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1.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746962

RESUMO

Importance: Genetic studies have evaluated the influence of blood lipid levels on the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), but less is known about how they are associated with the extent of coronary atherosclerosis. Objective: To estimate the contributions of genetically predicted blood lipid levels on the extent of coronary atherosclerosis. Design, Setting, and Participants: This genetic study included Icelandic adults who had undergone coronary angiography or assessment of coronary artery calcium using cardiac computed tomography. The study incorporates data collected from January 1987 to December 2017 in Iceland in the Swedish Coronary Angiography and Angioplasty Registry and 2 registries of individuals who had undergone percutaneous coronary interventions and coronary artery bypass grafting. For each participant, genetic scores were calculated for levels of non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides, based on reported effect sizes of 345 independent, lipid-associated variants. The genetic scores' predictive ability for lipid levels was assessed in more than 87 000 Icelandic adults. A mendelian randomization approach was used to estimate the contribution of each lipid trait. Exposures: Genetic scores for levels of non-HDL-C, LDL-C, HDL-C, and triglycerides. Main Outcomes and Measures: The extent of angiographic CAD and coronary artery calcium quantity. Results: A total of 12 460 adults (mean [SD] age, 65.1 [10.7] years; 8383 men [67.3%]) underwent coronary angiography, and 4837 had coronary artery calcium assessed by computed tomography. A genetically predicted increase in non-HDL-C levels by 1 SD (38 mg/dL [to convert to millimoles per liter, multiply by 0.0259]) was associated with greater odds of obstructive CAD (odds ratio [OR], 1.83 [95% CI, 1.63-2.07]; P = 2.8 × 10-23). Among patients with obstructive CAD, there were significant associations with multivessel disease (OR, 1.26 [95% CI, 1.11-1.44]; P = 4.1 × 10-4) and 3-vessel disease (OR, 1.47 [95% CI, 1.26-1.72]; P = 9.2 × 10-7). There were also significant associations with the presence of coronary artery calcium (OR, 2.04 [95% CI, 1.70-2.44]; P = 5.3 × 10-15) and loge-transformed coronary artery calcium (effect, 0.70 [95% CI, 0.53-0.87]; P = 1.0 × 10-15). Genetically predicted levels of non-HDL-C remained associated with obstructive CAD and coronary artery calcium extent even after accounting for the association with LDL-C. Genetically predicted levels of HDL-C and triglycerides were associated individually with the extent of coronary atherosclerosis, but not after accounting for the association with non-HDL cholesterol. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, genetically predicted levels of non-HDL-C were associated with the extent of coronary atherosclerosis as estimated by 2 different methods. The association was stronger than for genetically predicted levels of LDL-C. These findings further support the notion that non-HDL-C may be a better marker of the overall burden of atherogenic lipoproteins than LDL-C.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alpha-fetoprotein, cancer antigens 15.3, 19.9, 125, carcinoembryonic antigen and alkaline phosphatase are widely measured in attempts to detect cancer and to monitor treatment response. However, due to lack of sensitivity and specificity, their utility is debated. The serum levels of these markers are affected by a number of non-malignant factors, including genotype. Thus, it may be possible to improve both sensitivity and specificity by adjusting test results for genetic effects. METHODS: We performed genome-wide association studies of serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein (N = 22,686), carcinoembryonic antigen (N = 22,309), cancer antigens 15.3 (N = 7,107), 19.9 (N = 9,945) and 125 (N = 9,824), and alkaline phosphatase (N = 162,774). We also examined the correlations between levels of these biomarkers and the presence of cancer, using data from a nation-wide cancer registry. RESULTS: We report a total of 84 associations of 79 sequence variants with levels of the six biomarkers, explaining between 2.3 and 42.3% of the phenotypic variance. Among the 79 variants, 22 are cis (in- or near the gene encoding the biomarker), 18 have minor allele frequency less than 1%, 31 are coding variants and 7 are associated with gene expression in whole blood. We also find multiple conditions associated with higher biomarker levels. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide insights into the genetic contribution to diversity in concentration of tumor biomarkers in blood. IMPACT: Genetic correction of biomarker values could improve prediction algorithms and decision-making based on these biomarkers.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5402, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776332

RESUMO

Analysis of sequence diversity in the human genome is fundamental for genetic studies. Structural variants (SVs) are frequently omitted in sequence analysis studies, although each has a relatively large impact on the genome. Here, we present GraphTyper2, which uses pangenome graphs to genotype SVs and small variants using short-reads. Comparison to the syndip benchmark dataset shows that our SV genotyping is sensitive and variant segregation in families demonstrates the accuracy of our approach. We demonstrate that incorporating public assembly data into our pipeline greatly improves sensitivity, particularly for large insertions. We validate 6,812 SVs on average per genome using long-read data of 41 Icelanders. We show that GraphTyper2 can simultaneously genotype tens of thousands of whole-genomes by characterizing 60 million small variants and half a million SVs in 49,962 Icelanders, including 80 thousand SVs with high-confidence.

4.
Nature ; 575(7784): 652-657, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748747

RESUMO

Mosaic loss of chromosome Y (LOY) in circulating white blood cells is the most common form of clonal mosaicism1-5, yet our knowledge of the causes and consequences of this is limited. Here, using a computational approach, we estimate that 20% of the male population represented in the UK Biobank study (n = 205,011) has detectable LOY. We identify 156 autosomal genetic determinants of LOY, which we replicate in 757,114 men of European and Japanese ancestry. These loci highlight genes that are involved in cell-cycle regulation and cancer susceptibility, as well as somatic drivers of tumour growth and targets of cancer therapy. We demonstrate that genetic susceptibility to LOY is associated with non-haematological effects on health in both men and women, which supports the hypothesis that clonal haematopoiesis is a biomarker of genomic instability in other tissues. Single-cell RNA sequencing identifies dysregulated expression of autosomal genes in leukocytes with LOY and provides insights into why clonal expansion of these cells may occur. Collectively, these data highlight the value of studying clonal mosaicism to uncover fundamental mechanisms that underlie cancer and other ageing-related diseases.

5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4803, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641117

RESUMO

Features of the QRS complex of the electrocardiogram, reflecting ventricular depolarisation, associate with various physiologic functions and several pathologic conditions. We test 32.5 million variants for association with ten measures of the QRS complex in 12 leads, using 405,732 electrocardiograms from 81,192 Icelanders. We identify 190 associations at 130 loci, the majority of which have not been reported before, including associations with 21 rare or low-frequency coding variants. Assessment of genes expressed in the heart yields an additional 13 rare QRS coding variants at 12 loci. We find 51 unreported associations between the QRS variants and echocardiographic traits and cardiovascular diseases, including atrial fibrillation, complete AV block, heart failure and supraventricular tachycardia. We demonstrate the advantage of in-depth analysis of the QRS complex in conjunction with other cardiovascular phenotypes to enhance our understanding of the genetic basis of myocardial mass, cardiac conduction and disease.

6.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 258, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624239

RESUMO

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly heritable common childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder. Some rare copy number variations (CNVs) affect multiple neurodevelopmental disorders such as intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorders (ASD), schizophrenia and ADHD. The aim of this study is to determine to what extent ADHD shares high risk CNV alleles with schizophrenia and ASD. We compiled 19 neuropsychiatric CNVs and test 14, with sufficient power, for association with ADHD in Icelandic and Norwegian samples. Eight associate with ADHD; deletions at 2p16.3 (NRXN1), 15q11.2, 15q13.3 (BP4 & BP4.5-BP5) and 22q11.21, and duplications at 1q21.1 distal, 16p11.2 proximal, 16p13.11 and 22q11.21. Six of the CNVs have not been associated with ADHD before. As a group, the 19 CNVs associate with ADHD (OR = 2.43, P = 1.6 × 10-21), even when comorbid ASD and schizophrenia are excluded from the sample. These results highlight the pleiotropic effect of the neuropsychiatric CNVs and add evidence for ADHD, ASD and schizophrenia being related neurodevelopmental disorders rather than distinct entities.

7.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(7): 1066-1074, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209380

RESUMO

Cannabis is the most frequently used illicit psychoactive substance worldwide; around one in ten users become dependent. The risk for cannabis use disorder (CUD) has a strong genetic component, with twin heritability estimates ranging from 51 to 70%. Here we performed a genome-wide association study of CUD in 2,387 cases and 48,985 controls, followed by replication in 5,501 cases and 301,041 controls. We report a genome-wide significant risk locus for CUD (P = 9.31 × 10-12) that replicates in an independent population (Preplication = 3.27 × 10-3, Pmeta-analysis = 9.09 × 10-12). The index variant (rs56372821) is a strong expression quantitative trait locus for cholinergic receptor nicotinic α2 subunit (CHRNA2); analyses of the genetically regulated gene expression identified a significant association of CHRNA2 expression with CUD in brain tissue. At the polygenic level, analyses revealed a significant decrease in the risk of CUD with increased load of variants associated with cognitive performance. The results provide biological insights and inform on the genetic architecture of CUD.


Assuntos
Abuso de Maconha/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/fisiologia , Receptores Nicotínicos/fisiologia , Idade de Início , Alelos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cromossomos Humanos Par 8/genética , Cognição/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Fatores de Confusão (Epidemiologia) , Dinamarca , Escolaridade , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Islândia , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/biossíntese , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Receptores Nicotínicos/biossíntese , Receptores Nicotínicos/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Fumar/genética , Transcriptoma
8.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1777, 2019 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30992453

RESUMO

Nerve conduction (NC) studies generate measures of peripheral nerve function that can reveal underlying pathology due to axonal loss, demyelination or both. We perform a genome-wide association study of sural NC amplitude and velocity in 7045 Icelanders and find a low-frequency splice-donor variant in PRPH (c.996+1G>A; MAF = 1.32%) associating with decreased NC amplitude but not velocity. PRPH encodes peripherin, an intermediate filament (IF) protein involved in cytoskeletal development and maintenance of neurons. Through RNA and protein studies, we show that the variant leads to loss-of-function (LoF), as when over-expressed in a cell line devoid of other IFs, it does not allow formation of the normal filamentous structure of peripherin, yielding instead punctate protein inclusions. Recall of carriers for neurological assessment confirms that from an early age, homozygotes have significantly lower sural NC amplitude than non-carriers and are at risk of a mild, early-onset, sensory-negative, axonal polyneuropathy.


Assuntos
Condução Nervosa/genética , Periferinas/genética , Polineuropatias/genética , Sítios de Splice de RNA/genética , Nervo Sural/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Axônios/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Linhagem Celular , Feminino , Seguimentos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Homozigoto , Humanos , Islândia/epidemiologia , Mutação com Perda de Função , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polineuropatias/epidemiologia , Polineuropatias/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Processamento de RNA/fisiologia
9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1284, 2019 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30894546

RESUMO

The corneal endothelium is vital for transparency and proper hydration of the cornea. Here, we conduct a genome-wide association study of corneal endothelial cell density (cells/mm2), coefficient of cell size variation (CV), percentage of hexagonal cells (HEX) and central corneal thickness (CCT) in 6,125 Icelanders and find associations at 10 loci, including 7 novel. We assess the effects of these variants on various ocular biomechanics such as corneal hysteresis (CH), as well as eye diseases such as glaucoma and corneal dystrophies. Most notably, an intergenic variant close to ANAPC1 (rs78658973[A], frequency = 28.3%) strongly associates with decreased cell density and accounts for 24% of the population variance in cell density (ß = -0.77 SD, P = 1.8 × 10-314) and associates with increased CH (ß = 0.19 SD, P = 2.6 × 10-19) without affecting risk of corneal diseases and glaucoma. Our findings indicate that despite correlations between cell density and eye diseases, low cell density does not increase the risk of disease.


Assuntos
Subunidade Apc1 do Ciclossomo-Complexo Promotor de Anáfase/genética , Distrofias Hereditárias da Córnea/genética , Epitélio Posterior/metabolismo , Glaucoma/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Subunidade Apc1 do Ciclossomo-Complexo Promotor de Anáfase/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Contagem de Células , Tamanho Celular , Distrofias Hereditárias da Córnea/diagnóstico , Distrofias Hereditárias da Córnea/patologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Epitélio Posterior/patologia , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Glaucoma/diagnóstico , Glaucoma/patologia , Humanos , Pressão Intraocular , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
10.
Nat Genet ; 51(2): 267-276, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30643255

RESUMO

Nasal polyps (NP) are lesions on the nasal and paranasal sinus mucosa and are a risk factor for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). We performed genome-wide association studies on NP and CRS in Iceland and the UK (using UK Biobank data) with 4,366 NP cases, 5,608 CRS cases, and >700,000 controls. We found 10 markers associated with NP and 2 with CRS. We also tested 210 markers reported to associate with eosinophil count, yielding 17 additional NP associations. Of the 27 NP signals, 7 associate with CRS and 13 with asthma. Most notably, a missense variant in ALOX15 that causes a p.Thr560Met alteration in arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO) confers large genome-wide significant protection against NP (P = 8.0 × 10-27, odds ratio = 0.32; 95% confidence interval = 0.26, 0.39) and CRS (P = 1.1 × 10-8, odds ratio = 0.64; 95% confidence interval = 0.55, 0.75). p.Thr560Met, carried by around 1 in 20 Europeans, was previously shown to cause near total loss of 15-LO enzymatic activity. Our findings identify 15-LO as a potential target for therapeutic intervention in NP and CRS.


Assuntos
Araquidonato 15-Lipoxigenase/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Pólipos Nasais/genética , Sinusite/genética , Adulto , Asma/genética , Doença Crônica , Eosinófilos/patologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Islândia , Contagem de Leucócitos/métodos , Masculino , Pólipos Nasais/patologia , Sinusite/patologia
11.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 213, 2019 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30631080

RESUMO

The original version of this Article contained an error in the spelling of a member of the PRACTICAL Consortium, Manuela Gago-Dominguez, which was incorrectly given as Manuela Gago Dominguez. This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article. Furthermore, in the original HTML version of this Article, the order of authors within the author list was incorrect. The PRACTICAL consortium was incorrectly listed after Richard S. Houlston and should have been listed after Nora Pashayan. This error has been corrected in the HTML version of the Article; the PDF version was correct at the time of publication.

12.
Science ; 363(6425)2019 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30679340

RESUMO

Genetic diversity arises from recombination and de novo mutation (DNM). Using a combination of microarray genotype and whole-genome sequence data on parent-child pairs, we identified 4,531,535 crossover recombinations and 200,435 DNMs. The resulting genetic map has a resolution of 682 base pairs. Crossovers exhibit a mutagenic effect, with overrepresentation of DNMs within 1 kilobase of crossovers in males and females. In females, a higher mutation rate is observed up to 40 kilobases from crossovers, particularly for complex crossovers, which increase with maternal age. We identified 35 loci associated with the recombination rate or the location of crossovers, demonstrating extensive genetic control of meiotic recombination, and our results highlight genes linked to the formation of the synaptonemal complex as determinants of crossovers.


Assuntos
Troca Genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Taxa de Mutação , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Islândia , Masculino , Idade Materna , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Complexo Sinaptonêmico
13.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 5101, 2018 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30504769

RESUMO

Gallstones are responsible for one of the most common diseases in the Western world and are commonly treated with cholecystectomy. We perform a meta-analysis of two genome-wide association studies of gallstone disease in Iceland and the UK, totaling 27,174 cases and 736,838 controls, uncovering 21 novel gallstone-associated variants at 20 loci. Two distinct low frequency missense variants in SLC10A2, encoding the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT), associate with an increased risk of gallstone disease (Pro290Ser: OR = 1.36 [1.25-1.49], P = 2.1 × 10-12, MAF = 1%; Val98Ile: OR = 1.15 [1.10-1.20], P = 1.8 × 10-10, MAF = 4%). We demonstrate that lower bile acid transport by ASBT is accompanied by greater risk of gallstone disease and highlight the role of the intestinal compartment of the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids in gallstone disease susceptibility. Additionally, two low frequency missense variants in SERPINA1 and HNF4A and 17 common variants represent novel associations with gallstone disease.

14.
Nat Genet ; 50(12): 1674-1680, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30397338

RESUMO

De novo mutations (DNMs) cause a large proportion of severe rare diseases of childhood. DNMs that occur early may result in mosaicism of both somatic and germ cells. Such early mutations can cause recurrence of disease. We scanned 1,007 sibling pairs from 251 families and identified 878 DNMs shared by siblings (ssDNMs) at 448 genomic sites. We estimated DNM recurrence probability based on parental mosaicism, sharing of DNMs among siblings, parent-of-origin, mutation type and genomic position. We detected 57.2% of ssDNMs in the parental blood. The recurrence probability of a DNM decreases by 2.27% per year for paternal DNMs and 1.78% per year for maternal DNMs. Maternal ssDNMs are more likely to be T>C mutations than paternal ssDNMs, and less likely to be C>T mutations. Depending on the properties of the DNM, the recurrence probability ranges from 0.011% to 28.5%. We have launched an online calculator to allow estimation of DNM recurrence probability for research purposes.

15.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4568, 2018 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30410027

RESUMO

Benign prostatic hyperplasia and associated lower urinary tract symptoms (BPH/LUTS) are common conditions affecting the majority of elderly males. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study of symptomatic BPH/LUTS in 20,621 patients and 280,541 controls of European ancestry, from Iceland and the UK. We discovered 23 genome-wide significant variants, located at 14 loci. There is little or no overlap between the BPH/LUTS variants and published prostate cancer risk variants. However, 15 of the variants reported here also associate with serum levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA) (at a Bonferroni corrected P < 0.0022). Furthermore, there is a strong genetic correlation, rg = 0.77 (P = 2.6 × 10-11), between PSA and BPH/LUTS, and one standard deviation increase in a polygenic risk score (PRS) for BPH/LUTS increases PSA levels by 12.9% (P = 1.6×10-55). These results shed a light on the genetic background of BPH/LUTS and its substantial influence on PSA levels.

17.
Nat Genet ; 50(12): 1681-1687, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30374069

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis has a highly negative impact on quality of life because of the associated pain and loss of joint function. Here we describe the largest meta-analysis so far of osteoarthritis of the hip and the knee in samples from Iceland and the UK Biobank (including 17,151 hip osteoarthritis patients, 23,877 knee osteoarthritis patients, and more than 562,000 controls). We found 23 independent associations at 22 loci in the additive meta-analyses, of which 16 of the loci were novel: 12 for hip and 4 for knee osteoarthritis. Two associations are between rare or low-frequency missense variants and hip osteoarthritis, affecting the genes SMO (rs143083812, frequency 0.11%, odds ratio (OR) = 2.8, P = 7.9 × 10-12, p.Arg173Cys) and IL11 (rs4252548, frequency 2.08%, OR = 1.30, P = 2.1 × 10-11, p.Arg112His). A common missense variant in the COL11A1 gene also associates with hip osteoarthritis (rs3753841, frequency 61%, P = 5.2 × 10-10, OR = 1.08, p.Pro1284Leu). In addition, using a recessive model, we confirm an association between hip osteoarthritis and a variant of CHADL1 (rs117018441, P = 1.8 × 10-25, OR = 5.9). Furthermore, we observe a complex relationship between height and risk of osteoarthritis.

18.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4447, 2018 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30361506

RESUMO

Mutations in genes encoding subunits of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase complex are recognized to cause chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), a severe primary immunodeficiency. Here we describe how deficiency of CYBC1, a previously uncharacterized protein in humans (C17orf62), leads to reduced expression of NADPH oxidase's main subunit (gp91phox) and results in CGD. Analyzing two brothers diagnosed with CGD we identify a homozygous loss-of-function mutation, p.Tyr2Ter, in CYBC1. Imputation of p.Tyr2Ter into 155K chip-genotyped Icelanders reveals six additional homozygotes, all with signs of CGD, manifesting as colitis, rare infections, or a severely impaired PMA-induced neutrophil oxidative burst. Homozygosity for p.Tyr2Ter consequently associates with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in Iceland (P = 8.3 × 10-8; OR = 67.6), as well as reduced height (P = 3.3 × 10-4; -8.5 cm). Overall, we find that CYBC1 deficiency results in CGD characterized by colitis and a distinct profile of infections indicative of macrophage dysfunction.

19.
Nat Genet ; 50(11): 1542-1552, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30349119

RESUMO

Imprinting is the preferential expression of one parental allele over the other. It is controlled primarily through differential methylation of cytosine at CpG dinucleotides. Here we combine 285 methylomes and 11,617 transcriptomes from peripheral blood samples with parent-of-origin phased haplotypes, to produce a new map of imprinted methylation and gene expression patterns across the human genome. We demonstrate how imprinted methylation is a continuous rather than a binary characteristic. We describe at high resolution the parent-of-origin methylation pattern at the 15q11.2 Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome locus, with nearly confluent stochastic paternal methylation punctuated by 'spikes' of maternal methylation. We find examples of polymorphic imprinted methylation unrelated (at VTRNA2-1 and PARD6G) or related (at CHRNE) to nearby SNP genotypes. We observe RNA isoform-specific imprinted expression patterns suggestive of a methylation-sensitive transcriptional elongation block. Finally, we gain new insights into parent-of-origin-specific effects on phenotypes at the DLK1/MEG3 and GNAS loci.

20.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 11(8): e002151, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30354339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is an important cause of heart failure. Variants in >50 genes have been reported to cause DCM, but causative variants have been found in less than half of familial cases. Variants causing DCM in Iceland have not been reported before. METHODS: We performed a genome-wide association study on DCM based on whole genome sequencing. We tested the association of 32.5 million sequence variants in 424 cases and 337 689 population controls in Iceland. RESULTS: We identified 2 DCM variants in established cardiomyopathy genes, a missense variant p.Phe145Leu in NKX2-5 carried by 1 in 7100 Icelanders ( P=7.0×10-12) and a frameshift variant p.Phe1626Serfs*40 in FLNC carried by 1 in 3600 Icelanders ( P=2.1×10-10). Both variants associate with heart failure and sudden cardiac death. Additionally, p.Phe145Leu in NKX2-5 associates with high degree atrioventricular block and atrial septal defect ( P<1.4×10-4). The penetrance of serious heart disease among carriers of the NKX2-5 variant is high and higher than that of the FLNC variant. CONCLUSIONS: Two rare variants in NKX2-5 and FLNC, carried by 1 in 2400 Icelanders, cause familial DCM in Iceland. These genes have recently been associated with DCM. Given the serious consequences of these variants, we suggest screening for them in individuals with DCM and their family members, with subsequent monitoring of carriers, offering early intervention.

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