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2.
Ophthalmologica ; 243(1): 51-57, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622971

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) and solar radiation in northwestern Spain. METHODS: All RRD cases in Pontevedra from 2008 and 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Climatological data from 4 weather stations in the area were collected. The association between RRD incidence and solar radiation was investigated. RESULTS: A total of 256 RRD cases were identified. There was a seasonal variation in the incidence of RRD with a maximum number of incident cases observed in June and July and a minimum number of cases observed in January and December. An association was found between RRD incidence and solar radiation both monthly (p = 0.004) and bimonthly (p = 0.057). The right eye was more frequently affected than the left eye (p = 0.035). RD cases other than rhegmatogenous showed neither seasonality nor association with radiation. CONCLUSIONS: Solar radiation may play a role in RRD genesis in our area. Laterality could be related to the amount of radiation reaching each eye.

3.
Arch Bronconeumol ; 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pleural effusion occurs as a response of the pleura to aggressions. The pleura reacts differently according to the type of injury. However, pleural reactions have not yet been characterized. The objective of this study was to identify homogeneous clusters of patients based on the analytical characteristics of their pleural fluid and identify pleural response patterns. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted of consecutive patients seen in our unit for pleural effusion. Principal component and cluster analyses were carried out to identify pleural response patterns based on a combination of pleural fluid biomarkers. RESULTS: A total of 1613 patients were grouped into six clusters, namely: cluster 1 (10.5% of the cohort, primarily composed of patients with malignant pleural effusions); cluster 2 (17.4%, pleural effusions with inflammatory biomarkers); cluster 3 (16.1%, primarily composed of patients with infectious pleural effusions); cluster 4 (2.5%, a subcluster of cluster 3, superinfectious effusions); cluster 5 (23.4%, paucicellular pleural effusions); and cluster 6 (30.1%, miscellaneous). Significant differences were observed across clusters in terms of the analytical characteristics of PF (p<0.001 for all), age (p<0.001), and gender (p=0.016). A direct relationship was found between the type of cluster and the etiology of pleural effusion. CONCLUSION: Pleural response is heterogeneous. The pleura may respond differently to the same etiology or similarly to different etiologies, which hinders diagnosis of pleural effusion.

4.
Arch. bronconeumol. (Ed. impr.) ; 55(11): 565-572, nov. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-186324

RESUMO

Introducción: Predecir cuándo un derrame pleural infeccioso puede evolucionar hacia una infección complicada/empiema es difícil de establecer. Nuestro propósito es analizar si un modelo predictivo construido con parámetros bioquímicos del líquido pleural puede ayudar a identificar estos derrames. Métodos: Se estudió de forma prospectiva a todos los pacientes diagnosticados de derrame pleural infeccioso y se clasificaron en no complicados y complicados/empiemas. Se realizó un análisis de regresión logística para estimar la probabilidad de infección pleural complicada/empiema. Con base en parámetros bioquímicos del líquido pleural, se construyó un modelo predictivo y se determinaron su discriminación (áreas bajo la curva ROC), calibración y precisión diagnóstica. Resultados: Se incluyó a 177 pacientes (74 infecciones pleurales no complicadas y 103 complicadas/empiemas). El área bajo la curva del modelo construido (pH, lactato deshidrogenasa e interleucina 6) fue 0,9783, significativamente mejor que cualquiera de las variables bioquímicas utilizadas de forma individual (0,921, 0,949 y 0,837, respectivamente; p < 0,001 usando todos los parámetros). La tasa de clasificación correcta fue del 96% de los derrames (170/177; 72/74 [97,3%] de los no complicados y 98/103 [95,1%] de los complicados/empiemas). Conclusión: El modelo predictivo analizado tiene una buena rentabilidad para el diagnóstico de las infecciones pleurales complicadas/empiemas, superior a la de cualquiera de las variables individuales que lo componen


Introduction: Identifying infectious pleural effusions (IPE) that will progress to complicated infection or empyema is challenging. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a model based on multiple biochemical parameters in pleural fluid can predict which IPEs will produce empyema. Methods: A prospective study was performed of all cases of IPEs treated in our unit. IPEs were classified as uncomplicated or complicated (empyema). Logistic regression was used to estimate the risk for complicated pleural infection (empyema). A predictive model was developed using biochemical parameters in pleural fluid. Discriminatory power (areas under the ROC curve), calibration, and diagnostic accuracy of the model were assessed. Results: A total of 177 patients were included in the study (74 with uncomplicated infectious pleural effusion, and 103 with complicated pleural effusion/empyema). The area under the curve (AUC) for the model (pH, lactate dehydrogenase and interleukin 6) was 0.9783, which is significantly superior to the AUC of the individual biochemical parameters alone (0.921, 0.949, and 0.837, respectively; P <.001 using all parameters). The rate of correct classification of infectious pleural effusions was 96% [170/177: 72/74 (97.3%) for uncomplicated and 98/103 (95.1%) for complicated effusion (empyema)]. Conclusion: The multiple-marker model showed better diagnostic performance for predicting complicated infectious pleural effusion (empyema) compared to individual parameters alone


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Pleurais/diagnóstico , Empiema Pleural/complicações , Derrame Pleural/complicações , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Biomarcadores , Estudos Prospectivos , Modelos Logísticos , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
5.
Ann Thorac Med ; 14(4): 254-263, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31620209

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Diagnosis of pleural infection (PI) may be challenging. The purpose of this paper is to develop and validate a clinical prediction model for the diagnosis of PI based on pleural fluid (PF) biomarkers. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted on pleural effusion. Logistic regression was used to estimate the likelihood of having PI. Two models were built using PF biomarkers. The power of discrimination (area under the curve) and calibration of the two models were evaluated. RESULTS: The sample was composed of 706 pleural effusion (248 malignant; 28 tuberculous; 177 infectious; 48 miscellaneous exudates; and 212 transudates). Areas under the curve for Model 1 (leukocytes, percentage of neutrophils, and C-reactive protein) and Model 2 (the same markers plus interleukin-6 [IL-6]) were 0.896 and 0.909, respectively (not significant differences). However, both models showed higher capacity of discrimination than their biomarkers when used separately (P < 0.001 for all). Rates of correct classification for Models 1 and 2 were 88.2% (623/706: 160/177 [90.4%] with infectious pleural effusion [IPE] and 463/529 [87.5%] with non-IPE) and 89.2% (630/706: 153/177 [86.4%] of IPE and 477/529 [90.2%] of non-IPE), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The two predictive models developed for IPE showed a good diagnostic performance, superior to that of any of the markers when used separately. Although IL-6 contributes a slight greater capacity of discrimination to the model that includes it, its routine determination does not seem justified.

6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(34): e16816, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441853

RESUMO

The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is a routine test for inflammation. Few studies have investigated the potential influence of lifestyle factors and common metabolic abnormalities on the ESR. This study investigates the influence of demographic factors, alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome on the ESR in adults.This cross-sectional study covered 1472 individuals (44.5% males; age range, 18-91 years) randomly selected from the population of a Spanish municipality. The ESR was measured using a standardized method. We assessed habitual alcohol consumption in standard drinking units, along with tobacco smoking, regular physical exercise (by questionnaire), body mass index, and variables defining metabolic syndrome. Multivariate analyses were performed, including mean corpuscular volume and hemoglobin concentration in the models.The ESR was higher in females than in males, and increased steadily with age. Median ESR of females was 2-fold higher than that of males, and median ESR of individuals aged >65 years was 2-fold higher than that of individuals in the youngest category (ages 18-35 years). Body mass index, presence of metabolic syndrome, and smoking were independently and positively associated with higher ESR values. Light alcohol drinkers and individuals with high regular physical activity displayed lower ESR values than did alcohol abstainers and individuals with low physical activity, respectively.ESR varies greatly with age and sex, and corresponding reference values are proposed. Lifestyle factors (physical activity, smoking, and alcohol consumption) and common metabolic abnormalities (obesity and related metabolic syndrome) may also influence ESR values.


Assuntos
Sedimentação Sanguínea , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Nutr Metab (Lond) ; 16: 46, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346341

RESUMO

Background: There is a growing interest in the pathopysiological consequences of postprandial hyperglycemia. It is well known that in diabetic patients 2 h plasma glucose is a better risk predictor for coronary heart disease than fasting plasma glucose. Data on the glycemic response in healthy people are scarce. Objective: To evaluate the effect of macronutrients (carbohydrates, fats, and proteins) and fiber on postprandial glycemic response in an observational study of a non-diabetic adult population. Design: Cross-sectional study. 150 non-diabetic adults performed continuous glucose monitoring for 6 days. During this period they recorded food and beverage intake. The participants were instructed not to make changes in their usual diet and physical exercise.Variables analyzed included clinical parameters (age, sex, body weight, height, body mass index, blood pressure, and waist measurement), meal composition (calories, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and fiber) and glycemic postprandial responses separated by sexes.The study period was defined from the start of dinner to 6 h later. Results: A total of 148 (51% women) subjects completed all study procedures. Dinner intake was higher in males than in females (824 vs 531 kcal). Macronutrient distribution was similar in both sexes. No significant differences were found in fiber intake between men and women (5.5 g vs 4.5 g).In both sexes, the higher intake of carbohydrates corresponded to a significantly higher glycemic response (p = 0.0001 in women, p = 0.022 in men). Moreover, in women, as fat intake was higher, a flattening of the postprandial glycemic curve was observed (p = 0.003). With respect to fiber, a significantly lower glycemic response was observed in the group of women whose fiber intake at dinner was higher (p = 0.034). Conclusions: Continuous glucose monitoring provides important information about glucose levels after meals. In this study, the postprandial glycemic response in women was different from that of men, and carbohydrates were the main determinant of elevated postprandial glucose levels.

8.
Acta Diabetol ; 56(9): 1023-1030, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115752

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate, in a sample of nondiabetic adults from a Spanish community, the differences between prediabetes as defined by HbA1c ("H-prediabetes") and by fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ("F-prediabetes") in regard to prevalence and the influence of potential risk factors, adjusting the latter for confounders. METHODS: A total of 1328 nondiabetic participants aged ≥ 18 years were classified as normoglycemic, H-prediabetic [HbA1c 5.7-6.4% (39-47 mmol/mol)] or F-prediabetic (FPG 5.6-6.9 mmol/L). Multivariable analyses were used to compare the impacts of risk factors on the prevalence of H-prediabetes, F-prediabetes and their conjunctive and disjunctive combinations ("HaF-prediabetes" and "HoF-prediabetes," respectively). RESULTS: Some 29.9% of participants were HoF-prediabetic, 21.7% H-prediabetic, 16.3% F-prediabetic and only 8.1% HaF-prediabetic. Whatever the definition of prediabetes, increasing age, fasting insulin and LDL cholesterol were each a risk factor after adjustment for all other variables. Increasing BMI and decreasing mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) were additional risk factors for H-prediabetes; male sex and increasing uric acid for F-prediabetes and increasing BMI for HaF-prediabetes. The participants satisfying the compound condition "hypertension or hyperlipidemia or obesity or hyperuricemia" (59.9% of the whole study group) included 83.1% of all subjects with HoF-prediabetes. CONCLUSIONS: In this population, the most sensitive risk factor for detection of prediabetes was age, followed by fasting insulin, LDL cholesterol, BMI, MCH, male sex and uric acid, with differences depending on the definition of prediabetes. MCH, an indirect measure of erythrocyte survival, significantly influences the prevalence of HbA1c-defined prediabetes. This study suggests that screening of individuals with selected risk factors may identify a high proportion of prediabetic persons.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Jejum/sangue , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Estado Pré-Diabético/diagnóstico , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia/metabolismo , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue , Prevalência , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
9.
Arch Bronconeumol ; 55(11): 565-572, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31005355

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Identifying infectious pleural effusions (IPE) that will progress to complicated infection or empyema is challenging. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a model based on multiple biochemical parameters in pleural fluid can predict which IPEs will produce empyema. METHODS: A prospective study was performed of all cases of IPEs treated in our unit. IPEs were classified as uncomplicated or complicated (empyema). Logistic regression was used to estimate the risk for complicated pleural infection (empyema). A predictive model was developed using biochemical parameters in pleural fluid. Discriminatory power (areas under the ROC curve), calibration, and diagnostic accuracy of the model were assessed. RESULTS: A total of 177 patients were included in the study (74 with uncomplicated infectious pleural effusion, and 103 with complicated pleural effusion/empyema). The area under the curve (AUC) for the model (pH, lactate dehydrogenase and interleukin 6) was 0.9783, which is significantly superior to the AUC of the individual biochemical parameters alone (0.921, 0.949, and 0.837, respectively; P<.001 using all parameters). The rate of correct classification of infectious pleural effusions was 96% [170/177: 72/74 (97.3%) for uncomplicated and 98/103 (95.1%) for complicated effusion (empyema)]. CONCLUSION: The multiple-marker model showed better diagnostic performance for predicting complicated infectious pleural effusion (empyema) compared to individual parameters alone.

10.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 26(8): 795-805, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30776898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Training families of patients at risk for sudden cardiac death in basic life support (BLS) has been recommended, but remains challenging. This research aimed to determine the impact of embedding resuscitation training for patients in a cardiac rehabilitation programme on relatives' BLS skill retention at six months. DESIGN: Intervention community study. METHODS: Relatives of patients suffering acute coronary syndrome or revascularization enrolled on an exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation programme were included. BLS skills of relatives linked to patients in a resuscitation-retraining programme (G-CPR) were compared with those of relatives of patients in a standard programme (G-Stan) at baseline, following brief instruction and six months after. Differences in skill performance and deterioration and self-perceived preparation between groups over time were assessed. RESULTS: Seventy-nine relatives were included and complete data from 66 (G-Stan=33, G-CPR=33) was analysed. Baseline BLS skills were equally poor, improved irregularly following brief instruction and decayed afterwards. G-CPR displayed six-month better performance and lessened skill deterioration over time compared with G-Stan, including enhanced compliance with the BLS sequence ( p = 0.006 for group*time interaction) and global resuscitation quality ( p = 0.007 for group*time interaction). Self-perceived preparation was higher in G-CPR ( p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Relatives of patients suffering acute coronary syndrome or revascularization enrolled on a cardiac rehabilitation programme showed poor BLS skills. A resuscitation-retraining cardiac rehabilitation programme resulted in relatives' higher BLS awareness, skill retention and confidence at six months compared with the standard programme. This may suggest a significant impact of this formula on the family setting and support the active role of patients to enhance health education in their environment.

11.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 7(4): 1298-1305.e3, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30557714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several classifications of systemic adverse reactions (SARs) during allergen immunotherapy have been proposed, but the comparison of their usefulness in daily clinical practice is lacking. OBJECTIVE: The present post hoc analysis was aimed at investigating the practicality of the most relevant international classifications proposed by the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), the American Academy of Asthma, Allergology and Clinical Immunology/American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (AAAACI/ACAAI), and the World Allergy Organization (WAO) using data provided by the longitudinal European Survey on Adverse Systemic Reactions in Allergen Immunotherapy (EASSI) based on daily clinical practice in 3 countries in Europe. METHODS: One hundred nine SARs over 4363 allergen immunotherapy courses were classified as mild (n = 78 [71.5%]), moderate (n = 27 [24.8%]), and severe (n = 4 [3.7%]) by EASSI-doctors, which served as a criterion standard. Every SAR was further classified according to the following grading systems: EAACI 2006 Grading System (EAACI2006), WAO 2010 Grading System (WAO2010), WAO 2017 Grading System (WAO2017), and AAAAI/ACAAI Grading System. All SAR rankings were also cross-compared among each other (Kendall correlation coefficient Tau-b). In general, a low epinephrine use was identified, severe reactions occurred within 15 minutes, and milder reactions were skin only. RESULTS: The analysis indicated disparities in mild and moderate SARs in the different grading systems. The correlation between EASSI-severity and EAACI2006, WAO2010, WAO2017, and AAAAI/ACAAI Grading System was 0.639, 0.502, 0.315, and 0.663, respectively (P < .001 in all cases). However, correlation of severe reactions was good. The best correlation with the onset of the reaction and the number of System Organ Class involved were detected in WAO grading systems. CONCLUSIONS: Despite having a lower correlation than EAACI and AAAAI/ACAAI, the WAO grading appears to provide a moderate correlation among these classifications. The analysis might help to inform clinicians and investigators on selecting the most appropriate classification.

12.
Cornea ; 37(12): 1527-1534, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30067536

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To estimate the incidence of dry eye (DE) and to evaluate risk factors in an adult cohort in Spain. METHODS: The Salnés Eye Study (SES) was a cross-sectional population-based study of 654 subjects conducted from 2005 to 2006. After 11 years, 264 individuals (65.8% response rate) participated in SES 2. The incidence cohort consisted of 209 subjects not diagnosed with DE in SES 1 [mean age (SD) 67.6 years (±10.1), range: 51-92, women 69.4%]. DE was defined as the simultaneous presence of symptoms and at least 1 sign. A Schirmer test score ≤5 mm, tear film breakup time ≤10 seconds, rose bengal staining ≥3, and fluorescein staining ≥1 were considered indicative of signs. Poisson regression models were performed to evaluate risk factors. RESULTS: The 11-year incidence of DE was 25.4% (95% confidence interval, 19.5-31.3) and that of symptoms was 31.6% (confidence interval, 25.4-37.8). DE incidence was significantly associated with age (P < 0.05). After adjusting for age, secondary or university studies were protective factors for DE; taking anxiolytics or antidepressants and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors increased the risk of symptoms; a history of hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or autoimmune diseases increased the risk of signs. CONCLUSIONS: The annual incidence of DE, symptoms, and signs, was found to be 2.3 per 100 person-years. The incidence of symptoms was higher than that reported in similar studies. This study suggests that some factors may increase the risk of symptoms, whereas other factors may increase the risk of signs.


Assuntos
Síndromes do Olho Seco/epidemiologia , Previsões , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Síndromes do Olho Seco/diagnóstico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Espanha/epidemiologia
13.
Diabetol Metab Syndr ; 10: 35, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29713388

RESUMO

Background: A significant association is known between increased glycaemic variability and mortality in critical patients. To ascertain whether glycaemic profiles during the first week after liver transplantation might be associated with long-term mortality in these patients, by analysing whether diabetic status modified this relationship. Method: Observational long-term survival study includes 642 subjects undergoing liver transplantation from July 1994 to July 2011. Glucose profiles, units of insulin and all variables with influence on mortality are analysed using joint modelling techniques. Results: Patients registered a survival rate of 85% at 1 year and 65% at 10 years, without differences in mortality between patients with and without diabetes. In glucose profiles, however, differences were observed between patients with and without diabetes: patients with diabetes registered lower baseline glucose values, which gradually rose until reaching a peak on days 2-3 and then subsequently declined, diabetic subjects started from higher values which gradually decreased across the first week. Patients with diabetes showed an association between mortality and age, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score (MELD) score and hepatitis C virus; among non-diabetic patients, mortality was associated with age, body mass index, malignant aetiology, red blood cell requirements and parenteral nutrition. Glucose profiles were observed to be statistically associated with mortality among patients without diabetes (P = 0.022) but not among patients who presented with diabetes prior to transplantation (P = 0.689). Conclusions: Glucose profiles during the first week after liver transplantation are different in patients with and without diabetes. While glucose profiles are associated with long-term mortality in patients without diabetes, after adjusting for potential confounding variables such as age, cause of transplantation, MELD, nutrition, immunosuppressive drugs, and units of insulin administered, this does not occur among patients with diabetes.

14.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 142: 100-109, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29807103

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate whether continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) reveals patterns of glycaemic behaviour, the detection of which might improve early diagnosis of dysglycaemia. METHODS: A total 1521 complete days of valid CGM data were recorded under real-life conditions from a healthy sample of a Spanish community, as were matching FPG and HbA1C data. No participant was pregnant, had a history of kidney or liver disease, or was taking drugs known to affect glycaemia. RESULTS: CGM and fingerstick measurements showed a mean relative absolute difference of 6.9 ±â€¯2.2%. All subjects were normoglycaemic according to FPG and HbA1C except 21% who were prediabetic. The normoglycaemic subjects had a 24-hour mean blood glucose concentration (MBG) of 5.7 ±â€¯0.4 mmol/L, spending a median of 97% of their time within the target range (3.9-7.8 mmol/L). 73% of them experienced episodes with blood glucose levels above the threshold for impaired glucose tolerance, and 5% levels above the threshold for diabetes. These normoglycaemic participants with episodes of high glycaemia had glycaemic variabilities similar to those of prediabetic subjects with episodes of similar intensity or combined duration. CONCLUSIONS: CGM is a better indicator of possible early dysglycaemia than either FPG or HbA1c.


Assuntos
Automonitorização da Glicemia/métodos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Jejum/sangue , Intolerância à Glucose/diagnóstico , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose/métodos , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue , Adulto , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Virchows Arch ; 472(2): 195-203, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28825136

RESUMO

Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease. Surrogate classification of intrinsic subtypes of invasive carcinomas by combined immunohistochemistry for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), HER2, and Ki67 (4-IHC) has increased steadily since the 2011 St Gallen symposium, due to its rapid subtyping of tumors at a reasonable cost. An important step in improving 4-IHC reproducibility and reliability will be to provide reference values from the routine use of standardized 4-IHC followed by image analysis. The aims of the current study were (1) to analyze invasive breast carcinomas using standardized 4-IHC and quantitative image analysis and (2) to compare the results obtained in the classification of biological subtypes using current Ki67 and PR threshold values proposed by different authors to sub-classifying the luminal A-like and the luminal B-like (HER2-negative) subtypes. Five hundred twenty-one tumors were analyzed by standardized immunohistochemistry, with automatic image analysis, and HER2 FISH technique. Positivity for ER was found in 82.7% and for PR in 70.1% of cases. Using the Allred scoring system, hormone receptor results showed a bimodal distribution, particularly for ER. HER2 positivity was found in 15.7% of cases, and the mean Ki67 score was 32.3%. Using the most recently proposed surrogate definitions for the classification of luminal breast cancer subtypes, the percentages of different subtypes that we found were similar to those published with genomic platforms: 40.7% luminal A-like, 32.4% luminal B-like/HER2-negative, 9.8% luminal B-like/HER2-positive, 6.0% HER2-positive, and 11.1% triple negative. Standardized 4-IHC with automatic image analysis constitutes a low-cost method for surrogate definitions of biological subtypes of breast cancer that delivers accurate results in a day.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/classificação , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/classificação , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/classificação , Carcinoma Lobular/classificação , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/normas , Imuno-Histoquímica/normas , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biópsia com Agulha de Grande Calibre , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/metabolismo , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Lobular/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Lobular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Lobular/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants ; 32(4): 919-926, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28708924

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate radiographic levels of peri-implant bone crest as well as soft tissue response, papilla height, and buccal mucosa recession, in bone-level implants restored with platform switching after 1-year and 5-year follow-ups. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective study called for the placement of 59 implants to obtain a target of 90% power. To compensate for possible dropouts, the sample size was adjusted to 67 implants. To assess marginal bone level changes, periapical radiographs were taken at baseline, 1 year, and 5 years after the definitive restorations. Peri-implant soft tissue modifications were evaluated by performing a photographic sequence at 15 days, 1 year, and 5 years after implant restoration. Parameters measured were: (1) distance from the tip of the papilla to the contact point and (2) apicocoronal crown length. RESULTS: A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA rank test) was used to compare quantitative data among the three time points studied. Mean marginal bone level changes were as follows: -0.06 ± 0.32 mm from baseline to 1 year, -0.23 ± 0.38 mm from 1 to 5 years, and -0.28 ± 0.45 mm from baseline to 5 years. In bone-level outcomes, no statistically significant differences were found between baseline and 1 year, while the mean differences between 1 and 5 years and baseline and 5 years showed statistically significant differences. In the soft tissue analysis, the distance from the tip of the papilla to the contact point showed the following values: baseline, 2.08 mm; 1 year, 1.54 mm; 5 years, 1.31 mm. No statistically significant differences were found between baseline and 1 year, whereas statistically significant differences between 1 and 5 years and baseline and 5 years were found. Apicocoronal crown length measurements showed the following values: baseline, 9.44 mm; 1 year, 9.28 mm; 5 years, 9.81 mm. No significant differences were found between times studied. CONCLUSION: This prospective clinical study of 67 bone-level implants restored according to the platform-switching concept reported that radiographic levels of peri-implant bone crest were statistically significant between 1 and 5 years and baseline and 5 years. For the soft tissue response, the greatest reduction in the distance from the papilla to the contact point from 1 to 5 years and baseline to 5 years was observed. No significant differences were shown in the buccal margin.


Assuntos
Processo Alveolar/diagnóstico por imagem , Processo Alveolar/cirurgia , Coroas , Implantação Dentária Endo-Óssea/métodos , Implantes Dentários para Um Único Dente , Alvéolo Dental/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Restauração Dentária Temporária , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mucosa Bucal , Estudos Prospectivos , Radiografia , Suporte de Carga , Cicatrização
20.
J Diabetes Sci Technol ; 11(4): 780-790, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28317402

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective was to investigate glycemic variability indices in relation to demographic factors and common environmental lifestyles in a general adult population. METHODS: The A Estrada Glycation and Inflammation Study is a cross-sectional study covering 1516 participants selected by sampling of the population aged 18 years and over. A subsample of 622 individuals participated in the Glycation project, which included continuous glucose monitoring procedures. Five glycemic variability indices were analyzed, that is, SD, MAGE, MAG, CONGA1, and MODD. RESULTS: Participants had a mean age of 48 years, 62% were females, and 12% had been previously diagnosed with diabetes. In the population without diabetes, index distributions were not normal but skewed to the right. Distributional regression models that adjusted for age, gender, BMI, alcohol intake, smoking status, and physical activity confirmed that all indices were positively and independently associated with fasting glucose levels and negatively with heavy drinking. SD, MAGE, and CONGA1 were positively associated with aging, and MAG was negatively associated with BMI. None of the GVI studied were influenced by physical activity. Age-group-specific reference values are given for the indices. CONCLUSIONS: This study yielded age-specific reference values for glucose variability indices in a general adult population. Significant increases were observed with aging. Heavy drinking of more than 140 g/week was associated with significant decreases in variability indices. No differences were found between males and females. These normative ranges provide a guide for clinical care, and may offer an alternative treatment target among persons with diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Glucose/análise , Estilo de Vida , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Estudos Transversais , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Fisiológica , Valores de Referência , Fumar , Adulto Jovem
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