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PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256795, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473752


Achieving targets set in the End TB Strategy is still a distant goal for many Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs). The importance of strengthening public-private partnership by engaging all identified providers in Tuberculosis (TB) care has long been advocated in global TB policies and strategies. However, Informal Healthcare Providers (IPs) are not yet prioritised and engaged in National Tuberculosis Programs (NTPs) globally. There exists a substantial body of evidence that confirms an important contribution of IPs in TB care. A systematic understanding of their role is necessary to ascertain their potential in improving TB care in LMICs. The purpose of this review is to scope the role of IPs in TB care. The scoping review was guided by a framework developed by the Joanna Briggs Institute. An electronic search of literature was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS, Global Health, CINAHL, and Web of Science. Of a total 5234 records identified and retrieved, 92 full-text articles were screened, of which 13 were included in the final review. An increasing trend was observed in publication over time, with most published between 2010-2019. In 60% of the articles, NTPs were mentioned as a collaborator in the study. For detection and diagnosis, IPs were primarily involved in identifying and referring patients. Administering DOT (Directly Observed Treatment) to the patient was the major task assigned to IPs for treatment and support. There is a paucity of evidence on prevention, as only one study involved IPs to perform this role. Traditional health providers were the most commonly featured, but there was not much variation in the role by provider type. All studies reported a positive role of IPs in improving TB care outcomes. This review demonstrates that IPs can be successfully engaged in various roles in TB care with appropriate support and training. Their contribution can support countries to achieve their national and global targets if prioritized in National TB Programs.

J Glob Health ; 11: 04038, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484706


Background: By 2030, Sustainable Development Goal 3.4 aims to reduce the premature mortality caused by non-communicable diseases through prevention and treatment. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is the second leading cause of mortality and disability-adjusted life years in India. This review was conducted to estimate the prevalence of COPD using systematic review and meta-analysis technique. Method: Search was conducted using six databases for studies on COPD among population above 30 years in India between years 2000 to 2020. Cross-sectional and cohort studies reporting prevalence of COPD and associated risk factors were included in the present review. Screening and data extraction was done by two authors independently. Studies were appraised for quality using the modified New Castle Ottawa scale and reporting quality was assessed using STROBE guidelines. Result: Our search returned 8973 records, from which 23 records fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Overall, the prevalence of COPD among population aged 30 years and above in India was 7%. Risk factors like active and passive smoking, biomass fuel exposure, environmental tobacco smoke, occupational exposure to dust, indoor and outdoor pollution, and increasing age were reported to have a significant association with COPD among Indian population. Conclusion: Our findings suggest the need for a multicentric national-level research study to understand COPD burden and its contributing risk factors. The findings also suggest the need for COPD sensitive health literacy program focused on early screening and primary prevention of risk factors for COPD, which may help early initiation of self-management practices, that are crucial for better quality of life.

Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(Suppl 5)2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312149


In its commitment towards Sustainable Development Goals, India envisages comprehensive primary health services as a key pillar in achieving universal health coverage. Embedded in siloed vertical programmes, their lack of interoperability and standardisation limits sustainability and hence their benefits have not been realised yet. We propose an enterprise architecture framework that overcomes these challenges and outline a robust futuristic digital health infrastructure for delivery of efficient and effective comprehensive primary healthcare. Core principles of an enterprise platform architecture covering four platform levers to facilitate seamless service delivery, monitor programmatic performance and facilitate research in the context of primary healthcare are listed. A federated architecture supports the custom needs of states and health programmes through standardisation and decentralisation techniques. Interoperability design principles enable integration between disparate information technology systems to ensure continuum of care across referral pathways. A responsive data architecture meets high volume and quality requirements of data accessibility in compliance with regulatory requirements. Security and privacy by design underscore the importance of building trust through role-based access, strong user authentication mechanisms, robust data management practices and consent. The proposed framework will empower programme managers with a ready reference toolkit for designing, implementing and evaluating primary care platforms for large-scale deployment. In the context of health and wellness centres, building a responsive, resilient and reliable enterprise architecture would be a fundamental path towards strengthening health systems leveraging digital health interventions. An enterprise architecture for primary care is the foundational building block for an efficient national digital health ecosystem. As citizens take ownership of their health, futuristic digital infrastructure at the primary care level will determine the health-seeking behaviour and utilisation trajectory of the nation.

Ecossistema , Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Índia , Privacidade , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde
Indian J Public Health ; 65(2): 209-212, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34135195


India's journey in the digital health arena and its contribution to the landmark resolution on digital health by the World Health Organization has been recognized globally. India has demonstrated its commitment to leverage digital health as a health system strengthening intervention, as outlined in the National Digital Health Blueprint based on which, the National Digital Health Mission (NDHM) is currently being piloted by the National health authority. Further, the Sandbox environment of NDHM is actively encouraging all the ecosystem partners to familiarize with the evolving national digital health infrastructure. The strategy to enhance the India's progress in implementation and scale-up of digital health interventions are drawing attention to workforce capacity building, harnessing health data to facilitate research and development, evidence-informed development of policies, sustaining efficiency and quality of system through appropriate monitoring, and periodic evaluation informed by frameworks specific to digital health or those adapted to evaluate health informatics applications.

Int J Med Inform ; 142: 104259, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858339


OBJECTIVE: This review aimed to examine how mobile health (mHealth) to support integrated people-centred health services has been implemented and evaluated in the World Health Organization (WHO) Western Pacific Region (WPR). METHODS: Eight scientific databases were searched. Two independent reviewers screened the literature in title and abstract stages, followed by full-text appraisal, data extraction, and synthesis of eligible studies. Studies were extracted to capture details of the mhealth tools used, the service issues addressed, the study design, and the outcomes evaluated. We then mapped the included studies using the 20 sub-strategies of the WHO Framework on Integrated People-Centred Health Services (IPCHS); as well as with the RE-AIM (Reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation and maintenance) framework, to understand how studies implemented and evaluated interventions. RESULTS: We identified 39 studies, predominantly from Australia (n = 16), China (n = 7), Malaysia (n = 4) and New Zealand (n = 4), and little from low income countries. The mHealth modalities included text messaging, voice and video communication, mobile applications and devices (point-of-care, GPS, and Bluetooth). Health issues addressed included: medication adherence, smoking cessation, cardiovascular disease, heart failure, asthma, diabetes, and lifestyle activities respectively. Almost all were community-based and focused on service issues; only half were disease-specific. mHealth facilitated integrated IPCHS by: enabling citizens and communities to bypass gatekeepers and directly access services; increasing affordability and accessibility of services; strengthening governance over the access, use, safety and quality of clinical care; enabling scheduling and navigation of services; transitioning patients and caregivers between care sectors; and enabling the evaluation of safety and quality outcomes for systemic improvement. Evaluations of mHealth interventions did not always report the underlying theories. They predominantly reported cognitive/behavioural changes rather than patient outcomes. The utility of mHealth to support and improve IPCHS was evident. However, IPCHS strategy 2 (participatory governance and accountability) was addressed least frequently. Implementation was evaluated in regard to reach (n = 30), effectiveness (n = 24); adoption (n = 5), implementation (n = 9), and maintenance (n = 1). CONCLUSIONS: mHealth can transition disease-centred services towards people-centred services. Critical appraisal of studies highlighted methodological issues, raising doubts about validity. The limited evidence for large-scale implementation and international variation in reporting of mHealth practice, modalities used, and health domains addressed requires capacity building. Information-enhanced implementation and evaluation of IPCHS, particularly for participatory governance and accountability, is also important.

Telemedicina , Austrália , China , Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Malásia , Nova Zelândia
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 41(2): 405-411, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30010883


BACKGROUND: This study reviewed the completeness of reporting in Indian qualitative public health research (QPHR) studies using the 'Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research' (COREQ) checklist. METHODS: Search results from five electronic databases were screened by two independent reviewers. We included English-language, primary QPHR studies from India, which were assessed for their compliance with the COREQ checklist. Each COREQ item was noted as either reported or unreported. Descriptive statistics for the number of COREQ items reported by each study, and the number of studies that reported each COREQ item were reported, as were the items reported in each year, and in pre- and post-COREQ time periods. RESULTS: Of 537 citations, 246 articles were included. Trends demonstrated an increasing number of Indian QPHR studies being published annually, and an overall increase in reporting completeness since 1997. Only two COREQ items were reported in all studies. 52.4% of articles reported between 16 and 21 items, corresponding to 43-57% of items being reported. Six items were reported in fewer than 10% of studies. COREQ domain 1 was least frequently reported. CONCLUSIONS: Despite improving trends, the reporting of QPHR in India is incomplete. Authors and journals should ensure adherence to reporting guidelines.

Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Lista de Checagem , Humanos , Índia , Saúde Pública/métodos , Saúde Pública/normas