but poorly understood. The characterization of potentially infectious bio-aerosols in the healthcare setting remains an important yet ill-defined factor in the transmission of respiratory viruses. Empiric data describing the distribution of bio-aerosols enable discernment of potential exposure risk to respiratory viruses. We sought to determine the distribution of influenza virus RNA emitted into the air by participants with laboratory-confirmed influenza, and whether these emissions had the potential to reach healthcare workers' breathing zones. Two-stage cyclone bio-aerosol samplers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health were placed 0.5-1.0 m (near field) and 2.1-2.5 m (far field) from infected patient participants, as well as in the corridor immediately outside their rooms. In addition, healthcare worker participants providing care to infected participants were recruited to wear a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filter cassette in their breathing zones. Viral RNA was detected from the air emitted by 37.5% of the 16 participants infected with influenza virus and distributed both in near and far fields and in all tested particle sizes (<1 µm, 1-4 µm, and >4 µm). Viral RNA was recovered in droplet nuclei and beyond 1 m from naturally-infected participants in the healthcare setting and from the breathing zone of one healthcare worker. There was no correlation between patient participant nasal viral load and recovery of viral RNA from the air, and we did not identify any significant association between RNA detection from the air and patient demographics or clinical presentation. A more substantial study is required to identify patient determinants of virus emission into the air and delineate implications for evidence-based policy for prevention and control.

6.
Euro Surveill ; 24(15)2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994107

RESUMO

IntroductionFindings from the community-based Canadian Sentinel Practitioner Surveillance Network (SPSN) suggest children were more affected by the 2018/19 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 epidemic.AimTo compare the age distribution of A(H1N1)pdm09 cases in 2018/19 to prior seasonal influenza epidemics in Canada.MethodsThe age distribution of unvaccinated influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 cases and test-negative controls were compared across A(H1N1)pdm09-dominant epidemics in 2018/19, 2015/16 and 2013/14 and with the general population of SPSN provinces. Similar comparisons were undertaken for influenza A(H3N2)-dominant epidemics.ResultsIn 2018/19, more influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 cases were under 10 years old than controls (29% vs 16%; p < 0.001). In particular, children aged 5-9 years comprised 14% of cases, greater than their contribution to controls (4%) or the general population (5%) and at least twice their contribution in 2015/16 (7%; p < 0.001) or 2013/14 (5%; p < 0.001). Conversely, children aged 10-19 years (11% of the population) were under-represented among A(H1N1)pdm09 cases versus controls in 2018/19 (7% vs 12%; p < 0.001), 2015/16 (7% vs 13%; p < 0.001) and 2013/14 (9% vs 12%; p = 0.12).ConclusionChildren under 10 years old contributed more to outpatient A(H1N1)pdm09 medical visits in 2018/19 than prior seasonal epidemics in Canada. In 2018/19, all children under 10 years old were born after the 2009 A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic and therefore lacked pandemic-induced immunity. In addition, more than half those born after 2009 now attend school (i.e. 5-9-year-olds), a socio-behavioural context that may enhance transmission and did not apply during prior A(H1N1)pdm09 epidemics.

7.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 38(4): 362-369, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Respiratory illnesses are a major contributor to pediatric hospitalizations, with influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causing substantial morbidity and cost each season. We compared the characteristics and outcomes of children 0-59 months of age who were hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed influenza or RSV between 2009 and 2014 in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: We included hospitalized children who were tested for influenza A, influenza B and RSV and were positive for a single virus. We characterized individuals by their demographics and healthcare utilization patterns and compared their hospital outcomes, in-hospital cost and postdischarge healthcare use by virus type and by presence of underlying comorbidities. RESULTS: We identified and analyzed 7659 hospitalizations during which a specimen tested positive for influenza or RSV. Children with RSV were the youngest whereas children with influenza B were the oldest [median ages 6 months (interquartile range: 2-17 months) and 25 months (interquartile range: 10-45 months), respectively]. Complex chronic conditions were more prevalent among children with all influenza (sub)types than RSV (31%-34% versus 20%). In-hospital outcomes were similar by virus type, but in children with comorbidities, postdischarge outcomes varied. We observed no differences in in-hospital cost between viruses or by presence of comorbidities [overall median cost: $4150 Canadian dollars (interquartile range: $3710-$4948)]. CONCLUSIONS: Influenza and RSV account for large numbers of pediatric hospitalizations. RSV and influenza were similar in terms of severity and cost in hospitalized children. Influenza vaccination should be promoted in pregnant women and young children, and a vaccine against RSV would mitigate the high burden of RSV.

8.
Euro Surveill ; 24(11)2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30892178

RESUMO

BackgroundGiven that measles is eliminated in Canada and measles immunisation coverage in Ontario is high, it has been questioned whether Ontario's measles outbreak response is worthwhile.AimOur objective was to determine cost-effectiveness of measles containment protocols in Ontario from the healthcare payer perspective.MethodsWe developed a decision-analysis model comparing Ontario's measles containment strategy (based on actual 2015 outbreak data) with a hypothetical 'modified response'. The modified scenario assumed 10% response costs with reduced case and contact tracing and no outbreak-associated vaccinations; it was based on local and provincial administrative and laboratory data and parameters from peer-reviewed literature. Short- and long-term health outcomes, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and costs discounted at 1.5%, were estimated. We conducted one- and two-way sensitivity analyses.ResultsThe 2015 outbreak in Ontario comprised 16 measles cases and an estimated 3,369 contacts. Predictive modelling suggested that the outbreak response prevented 16 outbreak-associated cases at a cost of CAD 1,213,491 (EUR 861,579). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was CAD 739,063 (EUR 524,735) per QALY gained for the outbreak response vs modified response. To meet the commonly accepted cost-effectiveness threshold of CAD 50,000 (EUR 35,500) per QALY gained, the outbreak response would have to prevent 94 measles cases. In sensitivity analyses, the findings were robust.ConclusionsOntario's measles outbreak response exceeds generally accepted cost-effectiveness thresholds and may not be the most efficient use of public health resources from a healthcare payer perspective. These findings should be balanced against benefits of increased vaccine coverage and maintaining elimination status.

9.
Vaccine ; 37(17): 2408-2414, 2019 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30765171

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ontario implemented a publicly-funded rotavirus (RV) immunization program in 2011. Our objectives were to evaluate its impact on hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) visits for acute gastroenteritis (AGE) five years after implementation. METHODS: We performed a population-based longitudinal retrospective cohort study to identify hospitalizations and ED visits for RV-AGE and overall AGE in all age groups using ICD-10 codes between August 1, 2005 and March 31, 2016. A negative binomial regression model that included the effect of time was used to calculate rates, rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for AGE before and after the program's implementation, after adjusting for age, seasonality and secular trends. We examined the seasonality of RV-AGE hospitalizations among children under five before and after the program and explored its equity impact. RESULTS: Following program implementation, RV-AGE hospitalizations and ED visits among children under five years declined by 76% (RR 0.24, 95% CI 0.20-0.28) and 68% (RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.21-0.50), respectively. In addition, hospitalizations and ED visits for overall AGE declined by 38% (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.59-0.65) and 26% (RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.73-0.76), respectively, among children under age five. Significant reductions in both outcomes were also found across a range of age-strata. In the pre-program period, the mean monthly hospitalization rate for RV-AGE among children residing in the most marginalized neighbourhoods was 33% higher than those residing in the least marginalized (RR 1.33, 95% CI 1.17-1.52), this disparity was not evident in the program period (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.69-1.32). We found no evidence of a seasonal shift in rotavirus pediatric hospitalizations. INTERPRETATION: The introduction of routine infant rotavirus immunization has had a substantial population impact in Ontario. Our study confirms herd effects and suggests the program may have reduced previous inequities in the burden of pediatric rotavirus hospitalizations.

10.
Euro Surveill ; 24(4)2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30696523

RESUMO

Using a test-negative design, the Canadian Sentinel Practitioner Surveillance Network assessed interim 2018/19 vaccine effectiveness (VE) against predominant influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses. Adjusted VE was 72% (95% confidence interval: 60 to 81) against medically attended, laboratory-confirmed influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 illness. This substantial vaccine protection was observed in all age groups, notably young children who appeared to be disproportionately affected. Sequence analysis identified heterogeneity in emerging clade 6B.1 viruses but no dominant drift variant.

11.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 85(6)2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30610079

RESUMO

The occurrence of influenza in different climates has been shown to be associated with multiple meteorological factors. The incidence of influenza has been reported to increase during rainy seasons in tropical climates and during the dry, cold months of winter in temperate climates. This study was designed to explore the role of absolute humidity (AH), relative humidity (RH), temperature, and wind speed (WS) on influenza activity in the Toronto, ON, Canada, area. Environmental data obtained from four meteorological stations in the Toronto area over the period from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2015 were linked to patient influenza data obtained for the same locality and period. Data were analyzed using correlation, negative binomial regressions with linear predictors, and splines to capture the nonlinear relationship between exposure and outcomes. Our study found a negative association of both AH and temperature with influenza A and B virus infections. The effect of RH on influenza A and B viruses was controversial. Temperature fluctuation was associated with increased numbers of influenza B virus infections. Influenza virus was less likely to be detected from community patients than from patients tested as part of an institutional outbreak investigation. This could be more indicative of nosocomial transmission rather than climactic factors. The nonlinear nature of the relationship of influenza A virus with temperature and of influenza B virus with AH, RH, and temperature could explain the complexity and variation between influenza A and B virus infections. Predicting influenza activity is important for the timing of implementation of disease prevention and control measures as well as for resource allocation.IMPORTANCE This study examined the relationship between environmental factors and the occurrence of influenza in general. Since the seasonality of influenza A and B viruses is different in most temperate climates, we also examined each influenza virus separately. This study reports a negative association of both absolute humidity and temperature with influenza A and B viruses and tries to understand the controversial effect of RH on influenza A and B viruses. This study reports a nonlinear relation between influenza A and B viruses with temperature and influenza B virus with absolute and relative humidity. The nonlinear nature of these relations could explain the complexity and difference in seasonality between influenza A and B viruses, with the latter predominating later in the season. Separating community-based specimens from those obtained during outbreaks was also a novel approach in this research. These findings provide a further understanding of influenza virus transmission in temperate climates.

12.
J Med Virol ; 2018 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30372530

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory infection (ARI) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children in low and middle-income countries. Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is one of the most common viral etiological agents for ARIs in children. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we explored the genotypic diversity and the epidemiology of hMPV among infants in Dhaka, Bangladesh. STUDY DESIGN: Between December 2014 and August 2016, a total of 3810 mid-turbinate nasal swab samples were collected from infants (0 to 6 months of age) who met clinical ARI criteria, as a part of a prospective ARI cohort study. hMPV was detected using polymerase chain reaction, and genotyped by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. RESULTS: hMPV was identified in 206 (5.4%) nasal swab specimens. One-tenth of the hMPV-positive swabs (n = 19) were also positive for other respiratory viruses. hMPV activity peaked in January and September in 2015; however, no seasonal pattern of hMPV infection was detected. Phylogenetic analyses of the N and F gene-fragments revealed that the hMPV strains circulating in Dhaka, Bangladesh, belonged to three genotypes: A2b, A2c, and B1. Genotype A (57%) was the predominant hMPV genotype circulating in Bangladesh during the study period. CONCLUSION: This study describes both the epidemiology of hMPV infection and its genotypic strain diversity in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2018 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30312364

RESUMO

Vaccine effectiveness (VE) against influenza B was derived separately for Victoria and Yamagata lineages across eight seasons (2010-11 to 2017-18) in Canada when trivalent influenza vaccine was predominantly used. VE was ≥50% regardless of lineage match to circulating viruses, except when the vaccine strain was unchanged from the prior season.

14.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 5(9): ofy211, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30263903

RESUMO

We investigated sex as a potential modifier of influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) between 2010-2011 and 2016-2017 in Canada. Overall VE was 49% (95% confidence interval [CI], 43% to 55%) for females and 38% (95% CI, 28% to 46%) for males (absolute difference [AD], 11%; P = .03). Sex differences were greatest for influenza A(H3N2) (AD, 17%; P = .07) and B(Victoria) (AD, 20%; P = .08) compared with A(H1N1)pdm09 (AD, 10%; P = .19) or B(Yamagata) (AD, -3%; P = .68). They were also more pronounced in older adults ≥50 years (AD, 19%; P = .03) compared with those <20 years (AD, 4%; P = .74) or 20-49 years (AD, -1%; P = .90) but with variation by subtype/lineage. More definitive investigations of VE by sex and age are warranted to elucidate these potential interactions.

15.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ; 59(6): 733-744, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30095982

RESUMO

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of mortality in infants and young children. Despite the RSV disease burden, no vaccine is available, and treatment remains nonspecific. New drug candidates are needed to combat RSV. Toward this goal, we screened over 2,000 compounds to identify approved drugs with novel anti-RSV activity. Cardiac glycosides, inhibitors of the membrane-bound Na+/K+-ATPase, were identified to have anti-RSV activity. Cardiac glycosides diminished RSV infection in human epithelial type 2 cells and in primary human airway epithelial cells grown at an air-liquid interface. Digoxin, a U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved cardiac glycoside, was also able to inhibit infection of primary nasal epithelial cells with community isolates of RSV. Our results suggest that the antiviral effects of cardiac glycosides may be dependent on changes in the intracellular Na+ and K+ composition. Consistent with this mechanism, we demonstrated that the ionophoric antibiotics salinomycin, valinomycin, and monensin inhibited RSV in human epithelial type 2 cells and primary nasal epithelial cells. Our data indicate that the K+/Na+-sensitive steps in the RSV life cycle occur within the initial 4 hours of viral infection but do not include virus binding/entry. Rather, our findings demonstrated a negative effect on the RSV transcription and/or replication process. Overall, this work suggests that targeting intracellular ion concentrations offers a novel antiviral strategy.

16.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 2018 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30153230

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Respiratory illnesses are a major contributor to pediatric hospitalizations, with influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causing substantial morbidity and cost each season. We compared the characteristics and outcomes of children 0-59 months of age who were hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed influenza or RSV between 2009 and 2014 in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: We included hospitalized children who were tested for influenza A, influenza B, and RSV, and were positive for a single virus. We characterized individuals by their demographics and healthcare utilization patterns, and compared their hospital outcomes, in-hospital cost, and post-discharge healthcare use by virus type and by presence of underlying comorbidities. RESULTS: We identified and analyzed 7,659 hospitalizations during which a specimen tested positive for influenza or RSV. Children with RSV were the youngest whereas children with influenza B were the oldest (median ages 6 months [interquartile range {IQR}: 2-17 months] and 25 months [IQR: 10-45 months], respectively). Complex chronic conditions were more prevalent among children with all influenza (sub)types than RSV (31%-34% vs 20%). In-hospital outcomes were similar by virus type, but in children with comorbidities, post-discharge outcomes varied. We observed no differences in in-hospital cost between viruses or by presence of comorbidities (overall median cost: $4,150 CAD [IQR: $3,710-$4,948]). CONCLUSION: Influenza and RSV account for large numbers of pediatric hospitalizations. RSV and influenza were similar in terms of severity and cost in hospitalized children. Influenza vaccination should be promoted in pregnant women and young children, and a vaccine against RSV would mitigate the high burden of RSV.

17.
Can J Public Health ; 109(1): 3-7, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29981059

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the utility of laboratory data and determine the validity of healthcare administrative data for describing the frequency of measles in Ontario. METHODS: We linked Ontario healthcare utilization administrative data to Public Health Ontario (PHO) laboratory data from 01 January 2006 to 30 November 2012. RESULTS: The sensitivity of the administrative data was 54% and the positive predictive value was 1% when compared with 50 cases identified in laboratory data as a gold standard. CONCLUSIONS: As measles is no longer endemic in Ontario, the high number of measles-coded healthcare visits found in Ontario health administration data exceeds the true number of cases. Great caution should be taken in using administrative data to calculate the incidence of measles in areas where it has been eliminated.

18.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 73(suppl_7): vii20-vii31, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29982573

RESUMO

Objectives: This study characterized the 11 most predominant serotypes of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae infections collected by the annual SAVE study in Canada, between 2011 and 2015. Methods: A subset of the 11 most predominant serotypes (7F, 19A, 22F, 3, 12F, 11A, 9N, 8, 33F, 15A and 6C) collected by the SAVE study was analysed using PFGE and MLST, as well as PCR to identify pilus-encoding genes. WGS analyses were performed on a subset of the above isolates plus a random selection of background strains. Results: Of the predominant serotypes analysed, 7F, 33F and 19A were obtained more commonly from children <6 years of age, whereas 15A, 6C, 22F and 11A were more common in adults >65 years of age. Pneumococcal pilus PI-1 was identified in antimicrobial-susceptible serotype 15A (61/212) and <10% of 6C isolates (16/188). PI-2 was found in serotype 7F (683/701) and two-thirds of 11A isolates (162/241). Only serotype 19A-ST320 possessed both pili. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses identified serotypes 19A, 15A, 6C, 9N and 33F as highly diverse, whereas 7F, 22F and 11A demonstrated clonality. Antimicrobial resistance determinants were common within diverse serotypes, and usually similar within a clonal complex. Conclusions: Despite successful use of conjugate vaccines, S. pneumoniae remains a highly diverse organism in Canada. Several predominant serotypes, both antimicrobial susceptible and MDR, have demonstrated rapid clonal expansion or an increase in diversity. As S. pneumoniae continues to evolve in Canada, WGS will be a necessary component in the ongoing surveillance of antimicrobial-resistant and expanding clones.

19.
Vaccine ; 36(31): 4701-4707, 2018 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29937245

RESUMO

The 13-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was recommended for childhood immunization programs in 2010 in Canada and has decreased the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children and changed the epidemiology of IPD in adults. This study investigated the epidemiology of IPD in adults 65 years of age and older in Canada. A total of 7282 invasive S. pneumoniae isolated from adults ≥65 years old were serotyped from 2010 to 2016 and antimicrobial susceptibility was performed on 2527 isolates. Serotyping was performed by Quellung reaction using commercial antisera and antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined by broth microdilution. PCV7 serotypes decreased non-significantly from 2010 to 2016 from 9.1% (n = 96) to 6.7% (n = 72) while the additional six PCV13 serotypes declined significantly from 39.5% (n = 418) to 18.6% (n = 201) (p < 0.05). The 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) and non-vaccine (NVT) serotypes increased from 26.3% (n = 278) to 36.2% (n = 393) (p < 0.05), and from 25.1% (n = 266) to 38.4% (n = 416) (p < 0.05), respectively. There were no significant changes in antimicrobial resistance rates from 2011 to 2016: 24.1% of the IPD from adults ≥65 years were resistant to clarithromycin (n = 609), 10.0% to doxycycline (n = 254), 11.8% to penicillin (n = 299), 5.2% to cefuroxime (n = 131), 6.6% to clindamycin (n = 168), 6.0% to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (n = 152), and 0.5% (n = 12) to ceftriaxone. Although overall incidence of IPD in adults ≥65 years has remained relatively constant from 2010 to 2016, childhood PCV13 vaccination programs have been successful in indirectly reducing IPD caused by PCV13 serotypes in adults through herd immunity effects.


Assuntos
Infecções Pneumocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/microbiologia , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/administração & dosagem , Sorogrupo , Streptococcus pneumoniae/classificação , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Coletiva , Incidência , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Sorotipagem
20.
Virol J ; 15(1): 98, 2018 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29866178

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In September 2009, a mumps outbreak originated in New York and spread to Northeastern USA and Canada. This study compares the performance of different diagnostic testing methods used in Ontario and describes molecular characteristics of the outbreak strain. METHODS: Between September 2009 and February 2010, specimens from suspect cases were submitted to Public Health Ontario Laboratory for mumps serology, culture and/or real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) testing. rRT-PCR-positive specimens underwent genotyping at Canada's National Microbiology Laboratory. Whole genome sequencing was performed on four outbreak and three sporadic viral culture isolates. RESULTS: Six hundred ninety-eight patients had IgM serology testing, of which 255 (37%) had culture and rRT-PCR. Among those, 35/698 (5%) were IgM positive, 39/255 (15%) culture positive and 47/255 (18%) rRT-PCR-positive. Buccal swabs had the highest rRT-PCR positivity (21%). The outbreak isolates were identical to that in the New York outbreak occurring at the same time. Nucleotide and amino acid identity with the Jeryl Lynn vaccine strain ranged from 85.0-94.5% and 82.4-99.4%, depending on the gene and coding sequences. Homology of the HN protein, the main immunogenic mumps virus protein, was found to be 94.5 and 95.3%, when compared to Jeryl Lynn vaccine major and minor components, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Despite higher sensitivity than serology, rRT-PCR testing is underutilized. Further work is needed to better understand the suboptimal match of the HN gene between the outbreak strain and the Jeryl Lynn vaccine strain.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Vírus da Caxumba/classificação , Caxumba/epidemiologia , Caxumba/virologia , Filogenia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Proteína HN/genética , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Caxumba/diagnóstico , Vírus da Caxumba/genética , New York/epidemiologia , Ontário/epidemiologia , RNA Viral/genética , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico
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