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1.
Carbohydr Polym ; 194: 267-273, 2018 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29801839

RESUMO

Chitosan is a dietary fibre that possesses numerous functional, technological and physiological properties useful in improving food quality. Owing to its fat absorbing ability, chitosan is widely consumed as a health supplement in the form of tablets and capsules. With a view to enhance it consumption and availability, the current work was taken up to evaluate techno-functional quality improvement of shrimp based extruded snacks fortified with chitosan. Chitosan powder at 1, 2 and 3% (w/w) level was added to the base material (corn flour and rice flour in the ratio of 70:30 and 15% Acetes powder) for extrusion. Addition of chitosan in acetes based snacks significantly reduced expansion ratio, porosity and crispiness and increased the hardness value of the product. Chitosan addition had a significant effect (p > 0.05) on the moisture retention and total protein contents of the products as well. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value of chitosan fortified extrudate showed a significantly lower value than the control sample. A higher level of chitosan also resulted in colour reduction of the final product. The FTIR spectra of extrudate confirmed the stability of chitosan during extrusion conditions. The sensory score revealed that extrudate fortified with 1% chitosan was comparable to control sample. From this study it is concluded that 1% chitosan can be incorporated in Acetes based extruded snacks for an increased level of functionality.

2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 98(6): 2393-2401, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29023810

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Functional extruded snacks were prepared using paste shrimp powder (Acetes spp.), which is rich in protein. The process variables required for the preparation of extruded snacks was optimized using response surface methodology. Extrusion temperature (130-144 °C), level of Acetes powder (100-200 g kg-1 ) and feed moisture (140-200 g kg-1 ) were selected as design variables, and expansion ratio, porosity, hardness, crispness and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance value were taken as the response variables. RESULTS: Extrusion temperature significantly influenced all the response variables, while Acetes inclusion influenced all variables except porosity. Feed moisture content showed a significant quadratic effect on all responses and an interactive effect on expansion ratio and hardness. Shrimp powder incorporation increased the protein and mineral content of the final product. The extruded snack made with the combination of extrusion temperature 144.59 °C, feed moisture 178.5 g kg-1 and Acetes inclusion level 146.7 g kg-1 was found to be the best one based on sensory evaluation. CONCLUSION: The study suggests that use of Acetes species for the development of extruded snacks will serve as a means of utilization of Acetes as well as being a rich source of proteins for human consumption, which would otherwise remain unexploited as a by-catch. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Pandalidae/química , Lanches , Animais , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Manipulação de Alimentos , Dureza , Valor Nutritivo , Pós/química , Controle de Qualidade , Temperatura
3.
Carbohydr Polym ; 169: 433-440, 2017 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28504166

RESUMO

Chitosan is a natural polymer having diverse applications in food industry. The present study was undertaken to evaluate chitosan as a hydrocolloid in batter composition in developing enrobed fish sticks with better functional properties and improved quality. Different concentrations of chitosan gel were made in acetic acid medium and incorporated into batter for making enrobed fish sticks. Coating parameters, fat uptake, oil reduction, chemical quality parameters, instrumental texture analysis and colour were studied. Addition of chitosan gel had a significant effect (P<0.05) on the coating pickup, adhesion degree and cooking yield of the product. Total volatile basic nitrogen, pH, lipid oxidation parameters like peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances of par-fried fish sticks also showed significant differences. The oil reduction in par-fried samples were 36.84, 65.05, 73.83, 77.65% respectively for 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0% chitosan added samples. Addition of chitosan significantly reduced crispness, gumminess, Warner-Bratzler shear force and toughness (P<0.05) of the product. The study clearly demonstrated that the inclusion of chitosan at 1.0% in batter can improve functional and other quality aspects of enrobed products.


Assuntos
Quitosana/química , Alimentos Marinhos , Animais , Culinária , Peixes , Oxirredução , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico
4.
J Food Sci Technol ; 52(2): 976-83, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25694708

RESUMO

Physical properties of gelatin extracted from Unicorn leatherjacket (Aluterus monoceros) skin, which is generated as a waste from fish processing industries, were optimised using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). A Box-Behnken design was used to study the combined effects of three independent variables, namely phosphoric acid (H3PO4) concentration (0.15-0.25 M), extraction temperature (40-50 °C) and extraction time (4-12 h) on different responses like yield, gel strength and melting point of gelatin. The optimum conditions derived by RSM for the yield (10.58%) were 0.2 M H3PO4 for 9.01 h of extraction time and hot water extraction of 45.83 °C. The maximum achieved gel strength and melting point was 138.54 g and 22.61 °C respectively. Extraction time was found to be most influencing variable and had a positive coefficient on yield and negative coefficient on gel strength and melting point. The results indicated that Unicorn leatherjacket skins can be a source of gelatin having mild gel strength and melting point.

5.
J Food Sci Technol ; 51(11): 3235-43, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26396316

RESUMO

Utilization of waste from fish processing industry for production of value added products has attracted substantial attention. Blackspotted croaker (Protonibea diacanthus) is a marine fish having the potential of abundant supply of raw skins for production of gelatin. This study was aimed to optimize the extraction conditions for gelatin production from skin of Blackspotted croaker. Response surface methodology (RSM) was adopted by following central composite design to determine the optimal conditions of four independent variables namely concentration of NaOH (X1), soaking time (X2), extraction temperature (X3) and extraction time (X4) for three response variables namely yield, gel strength and melting point. The models obtained by RSM produced a satisfactory fit to the data with respect to gelatin extraction (for gelatin yield, R (2) = 0.867, P = 0.0003; for gel strength, R (2) = 0.837, P = 0.007; for melting point, R (2) = 0.765, P = 0.01). Based on these models, the optimum conditions to achieve the predicted maximum values were: yield of 17.21 % at X1 = 0.23 %, X2 = 46.19 min, X3 = 55.29 °C and X4 = 17.29 h; gel strength of 422.69 g at X1 = 0.22 %, X2 = 44.56 min, X3 = 59.02 °C and X4 = 15.35 h and melting point of 23.48 °C at X1 = 0.20 %, X2 = 46.68 min, X3 = 56.23 °C and X4 = 15.21 h. It can be concluded from the present study that Blackspotted croaker skin is a prospective source to produce gelatin in good yield with desirable quality attributes comparable to commercially available mammalian gelatins.

6.
J Food Sci ; 76(6): E503-9, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21729080

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Fish gelatin is a potential alternative to mammalian gelatin. However, poor gel strength and low melting point limit its applications. The study was aimed at improving these properties by adding coenhancers in the range obtained from response surface methodology (RSM) by using Box-Behnken design. Three different coenhancers, MgSO4, sucrose, and transglutaminase were used as the independent variables for improving the gel strength and melting point of gelatin extracted from Tiger-toothed croaker (Otolithes ruber). Addition of coenhancers at different combinations resulted gel strength and melting point in the range of 150.5 to 240.5 g and 19.5 to 22.5 °C, respectively. The optimal concentrations of coenhancers for predicted maximum gel strength (242.8 g) obtained by RSM were 0.23 M MgSO4, 12.60% sucrose (w/v), and 5.92 mg/g transglutaminase and for predicted maximum melting point (22.57 °C), the values were 0.24 M MgSO4, 10.44% sucrose (w/v), and 5.72 mg/g transglutaminase. By addition of coenhancers at these optimal concentrations in verification experiments, the gel strength and melting point were improved from 170 to 240.89 g and 20.3 to 22.7 °C, respectively. These experimental values agreed well with the predicted values demonstrating the fitness of the models. Results from the present study clearly revealed that the addition of coenhancers at a particular combination can improve the gel strength and melting point of fish gelatin to enhance its range of applications. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: There is a growing interest in the use of fish gelatin as an alternative to mammalian gelatin. However, poor gel strength and low melting point of fish gelatin have limited its commercial applications. The gel strength and melting point of fish gelatin can be increased by incorporation of coenhancers such as magnesium sulphate, sucrose, and transglutaminase. Results of this work help to produce the fish gelatin suitable for wide range of applications in the food industry.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Peixes/química , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Alimentos Formulados/análise , Gelatina/química , Modelos Químicos , Animais , Fenômenos Químicos , Dieta/etnologia , Sacarose na Dieta/química , Proteínas de Peixes/economia , Aditivos Alimentares/metabolismo , Alimentos Formulados/economia , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/economia , Gelatina/economia , Géis , Índia , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Resíduos Industriais/economia , Sulfato de Magnésio/química , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Perciformes/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Transglutaminases/metabolismo , Temperatura de Transição
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 58(13): 8093-9, 2010 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20527781

RESUMO

The oxidative stability and lipid digestibility of fish oil-in-water emulsions (d(43); 5.26-5.71 microm) laminated by primary, secondary, and/or tertiary layers of interfacial membranes have been investigated. The primary emulsion (5 and 0.5% wt % of fish oil and Citrem in acetate buffer) was produced through a membrane homogenizer. The second and tertiary emulsions were prepared by electrostatic deposition of chitosan and sodium alginate on the surfaces of the oil droplets, respectively. The lamination of biopolymers was measured by zeta potential. The lipid oxidative stability was assessed with peroxide value, thiobabituric acid reactive substances, and headspace aldehydes of the emulsions stored at 20 degrees C for 40 days. The positively charged secondary emulsions (+56.27 +/- 2.5 mV) were more stable to lipid oxidation compared to negatively charged primary (-45.13 +/- 1.7 mV) and tertiary emulsions (-24.8 +/- 1.2 mV). An in vitro digestion model was used to study the impact of different layers on the digestibility of oil droplets. Lipid digestion was decreased with multilayer coating, and chitosan coating further reduced the digestion. These findings have implications for the design of structured emulsions to achieve better oxidative stability with more controlled digestibility of lipids.


Assuntos
Digestão , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/instrumentação , Óleos de Peixe/química , Óleos de Peixe/metabolismo , Emulsões/química , Humanos , Lipase/química , Membranas Artificiais , Modelos Biológicos , Oxirredução , Tamanho da Partícula , Água/química
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