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2.
Vision (Basel) ; 5(4)2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34698308

RESUMO

This study investigates the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in conjunctival secretions and tears and evaluates ocular symptoms in a group of patients with COVID-19. We included 56 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in this cross-sectional cohort study. Conjunctival secretions and tears were collected using flocked swabs and Schirmer strips for SARS-CoV-2 reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Assessment of ocular surface manifestations included an OSDI (Ocular Surface Disease Index) questionnaire. Patients had been admitted to hospital for an average of 2.4 days (range 0-7) and had shown general symptoms for an average of 7.1 days (range 1-20) prior to ocular testing. Four (7.1%) of 56 conjunctival swabs and four (4%) of 112 Schirmer strips were positive for SARS-CoV-2. The mean E-gene cycle threshold values (Ct values) were 31.2 (SD 5.0) in conjunctival swabs and 32.9 (SD 2.7) in left eye Schirmer strips. Overall, 17 (30%) patients presented ocular symptoms. No association was found between positive ocular samples and ocular symptoms. This study shows that SARS-CoV-2 can be detected on the conjunctiva and tears of patients with COVID-19. Contact with the ocular surface may transmit the virus and preventive measures should be taken in this direction.

3.
J Am Board Fam Med ; 34(5): 974-983, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535522

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Measurements of C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) are frequently ordered jointly in clinical practice. AIM: To investigate the factors associated with discordances between CRP concentration and ESR in adults. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1472 adults with no known inflammatory disorders (44.5% male; median age, 52 years; range, 18-91 years), randomly selected from a municipality in Spain. The participants underwent simultaneous measurements of ESR, serum CRP, and interleukin-6 concentrations. Alcohol consumption, smoking, and physical activity were evaluated by questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI) measurement and metabolic syndrome criteria were available for all participants. RESULTS: Most (n = 1123, 74.9%) of the participants showed normal CRP and ESR values. Sixty-nine (4.6%) participants showed high CRP and ESR values. Seventy-two (4.8%) participants showed a discordant pattern of high ESR and normal CRP values, which was associated with age after adjusting for sex, alcohol consumption, physical activity, BMI, and the presence of metabolic syndrome (odds ratio [OR], 1.052; 95% CI, 1.034-1.071; P < .001). A total of 208 (13.8%) participants showed a discordant pattern of high CRP and normal ESR values, which was associated with BMI after adjusting for covariates (OR, 1.099; 95% CI, 1.064-1.136; P < .001). BMI appeared to be the main determinant of serum CRP concentrations in this population. Serum interleukin-6 concentrations were positively associated with the discordant pattern of high CRP and normal ESR values. CONCLUSION: In this general adult population with no overt inflammatory disease, the discordant pattern of high ESR and normal CRP was associated with greater age, whereas the pattern of high CRP and normal ESR was associated with higher BMI.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa , Exercício Físico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores , Sedimentação Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
4.
Stat Med ; 40(26): 5926-5946, 2021 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34396576

RESUMO

Many clinical decisions are taken based on the results of continuous diagnostic tests. Usually, only the results of one single test is taken into consideration, the interpretation of which requires a reference range for the healthy population. However, the use of two different tests, can be necessary in the diagnosis of certain diseases. This obliges a bivariate reference region be available for their interpretation. It should also be remembered that reference regions may depend on patient variables (eg, age and sex) independent of the suspected disease. However, few proposals have been made regarding the statistical modeling of such reference regions, and those put forward have always assumed a Gaussian distribution, which can be rather restrictive. The present work describes a new statistical method that allows such reference regions to be estimated with no insistence on the results being normally distributed. The proposed method is based on a bivariate location-scale model that provides probabilistic regions covering a specific percentage of the bivariate data, dependent on certain covariates. The reference region is estimated nonparametrically and the nonlinear effects of continuous covariates via polynomial kernel smoothers in additive models. The bivariate model is estimated using a backfitting algorithm, and the optimal smoothing parameters of the kernel smoothers selected by cross-validation. The model performed satisfactorily in simulation studies under the assumption of non-Gaussian conditions. Finally, the proposed methodology was found to be useful in estimating a reference region for two continuous diagnostic tests for diabetes (fasting plasma glucose and glycated hemoglobin), taking into account the age of the patient.


Assuntos
Glicemia , Modelos Estatísticos , Algoritmos , Biomarcadores/análise , Humanos , Distribuição Normal
5.
Cont Lens Anterior Eye ; : 101495, 2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34330645

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the association of keratoconus (KC) with meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) and to describe the epidemiological characteristics of MGD in this disease. METHODS: In this observational study, 120 KC patients seen in the Department of Ophthalmology of the Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela and 87 controls were analyzed. The Ocular surface disease index (OSDI) questionnaire was administered and several DED tests and an evaluation of the meibomian glands and lid margin were performed. MGD signs and DED tests were compared between the groups. Symptoms were further analyzed in patients and controls with and without MGD. RESULTS: KC was significantly associated with MGD after adjusting for age and sex [adjusted odds ratio (ORa), 2.40]. The frequency of MGD in KC patients [59 (49.2%) KC patients and 25 (28.7%) controls had MGD] correlated with the severity of KC (r = 0.206) (P = 0.020). Mean OSDI score in KC patients with and without MGD was 31.1 ± 24.1 and 35.2 ± 26.0 (P = 0.326), and 17.2 ± 22.7 and 13.3 ± 14.1 in controls with and without it (P = 0.366). The most common MGD signs coincided in both groups. Staining with fluorescein (P = 0.000) and lissamine green (P = 0.019) was higher in KC patients, but no differences were detected with TBUT (P = 0.116) or the Schirmer test (P = 0.637). Hypersecretory MGD was the most prevalent variant in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: MGD and DED are common in KC patients. MGD correlates with the severity of KC and is indistinguishable from MGD in patients without KC. No association was found with symptoms. Patients with KC should be screened for MGD because of its possible clinical implications. Further research is needed to clarify the role of MGD in KC patients.

6.
Scand J Clin Lab Invest ; 81(6): 454-460, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34236241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: To investigate the influence of common factors on serum immunoglobulin M (IgM) concentrations in adults, and clinical associations with high and low values. METHODS: We measured serum IgM levels using immunonephelometry in a random sample of 1510 individuals (aged 18-91 years, 44.7% male). We obtained data defining metabolic syndrome from all participants, defined atopy by skin prick tests to aeroallergens, and assessed lifestyle factors by questionnaire. RESULTS: Women showed higher IgM concentrations than men; 95 (6.3%, mostly male) individuals showed low (<0.40 g/L) IgM values, and 64 (4.2%, mostly female) showed high (>2.30 g/L) IgM values. Individuals with abnormal IgM concentrations had no history of opportunistic infections nor a different atopy prevalence. Serum IgM concentrations decreased with age, and obesity was negatively associated with IgM concentrations. Alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, and metabolic syndrome had no significant influence in the multivariate analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Many adults in the general population show abnormally high or low IgM concentrations with no evidence of immunodeficiency-associated diseases. Sex and age should be considered when defining reference IgM concentrations.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071171

RESUMO

Introduction: We evaluated the effectiveness of an individual, group and community intervention to improve the glycemic control of patients with diabetes mellitus aged 45-75 years with two or three unhealthy life habits. As secondary endpoints, we evaluated the inverventions' effectiveness on adhering to Mediterranean diet, physical activity, sedentary lifestyle, smoking and quality of life. Method: A randomized clinical cluster (health centers) trial with two parallel groups in Spain from January 2016 to December 2019 was used. Patients with diabetes mellitus aged 45-75 years with two unhealthy life habits or more (smoking, not adhering to Mediterranean diet or little physical activity) participated. Centers were randomly assigned. The sample size was estimated to be 420 people for the main outcome variable. Educational intervention was done to improve adherence to Mediterranean diet, physical activity and smoking cessation by individual, group and community interventions for 12 months. Controls received the usual health care. The outcome variables were: HbA1c (main), the Mediterranean diet adherence score (MEDAS), the international diet quality index (DQI-I), the international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ), sedentary lifestyle, smoking ≥1 cigarette/day and the EuroQuol questionnaire (EVA-EuroQol5D5L). Results: In total, 13 control centers (n = 356) and 12 intervention centers (n = 338) were included with similar baseline conditions. An analysis for intention-to-treat was done by applying multilevel mixed models fitted by basal values and the health center: the HbA1c adjusted mean difference = -0.09 (95% CI: -0.29-0.10), the DQI-I adjusted mean difference = 0.25 (95% CI: -0.32-0.82), the MEDAS adjusted mean difference = 0.45 (95% CI: 0.01-0.89), moderate/high physical activity OR = 1.09 (95% CI: 0.64-1.86), not living a sedentary lifestyle OR = 0.97 (95% CI: 0.55-1.73), no smoking OR = 0.61 (95% CI: 0.54-1.06), EVA adjusted mean difference = -1.26 (95% CI: -4.98-2.45). Conclusions: No statistically significant changes were found for either glycemic control or physical activity, sedentary lifestyle, smoking and quality of life. The multicomponent individual, group and community interventions only showed a statistically significant improvement in adhering to Mediterranean diet. Such innovative interventions need further research to demonstrate their effectiveness in patients with poor glycemic control.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Qualidade de Vida , Exercício Físico , Hábitos , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Fumar , Espanha/epidemiologia
8.
J Arrhythm ; 37(3): 653-659, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34141018

RESUMO

Introduction: The benefit of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) in heart failure (HF) patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) have been observed in the first year. However, there are few data on long-term follow-up and the effect of changes of LVEF on mortality. This study aimed to assess the LV remodeling after CRT implantation and the probable effect of changes in LVEF with repeated measures on mortality over time in a real-world registry. Methods: Among our cohort of 328 consecutive CRT patients, mixed model effect analysis have been made to describe the temporal evolution of LVEF and LVESV changes over time up with several explanatory variables. Besides, the effect of LVEF along time on the probability of mortality was evaluated using joint modeling for longitudinal and survival data. Results: The study population included 328 patients (253 men; 70.2 ± 9.5 years) in 4.2 (2.9) years follow-up. There was an increase in LVEF of 11% and a reduction in LVESV of 42 mL during the first year. These changes are more important during the first year, but slight changes remain during the follow-up. The largest reduction in LVESV occurred in patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB) and the smallest reduction in patients with NYHA IV. The smallest increase in LVEF was an ischemic etiology, longer QRS, and LV electrode in a nonlateral vein. Besides, the results showed that the LVEF profiles taken during follow-up after CRT were associated with changes in the risk of death. Conclusion: Reverse remodeling of the left ventricle is observed especially during the first year, but it seems to be maintained later after CRT implantation in a contemporary cohort of patients. Longitudinal measurements could give us additional information at predicting the individual mortality risk after adjusting by age and sex compared to a single LVEF measurement after CRT.

9.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33916940

RESUMO

The Atlantic diet, the traditional dietary pattern in northern Portugal and northwest Spain, has been related to metabolic health and low ischemic heart disease mortality. The Galiat Study is a randomized controlled trial aimed to assess the effects of the Atlantic diet on anthropometric variables, metabolic profile, and nutritional habits. The dietary intervention was conducted in 250 families (720 adults and children) and performed at a primary care center. Over six months, families randomized to the intervention group received educational sessions, cooking classes, written supporting material, and foods that form part of the Atlantic diet, whereas those randomized to the control group followed their habitual lifestyle. 213 families (92.4%) completed the trial. Adults in the intervention group lost weight as opposed to controls who gained weight (adjusted mean difference -1.1 kg, p < 0.001) and total serum cholesterol (adjusted mean difference -5.2 mg/dL, p = 0.004). Significant differences in favor of the intervention were found in other anthropometric variables and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, but changes in triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, inflammation markers, blood pressure, and glucose metabolism were not observed. A family-based nutritional intervention based on the Atlantic diet showed beneficial effects on adiposity and the lipid profile.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Dieta Mediterrânea , Características de Residência , Adulto , Peso Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colesterol/sangue , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Diretrizes para o Planejamento em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Cooperação do Paciente
11.
Int J Clin Health Psychol ; 21(2): 100229, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33767736

RESUMO

Background/Objective 'Third-wave' psychotherapies have shown effectiveness for treating psychopathological symptoms such as anxiety and depression. There is burgeoning interest in examining how these therapies' core constructs produce their therapeutic benefits. This study explores the hypothetical mediating effect of resilience in the impact of mindfulness and self-compassion on anxiety and depressive symptoms. Method: Cross-sectional study design. The sample consisted of 860 Spanish general population participants. The measures included the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS-12), the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) and the Goldberg Anxiety and Depression Scale (GADS). Bivariate correlations were calculated, and path analysis models were performed. Results: Significant correlations were found between the study variables, always in the expected direction (all p values <.001). The path analysis models showed significant direct effects of mindfulness and self-compassion on anxiety and depression symptoms, but the only significant indirect effects through resilience were found on depression (MAAS: ß = -.05, 95% CI = -.11 to -.02; SCS-12: ß = -.06, 95% CI = -.33 to -.07). Conclusions: Resilience might partially mediate the effect of mindfulness and self-compassion on depression, but not on anxiety.

12.
Stat Methods Med Res ; 30(6): 1445-1464, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33760665

RESUMO

Biosensor data have the potential to improve disease control and detection. However, the analysis of these data under free-living conditions is not feasible with current statistical techniques. To address this challenge, we introduce a new functional representation of biosensor data, termed the glucodensity, together with a data analysis framework based on distances between them. The new data analysis procedure is illustrated through an application in diabetes with continuous-time glucose monitoring (CGM) data. In this domain, we show marked improvement with respect to state-of-the-art analysis methods. In particular, our findings demonstrate that (i) the glucodensity possesses an extraordinary clinical sensitivity to capture the typical biomarkers used in the standard clinical practice in diabetes; (ii) previous biomarkers cannot accurately predict glucodensity, so that the latter is a richer source of information and; (iii) the glucodensity is a natural generalization of the time in range metric, this being the gold standard in the handling of CGM data. Furthermore, the new method overcomes many of the drawbacks of time in range metrics and provides more in-depth insight into assessing glucose metabolism.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Diabetes Mellitus , Glicemia , Automonitorização da Glicemia , Análise de Dados , Glucose , Humanos
13.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 368, 2021 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596889

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Corona Virus Disease 19 (COVID-19) is a new pandemic, declared a public health emergency by the World Health Organization, which could have negative consequences for pregnant and postpartum women. The scarce evidence published to date suggests that perinatal mental health has deteriorated since the COVID-19 outbreak. However, the few studies published so far have some limitations, such as a cross-sectional design and the omission of important factors for the understanding of perinatal mental health, including governmental restriction measures and healthcare practices implemented at the maternity hospitals. Within the Riseup-PPD COST Action, a study is underway to assess the impact of COVID-19 in perinatal mental health. The primary objectives are to (1) evaluate changes in perinatal mental health outcomes; and (2) determine the risk and protective factors for perinatal mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, we will compare the results between the countries participating in the study. METHODS: This is an international prospective cohort study, with a baseline and three follow-up assessments over a six-month period. It is being carried out in 11 European countries (Albania, Bulgaria, Cyprus, France, Greece, Israel, Malta, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, and the United Kingdom), Argentina, Brazil and Chile. The sample consists of adult pregnant and postpartum women (with infants up to 6 months of age). The assessment includes measures on COVID-19 epidemiology and public health measures (Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker dataset), Coronavirus Perinatal Experiences (COPE questionnaires), psychological distress (BSI-18), depression (EPDS), anxiety (GAD-7) and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSD checklist for DSM-V). DISCUSSION: This study will provide important information for understanding the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on perinatal mental health and well-being, including the identification of potential risk and protective factors by implementing predictive models using machine learning techniques. The findings will help policymakers develop suitable guidelines and prevention strategies for perinatal mental health and contribute to designing tailored mental health interventions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04595123 .


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Gestantes/psicologia , Adulto , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Proteção , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Risco
15.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; 182(3): 220-228, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176332

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Few reports have investigated the association between metabolic abnormalities (obesity and related metabolic syndrome) and total serum IgE concentrations. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included a random sample of 1,516 adult individuals (44.7% men, aged 18-91 years, median 52 years) from a single municipality in Spain. Serum IgE was measured in the ADVIA Centaur system. Atopy was defined by the presence of positive skin prick tests to a panel of common aeroallergens in the area. Body mass index and data related to the definition of metabolic syndrome were obtained from all participants. Alcohol consumption, smoking, and regular physical exercise were assessed by a questionnaire. RESULTS: Atopy (present in 21.9% of 1,514 evaluable individuals) was the strongest factor determining serum IgE concentrations. Male sex and heavy alcohol drinking were independently associated with higher IgE concentrations, particularly in the non-atopic individuals. Body mass index was positively associated with IgE concentrations, independent of potential confounders, although the effect was only evident among non-atopic individuals. In that group, median IgE concentrations in normal-weight and obese individuals were 15 and 24 kU/L, respectively (p < 0.001); likewise, obesity was associated with high (>100 kU/L) IgE concentrations after adjusting for potential confounders (odds ratio: 1.79, 95% confidence interval: 1.26-2.56, p = 0.001). The presence of metabolic syndrome and its components, particularly abdominal obesity and hyperglycaemia, was also positively and independently associated with higher IgE concentrations in non-atopic individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity and metabolic syndrome components are associated with high total serum IgE concentrations, particularly in non-atopic individuals.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alérgenos/imunologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade Imediata/sangue , Hipersensibilidade Imediata/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade Imediata/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade Imediata/imunologia , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Testes Cutâneos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 19794, 2020 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33188225

RESUMO

The prognosis of a patient with COVID-19 pneumonia is uncertain. Our objective was to establish a predictive model of disease progression to facilitate early decision-making. A retrospective study was performed of patients admitted with COVID-19 pneumonia, classified as severe (admission to the intensive care unit, mechanic invasive ventilation, or death) or non-severe. A predictive model based on clinical, laboratory, and radiological parameters was built. The probability of progression to severe disease was estimated by logistic regression analysis. Calibration and discrimination (receiver operating characteristics curves and AUC) were assessed to determine model performance. During the study period 1152 patients presented with SARS-CoV-2 infection, of whom 229 (19.9%) were admitted for pneumonia. During hospitalization, 51 (22.3%) progressed to severe disease, of whom 26 required ICU care (11.4); 17 (7.4%) underwent invasive mechanical ventilation, and 32 (14%) died of any cause. Five predictors determined within 24 h of admission were identified: Diabetes, Age, Lymphocyte count, SaO2, and pH (DALSH score). The prediction model showed a good clinical performance, including discrimination (AUC 0.87 CI 0.81, 0.92) and calibration (Brier score = 0.11). In total, 0%, 12%, and 50% of patients with severity risk scores ≤ 5%, 6-25%, and > 25% exhibited disease progression, respectively. A risk score based on five factors predicts disease progression and facilitates early decision-making according to prognosis.


Assuntos
COVID-19/patologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/terapia , Comorbidade , Estado Terminal , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
Arch. bronconeumol. (Ed. impr.) ; 56(7): 426-434, jul. 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-198167

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pleural effusion occurs as a response of the pleura to aggressions. The pleura reacts differently according to the type of injury. However, pleural reactions have not yet been characterized. The objective of this study was to identify homogeneous clusters of patients based on the analytical characteristics of their pleural fluid and identify pleural response patterns. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted of consecutive patients seen in our unit for pleural effusion. Principal component and cluster analyses were carried out to identify pleural response patterns based on a combination of pleural fluid biomarkers. RESULTS: A total of 1613 patients were grouped into six clusters, namely: cluster 1 (10.5% of the cohort, primarily composed of patients with malignant pleural effusions); cluster 2 (17.4%, pleural effusions with inflammatory biomarkers); cluster 3 (16.1%, primarily composed of patients with infectious pleural effusions); cluster 4 (2.5%, a subcluster of cluster 3, superinfectious effusions); cluster 5 (23.4%, paucicellular pleural effusions); and cluster 6 (30.1%, miscellaneous). Significant differences were observed across clusters in terms of the analytical characteristics of PF (p < 0.001 for all), age (p < 0.001), and gender (p = 0.016). A direct relationship was found between the type of cluster and the etiology of pleural effusion. CONCLUSION: Pleural response is heterogeneous. The pleura may respond differently to the same etiology or similarly to different etiologies, which hinders diagnosis of pleural effusion


INTRODUCCIÓN: El derrame pleural ocurre como una respuesta de la pleura a las agresiones. La pleura reacciona de manera diferente según el tipo de lesión. Sin embargo, las reacciones pleurales aún no se han clasificado. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar grupos homogéneos de pacientes basados en las características analíticas de su líquido pleural e identificar patrones de respuesta pleural. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio prospectivo de pacientes consecutivos ingresados en nuestra unidad por presentar derrame pleural. Se llevaron a cabo análisis de componentes principales y análisis de conglomerados para identificar los patrones de respuesta pleural basados en las combinaciones de biomarcadores del líquido pleural. RESULTADOS: Un total de 1.613 pacientes se agruparon en 6 grupos: conglomerado 1 (10,5% de la cohorte, compuesto principalmente por pacientes con derrames pleurales malignos); conglomerado 2 (17,4%, derrames pleurales con biomarcadores inflamatorios); conglomerado 3 (16,1%, compuesto principalmente por pacientes con derrames pleurales infecciosos); conglomerado 4 (2,5%, un subgrupo del conglomerado 3, derrames superinfecciosos); conglomerado 5 (23,4%, derrames pleurales paucicelulares), y el conglomerado 6 (30,1%, miscelánea). Se observaron diferencias significativas entre los grupos en las características analíticas del líquido pleural (p < 0,001 para todos), la edad (p < 0,001) y el género (p = 0,016). Se encontró una relación directa entre el tipo de conglomerado y la etiología del derrame pleural. CONCLUSIONES: La respuesta pleural es heterogénea. La pleura puede responder de manera diferente a una misma etiología o de manera similar en diferentes etiologías, lo que dificulta el diagnóstico de derrame pleural


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Derrame Pleural/patologia , Derrame Pleural/etiologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Análise de Componente Principal , Progressão da Doença , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos de Coortes , Análise por Conglomerados
18.
Histol Histopathol ; 35(9): 1007-1012, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32495847

RESUMO

Merkel cells are neuroendocrine cells associated to a neural sensitive ending and localized primarily in the epidermis, although they are also found in oral mucosa. Sox2 or SRY-box2 is a key transcription factor important in the maintenance of embryonic neural crest stem cell pluripotency. Sox2 has been described in Merkel cells of skin and in Merkel cell carcinomas, but not specifically in oral Merkel cells. The aims of the present study were to analyze the density of Merkel cells in human oral mucosa and to study the expression of Sox2 in these cells. For these purposes, immunohistochemical analyses for Sox2 and CK20 (the best marker for Merkel cells) were automatically performed on sections of normal human oral mucosa. Double immunofluorescence for Sox2 and CK20 was also performed. To analyze the density of Merkel cells, CK20 positive cells were counted in each sample and the length of the epithelial apical edge was measured (cells/mm). Merkel cells, demonstrated by CK20 immunoreactivity, were found in 95% of oral mucosa specimens studied (n=21). Mean density of Merkel cells in oral mucosa was 1.71±2.34 cells/mm. Sox2 immunoreactivity was found in the nuclei of scattered cells located at the basal layer. Serial sections immunostained for Sox2 and CK20 showed that Sox2-positive cells of oral mucosa coexpressed CK20, confirming that they were Merkel cells. Immunofluorescence for Sox2 and CK20 showed colocalization of both markers, demonstrating that virtually all oral Merkel cells expressed Sox2. This transcription factor could play a role in Merkel cell maturation and maintenance.


Assuntos
Células de Merkel/metabolismo , Mucosa Bucal/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Queratina-20/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes
19.
Ophthalmologica ; 243(1): 51-57, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622971

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) and solar radiation in northwestern Spain. METHODS: All RRD cases in Pontevedra from 2008 and 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Climatological data from 4 weather stations in the area were collected. The association between RRD incidence and solar radiation was investigated. RESULTS: A total of 256 RRD cases were identified. There was a seasonal variation in the incidence of RRD with a maximum number of incident cases observed in June and July and a minimum number of cases observed in January and December. An association was found between RRD incidence and solar radiation both monthly (p = 0.004) and bimonthly (p = 0.057). The right eye was more frequently affected than the left eye (p = 0.035). RD cases other than rhegmatogenous showed neither seasonality nor association with radiation. CONCLUSIONS: Solar radiation may play a role in RRD genesis in our area. Laterality could be related to the amount of radiation reaching each eye.


Assuntos
Lesões por Radiação/complicações , Descolamento Retiniano/etiologia , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lesões por Radiação/epidemiologia , Descolamento Retiniano/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Espanha/epidemiologia , Acuidade Visual
20.
Arch Bronconeumol (Engl Ed) ; 56(7): 426-434, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pleural effusion occurs as a response of the pleura to aggressions. The pleura reacts differently according to the type of injury. However, pleural reactions have not yet been characterized. The objective of this study was to identify homogeneous clusters of patients based on the analytical characteristics of their pleural fluid and identify pleural response patterns. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted of consecutive patients seen in our unit for pleural effusion. Principal component and cluster analyses were carried out to identify pleural response patterns based on a combination of pleural fluid biomarkers. RESULTS: A total of 1613 patients were grouped into six clusters, namely: cluster 1 (10.5% of the cohort, primarily composed of patients with malignant pleural effusions); cluster 2 (17.4%, pleural effusions with inflammatory biomarkers); cluster 3 (16.1%, primarily composed of patients with infectious pleural effusions); cluster 4 (2.5%, a subcluster of cluster 3, superinfectious effusions); cluster 5 (23.4%, paucicellular pleural effusions); and cluster 6 (30.1%, miscellaneous). Significant differences were observed across clusters in terms of the analytical characteristics of PF (p<0.001 for all), age (p<0.001), and gender (p=0.016). A direct relationship was found between the type of cluster and the etiology of pleural effusion. CONCLUSION: Pleural response is heterogeneous. The pleura may respond differently to the same etiology or similarly to different etiologies, which hinders diagnosis of pleural effusion.


Assuntos
Derrame Pleural Maligno , Derrame Pleural , Análise por Conglomerados , Humanos , Pleura , Estudos Prospectivos
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