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1.
Am J Hypertens ; 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545351

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Only a handful of genetic discovery efforts in apparent treatment resistant hypertension (aTRH) have been described. METHODS: We conducted a case-control genome-wide association study (GWAS) of aTRH among persons treated for hypertension, using data from 10 cohorts of European ancestry (EA) and 5 cohorts of African ancestry (AA). Cases were treated with 3 different antihypertensive medication classes and had blood pressure (BP) above goal (systolic (SBP)≥140 mm Hg and/or diastolic (DBP)≥90 mm Hg) or 4 or more medication classes regardless of BP control (nEA =931, nAA= 228). Both a normotensive control group and a treatment-responsive control group were considered in separate analyses. Normotensive controls were untreated (nEA = 14210, nAA= 2480) and had SBP/DBP <140/90 mm Hg. Treatment-responsive controls (nEA = 5266, nAA= 1817) had BP at goal (<140/90 mm Hg) while treated with one antihypertensive medication class. Individual cohorts used logistic regression with adjustment for age, sex, study site and principal components for ancestry to examine the association of SNPs with case-control status. Inverse variance-weighted fixed-effects meta-analyses were carried out using METAL. RESULTS: The known hypertension locus, CASZ1, was a top finding among EAs (P=1.1*10-8) and in the race-combined analysis (P=1.5*10-9) using the normotensive control group (rs12046278 OR=0.71[95% CI 0.6-0.8]). SNPs in this locus were robustly replicated in the Million Veterans Program (MVP) study in consideration of a treatment-responsive control group. There were no statistically significant findings for the discovery analyses including treatment-responsive controls. CONCLUSION: This genomic discovery effort for aTRH identified CASZ1 as an aTRH risk locus.

2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3669, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413261

RESUMO

Human longevity is heritable, but genome-wide association (GWA) studies have had limited success. Here, we perform two meta-analyses of GWA studies of a rigorous longevity phenotype definition including 11,262/3484 cases surviving at or beyond the age corresponding to the 90th/99th survival percentile, respectively, and 25,483 controls whose age at death or at last contact was at or below the age corresponding to the 60th survival percentile. Consistent with previous reports, rs429358 (apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε4) is associated with lower odds of surviving to the 90th and 99th percentile age, while rs7412 (ApoE ε2) shows the opposite. Moreover, rs7676745, located near GPR78, associates with lower odds of surviving to the 90th percentile age. Gene-level association analysis reveals a role for tissue-specific expression of multiple genes in longevity. Finally, genetic correlation of the longevity GWA results with that of several disease-related phenotypes points to a shared genetic architecture between health and longevity.

3.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(10): 1057-1065, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401707

RESUMO

PURPOSE: As obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) have been increasing worldwide, we investigated their association with breast cancer incidence in the Reykjavik Study. METHODS: During 1968-1996, approximately 10,000 women (mean age = 53 ± 9 years) completed questionnaires and donated blood samples. T2D status was classified according to self-report (n = 140) and glucose levels (n = 154) at cohort entry. A linkage with the Icelandic Cancer Registry provided breast cancer incidence through 2015. Cox regression with age as time metric and adjusted for known confounders was applied to obtain hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Of 9,606 participants, 294 (3.1%) were classified as T2D cases at cohort entry while 728 (7.8%) women were diagnosed with breast cancer during 28.4 ± 11.6 years of follow-up. No significant association of T2D (HR 0.95; 95% CI 0.56-1.53) with breast cancer incidence was detected except among the small number of women with advanced breast cancer (HR 3.30; 95% CI 1.13-9.62). Breast cancer incidence was elevated among overweight/obese women without (HR 1.18; 95% CI 1.01-1.37) and with T2D (HR 1.35; 95% CI 0.79-2.31). Height also predicted higher breast cancer incidence (HR 1.03; 95% CI 1.02-1.05). All findings were confirmed in women of the AGES-Reykjavik sub-cohort (n = 3,103) who returned for an exam during 2002-2006. With a 10% T2D prevalence and 93 incident breast cancer cases, the HR for T2D was 1.18 (95% CI 0.62-2.27). CONCLUSIONS: These findings in a population with low T2D incidence suggest that the presence of T2D does not confer additional breast cancer risk and confirm the importance of height and excess body weight as breast cancer risk factors.

4.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0221474, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442261

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The debate whether "asymptomatic hyperuricemia" should be treated is still ongoing. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to analyze whether hyperuricema in the elderly is associated with joint pain. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Participants in the population-based AGES-Reykjavik Study (males 2195, females 2975, mean age 76(6)) answered standardized questions about joint pain. In addition they recorded intermittent hand joint pain by marking a diagram of the hand. In males, no association was found between hyperuricemia and pain. Females however, showed a positive association between hyperuricemia and joint pain at many sites. After adjustment for age, BMI and hand osteoarthritis however, only intermittent hand joint pain (OR 1.30(1.07-1.58), p = 0.008) and intermittent pain in ≥10 hand joints (OR 1.75(1.32-2.31), p<0.001) remained significant. The best model for describing the relationship between serum uric acid levels (SUA) and intermittent hand joint pain in ≥10 joints was non-linear with a cut-off at 372 µmol/L. The attributable surplus number of symptomatic females with SUA ≥372 µmol/L was approximately 2.0% of the study population for those reporting pain in ≥10 hand joints. Next after having severe hand osteoarthritis, SUA ≥372 was an independent predictive factor of intermittent pain in ≥10 hand joints. Intermittent hand joint pain was also an independent risk factor for worse general health description. CONCLUSION: Results from this population based study indicate that hyperuricemia in elderly females may be a rather frequent cause of intermittent hand joint pain, often in many joints. The most likely explanation relates to low-grade urate crystal induced inflammation. Our data do not allow for assessment of the severity of symptoms or whether they merit specific treatment, but intermittent hand joint pain was an independent predictor of worse general health. These findings may be an important contribution to the debate on whether hyperuricemia should be treated.

5.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0221477, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461490

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies indicate a role for Oncostatin M (OSM) in atherosclerosis and other chronic inflammatory diseases for which inhibitory antibodies are in development. However, to date no intervention studies with OSM have been performed, and its relation to coronary heart disease (CHD) has not been studied. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Gene expression analysis on human normal arteries (n = 10) and late stage/advanced carotid atherosclerotic arteries (n = 127) and in situ hybridization on early human plaques (n = 9) showed that OSM, and its receptors, OSM receptor (OSMR) and Leukemia Inhibitory Factor Receptor (LIFR) are expressed in normal arteries and atherosclerotic plaques. Chronic OSM administration in APOE*3Leiden.CETP mice (n = 15/group) increased plasma E-selectin levels and monocyte adhesion to the activated endothelium independently of cholesterol but reduced the amount of inflammatory Ly-6CHigh monocytes and atherosclerotic lesion size and severity. Using aptamer-based proteomics profiling assays high circulating OSM levels were shown to correlate with post incident CHD survival probability in the AGES-Reykjavik study (n = 5457). CONCLUSIONS: Chronic OSM administration in APOE*3Leiden.CETP mice reduced atherosclerosis development. In line, higher serum OSM levels were correlated with improved post incident CHD survival probability in patients, suggesting a protective cardiovascular effect.

6.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0219668, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31356640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein E is a glycoprotein best known as a mediator and regulator of lipid transport and uptake. The APOE-ε4 allele has long been associated with increased risks of Alzheimer's disease and mortality, but the effect of the less prevalent APOE-ε2 allele on diseases in the elderly and survival remains elusive. METHODS: We aggregated data of 38,537 individuals of European ancestry (mean age 65.5 years; 55.6% women) from six population-based cohort studies (Rotterdam Study, AGES-Reykjavik Study, Cardiovascular Health Study, Health-ABC Study, and the family-based Framingham Heart Study and Long Life Family Study) to determine the association of APOE, and in particular APOE-ε2, with survival in the population. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 11.7 years, 17,021 individuals died. Compared with homozygous APOE-ε3 carriers, APOE-ε2 carriers were at lower risk of death (hazard ratio,95% confidence interval: 0.94,0.90-0.99; P = 1.1*10-2), whereas APOE-ε4 carriers were at increased risk of death (HR 1.17,1.12-1.21; P = 2.8*10-16). APOE was associated with mortality risk in a dose-dependent manner, with risk estimates lowest for homozygous APOE-ε2 (HR 0.89,0.74-1.08), and highest for homozygous APOE-ε4 (HR 1.52,1.37-1.70). After censoring for dementia, effect estimates remained similar for APOE-ε2 (HR 0.95,0.90-1.01), but attenuated for APOE-ε4 (HR 1.07,1.01-1.12). Results were broadly similar across cohorts, and did not differ by age or sex. APOE genotype was associated with baseline lipid fractions (e.g. mean difference(95%CI) in LDL(mg/dL) for ε2 versus ε33: -17.1(-18.1-16.0), and ε4 versus ε33: +5.7(4.8;6.5)), but the association between APOE and mortality was unaltered after adjustment for baseline LDL or cardiovascular disease. Given the European ancestry of the study population, results may not apply to other ethnicities. CONCLUSION: Compared with APOE-ε3, APOE-ε2 is associated with prolonged survival, whereas mortality risk is increased for APOE-ε4 carriers. Further collaborative efforts are needed to unravel the role of APOE and in particular APOE-ε2 in health and disease.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339356

RESUMO

Rationale Interstitial lung abnormalities (ILA) are associated with the highest genetic risk locus for IPF; however, the extent to which there is additional overlap with IPF, or unique associations among those with ILA is not known. Objectives To perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of ILA. Methods: ILA and the subpleural-predominant subtype were assessed on chest computed tomography (CT) scans in the AGES, COPDGene, Framingham Heart, ECLIPSE, MESA, and SPIROMICS studies. We performed a GWAS of ILA in each cohort and combined the results using a meta-analysis. We assessed for overlapping associations in independent GWASs of IPF. Measurements and Main Results Genome-wide genotyping data were available in 1,699 ILA cases and 10,274 controls. The MUC5B promoter variant rs35705950 was significantly associated with both ILA (p=2.6x10-27) and subpleural ILA (p=1.6x10-29). We discovered novel genome-wide associations near IPO11 (rs6886640, p=3.8x10-8) and FCF1P3 (rs73199442, p=4.8x10-8) with ILA, and HTRE1 (rs7744971, p=4.2x10-8) with subpleural-predominant ILA. These novel associations were not associated with IPF. Of 12 previously reported IPF GWAS loci, 5 (DPP9, DSP, FAM13A, IVD, and MUC5B) were significantly associated (p<0.05/12) with ILA. Conclusions In a GWAS of ILA in six studies, we confirmed the association with a MUC5B promoter variant and found strong evidence for an effect of previously described IPF loci; however, novel ILA associations were not associated with IPF. These findings highlight common and suggest distinct genetically-driven biologic pathways between ILA and IPF.

8.
Cancer ; 125(16): 2877-2885, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Cancer Research Fund classifies as "strong evidence" the link between obesity and the risk of advanced prostate cancer. In light of the different hormonal profiles associated with where adipose is stored, this study investigated the role of objectively measured body fat distribution and the risk of clinically relevant prostate cancer. METHODS: This was a prospective study of 1832 men in the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik study. From 2002 to 2006, participants underwent baseline computed tomography imaging of fat deposition, bioelectric impedance analysis, and measurement of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. Men were followed through linkage with nationwide cancer registries for the incidence of total (n = 172), high-grade (Gleason grade ≥8; n = 43), advanced (≥cT3b/N1/M1 at diagnosis or fatal prostate cancer over follow-up; n = 41), and fatal prostate cancer (n = 31) through 2015. Cox regression was used to evaluate the association between adiposity measures and prostate cancer outcomes. RESULTS: Among all men, visceral fat (hazard ratio [HR], 1.31 per 1-standard deviation [SD] increase; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-1.72) and thigh subcutaneous fat (HR, 1.37 per 1-SD increase; 95% CI, 1.00-1.88) were associated with risk of advanced and fatal disease, respectively. Among men who were leaner based on BMI, visceral fat was associated with both advanced and fatal disease. BMI and waist circumference were associated with a higher risk of advanced and fatal disease. No adiposity measures were associated with total or high-grade disease. CONCLUSIONS: Specific fat depots as well as BMI and waist circumference were associated with the risk of aggressive prostate cancer, which may help to elucidate underlying mechanisms and target intervention strategies.

10.
Laeknabladid ; 105(6): 277-230, 2019 06.
Artigo em Islandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192790

RESUMO

Demand for Vocational Rehabilitation in Iceland has been steadily rising in recent years where the presence of young patients has increased proportionally the most. It is essential that public spending is efficient without compromising the treatment quality. It is worth exploring if a solution for increasing the efficiency in this healthcare section is to use Artificial Intelligence (AI). An innovative project on developing, testing, and implementing specialised AI software in its services is being performed in Janus Rehabilitation. The software, named Völvan in Icelandic, can identify latent areas of possible interest in patient's circumstances which might affect the outcome of their treatment, and assist specialists in providing timely and appropriate interventions. The accuracy, precision, and recall of its predictions have been verified in two recent publications. Völvan seems to be a promising tool for individualised rehabilitation, where patients are dealing with difficult and complex problems. Janus Rehabilitation is in the process of launching Völvan as an unbiased member of the interdisciplinary teams of specialists. The aim of this report is to introduce Völvan and the associated research.

11.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091312

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In addition to well-established links with cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, cigarette smoking may affect skeletal muscle; however, associations with quadriceps atrophy, density, and function are unknown. This study explored the associations of current and former smoking with quadriceps muscle area and attenuation as well as muscle force (assessed as knee extension peak torque) and rate of torque development (RTD) - a measure of muscle power in older adults. METHODS: Data from 4469 older adults, aged 66-95 years at baseline in the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility - Reykjavik Study with measurements of thigh computed tomography, isometric knee extension testing, self-reported smoking history and potential covariates were analyzed. RESULTS: Sex-differences were observed in these data, therefore our final analyses are stratified by sex. In men, both former smokers and current smokers had lower muscle area (with = -0.10, 95% CI -0.17, -0.03 and = -0.19, 95% CI -0.33, -0.05, respectively) and lower muscle attenuation (i.e., higher fat infiltration, = -0.08, 95% CI -0.16, -0.01 and = -0.17, 95% CI -0.34, -0.01, respectively) when compared to never-smokers. Smoking status was not associated with male peak torque or RTD. In women, current smoking was associated with lower muscle attenuation (= -0.24, 95% CI -0.34, -0.13) compared to never-smoking. Among female smokers (current and former), muscle attenuation and peak torque were lower with increasing pack-years. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that cigarette smoking is related to multiple muscle properties at older age and that these relationships may be different among men and women. IMPLICATIONS: This manuscript presents novel data, as it examined for the first time the relationship between smoking and computed tomography-derived quadriceps muscle size (cross-sectional area) and attenuation.This study suggests that current cigarette smoking is related to higher muscle fat infiltration, which may have significant health implications for the older population, due to its known association with poor physical function, falls, and hip fractures.

12.
JAMA Neurol ; 2019 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107514

RESUMO

Importance: It is uncertain whether unrecognized myocardial infarction (MI) is a risk factor for cerebral infarction. Objective: To determine whether unrecognized MI detected by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is associated with cerebral infarction. Design, Setting, and Participants: This is a cross-sectional study of ICELAND MI, a cohort substudy of the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study conducted in Iceland. Enrollment occurred from January 2004 to January 2007 from a community-dwelling cohort of older Icelandic individuals. Participants aged 67 to 93 years who underwent both brain MRI and late gadolinium enhancement cardiac MRI were included. Data analysis was performed from September 2018 to March 2019. Exposures: Unrecognized MI identified by cardiac MRI. Main Outcomes and Measures: Unrecognized MI was defined as cardiac MRI evidence of MI without a history of clinically evident MI. Recognized MI was defined as cardiac MRI evidence of MI with a history of clinically evident MI. Cerebral infarctions on brain MRI were included regardless of associated symptoms. Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between MI status (no MI, unrecognized MI, or recognized MI) and cerebral infarction after adjustment for demographic factors and vascular risk factors. In addition, we evaluated the association between unrecognized MI and embolic infarcts of undetermined source. Results: Five enrolled participants had nondiagnostic brain MRI studies and were excluded. Among 925 participants, 480 (51.9%) were women; the mean (SD) age was 75.9 (5.3) years. There were 221 participants (23.9%) with cardiac MRI evidence of MI, of whom 68 had recognized MI and 153 unrecognized MI. There were 308 participants (33.3%) with brain MRI evidence of cerebral infarction; 93 (10.0%) had embolic infarcts of undetermined source. After adjustment for demographic factors and vascular risk factors, the likelihood (odds ratio) of having cerebral infarction was 2.0 (95% CI, 1.2-3.4; P = .01) for recognized MI and 1.5 (95% CI, 1.02-2.2; P = .04) for unrecognized MI. After adjustment for demographics and vascular risk factors, unrecognized MI was also associated with embolic infarcts of undetermined source (odds ratio, 2.0 [95% CI, 1.1-3.5]; P = .02). Conclusions and Relevance: In a population-based sample, we found an association between unrecognized MI and cerebral infarction. These findings suggest that unrecognized MI may be a novel risk factor for cardiac embolism and cerebral infarction.

13.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 109(4): 1216-1223, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982858

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Saturated fatty acids (SFAs) of different chain lengths have unique metabolic and biological effects, and a small number of recent studies suggest that higher circulating concentrations of the very-long-chain SFAs (VLSFAs) arachidic acid (20:0), behenic acid (22:0), and lignoceric acid (24:0) are associated with a lower risk of diabetes. Confirmation of these findings in a large and diverse population is needed. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the associations of circulating VLSFAs 20:0, 22:0, and 24:0 with incident type 2 diabetes in prospective studies. METHODS: Twelve studies that are part of the Fatty Acids and Outcomes Research Consortium participated in the analysis. Using Cox or logistic regression within studies and an inverse-variance-weighted meta-analysis across studies, we examined the associations of VLSFAs 20:0, 22:0, and 24:0 with incident diabetes among 51,431 participants. RESULTS: There were 14,276 cases of incident diabetes across participating studies. Higher circulating concentrations of 20:0, 22:0, and 24:0 were each associated with a lower risk of incident diabetes. Pooling across cohorts, the RR (95% CI) for incident diabetes comparing the 90th percentile to the 10th percentile was 0.78 (0.70, 0.87) for 20:0, 0.84 (0.77, 0.91) for 22:0, and 0.75 (0.69, 0.83) for 24:0 after adjustment for demographic, lifestyle, adiposity, and other health factors. Results were fully attenuated in exploratory models that adjusted for circulating 16:0 and triglycerides. CONCLUSIONS: Results from this pooled analysis indicate that higher concentrations of circulating VLSFAs 20:0, 22:0, and 24:0 are each associated with a lower risk of diabetes.

14.
J Sports Sci ; 37(15): 1746-1754, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929574

RESUMO

Dynamic sitting, such as fidgeting and desk work, might be associated with health, but remains difficult to identify out of accelerometry data. We examined, in a laboratory study, whether dynamic sitting can be identified out of triaxial activity counts. Among 18 participants (56% men, 27.3 ± 6.5 years), up to 236 counts per minute were recorded in the anteroposterior and mediolateral axes during dynamic sitting using a hip-worn accelerometer. Subsequently, we examined in 621 participants (38% men, 80.0 ± 4.7 years) from the AGES-Reykjavik Study whether dynamic sitting was associated with cardio-metabolic health. Compared to participants who recorded the fewest dynamic sitting minutes (Q1), those with more dynamic sitting minutes had a lower BMI (Q2 = -1.39 (95%CI = -2.33;-0.46); Q3 = -1.87 (-2.82;-0.92); Q4 = -3.38 (-4.32;-2.45)), a smaller waist circumference (Q2 = -2.95 (-5.44;-0.46); Q3 = -3.47 (-6.01;-0.93); Q4 = -8.21 (-10.72;-5.71)), and a lower odds for the metabolic syndrome (Q2 = 0.74 [0.45;1.20] Q3 = 0.58 [0.36;0.95]; Q4 = 0.36 [0.22;0.59]). Our findings suggest that dynamic sitting might be identified using accelerometry and that this behaviour was associated with health. This might be important given the large amounts of time people spend sitting. Future studies with a focus on validation, causation and physiological pathways are needed to further examine the possible relevance of dynamic sitting.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/instrumentação , Metabolismo Energético , Exercício/fisiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Postura Sentada , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Monitores de Aptidão Física , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Circunferência da Cintura , Adulto Jovem
15.
Circulation ; 139(21): 2422-2436, 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30971107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Global dietary recommendations for and cardiovascular effects of linoleic acid, the major dietary omega-6 fatty acid, and its major metabolite, arachidonic acid, remain controversial. To address this uncertainty and inform international recommendations, we evaluated how in vivo circulating and tissue levels of linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA) relate to incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) across multiple international studies. METHODS: We performed harmonized, de novo, individual-level analyses in a global consortium of 30 prospective observational studies from 13 countries. Multivariable-adjusted associations of circulating and adipose tissue LA and AA biomarkers with incident total CVD and subtypes (coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke, cardiovascular mortality) were investigated according to a prespecified analytic plan. Levels of LA and AA, measured as the percentage of total fatty acids, were evaluated linearly according to their interquintile range (ie, the range between the midpoint of the first and fifth quintiles), and categorically by quintiles. Study-specific results were pooled using inverse-variance-weighted meta-analysis. Heterogeneity was explored by age, sex, race, diabetes mellitus, statin use, aspirin use, omega-3 levels, and fatty acid desaturase 1 genotype (when available). RESULTS: In 30 prospective studies with medians of follow-up ranging 2.5 to 31.9 years, 15 198 incident cardiovascular events occurred among 68 659 participants. Higher levels of LA were significantly associated with lower risks of total CVD, cardiovascular mortality, and ischemic stroke, with hazard ratios per interquintile range of 0.93 (95% CI, 0.88-0.99), 0.78 (0.70-0.85), and 0.88 (0.79-0.98), respectively, and nonsignificantly with lower coronary heart disease risk (0.94; 0.88-1.00). Relationships were similar for LA evaluated across quintiles. AA levels were not associated with higher risk of cardiovascular outcomes; in a comparison of extreme quintiles, higher levels were associated with lower risk of total CVD (0.92; 0.86-0.99). No consistent heterogeneity by population subgroups was identified in the observed relationships. CONCLUSIONS: In pooled global analyses, higher in vivo circulating and tissue levels of LA and possibly AA were associated with lower risk of major cardiovascular events. These results support a favorable role for LA in CVD prevention.

16.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 109(2): 276-287, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30721968

RESUMO

Background: Lean body mass (LM) plays an important role in mobility and metabolic function. We previously identified five loci associated with LM adjusted for fat mass in kilograms. Such an adjustment may reduce the power to identify genetic signals having an association with both lean mass and fat mass. Objectives: To determine the impact of different fat mass adjustments on genetic architecture of LM and identify additional LM loci. Methods: We performed genome-wide association analyses for whole-body LM (20 cohorts of European ancestry with n = 38,292) measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) or bioelectrical impedance analysis, adjusted for sex, age, age2, and height with or without fat mass adjustments (Model 1 no fat adjustment; Model 2 adjustment for fat mass as a percentage of body mass; Model 3 adjustment for fat mass in kilograms). Results: Seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in separate loci, including one novel LM locus (TNRC6B), were successfully replicated in an additional 47,227 individuals from 29 cohorts. Based on the strengths of the associations in Model 1 vs Model 3, we divided the LM loci into those with an effect on both lean mass and fat mass in the same direction and refer to those as "sumo wrestler" loci (FTO and MC4R). In contrast, loci with an impact specifically on LM were termed "body builder" loci (VCAN and ADAMTSL3). Using existing available genome-wide association study databases, LM increasing alleles of SNPs in sumo wrestler loci were associated with an adverse metabolic profile, whereas LM increasing alleles of SNPs in "body builder" loci were associated with metabolic protection. Conclusions: In conclusion, we identified one novel LM locus (TNRC6B). Our results suggest that a genetically determined increase in lean mass might exert either harmful or protective effects on metabolic traits, depending on its relation to fat mass.

17.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(4): 333-342, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30805814

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Our main aim was to explore whether pre-diagnostic circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) among older individuals with cancer were associated with overall and cancer-specific survival after diagnosis. DESIGN: We used data from the Reykjavik-AGES Study on participants (n = 4,619) without cancer at entry, when blood samples were taken for 25(OH)D standardized measurements. The association with cancer risk, all-cause- and cancer-specific mortality was assessed among those later diagnosed with cancer, comparing four 25(OH)D categories, using 50-69.9 nmol/L as the reference category. RESULTS: Cancer was diagnosed in 919 participants on average 8.3 years after blood draw. No association was observed between the reference group and other 25(OH)D groups and total cancer incidence. Mean age at diagnosis was 80.9 (± 5.7) years. Of those diagnosed, 552 died during follow-up, 67% from cancer. Low pre-diagnostic levels of 25(OH)D < 30 nmol/L were significantly associated with increased total mortality (HR: 1.39, 95% CI 1.03, 1.88) and non-significantly with cancer-specific mortality (HR: 1.33, 95% CI 0.93, 1.90). Among patients surviving more than 2 years after diagnosis, higher pre-diagnostic 25(OH)D levels (≥ 70 nmol/L) were associated with lower risk of overall (HR: 0.68, 95% CI 0.46, 0.99) and cancer-specific mortality (HR: 0.47, 95% CI 0.26, 0.99). CONCLUSIONS: Among elderly cancer patients, low pre-diagnostic serum 25(OH)D levels (< 30 nmol/L) were associated with increased overall mortality.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/patologia , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Neoplasias/sangue , Risco , Sobrevida , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue
18.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(6): 952-962, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30679814

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of quantitative electrocardiographic (ECG) traits in large consortia have identified more than 130 loci associated with QT interval, QRS duration, PR interval, and heart rate (RR interval). In the current study, we meta-analyzed genome-wide association results from 30,000 mostly Dutch samples on four ECG traits: PR interval, QRS duration, QT interval, and RR interval. SNP genotype data was imputed using the Genome of the Netherlands reference panel encompassing 19 million SNPs, including millions of rare SNPs (minor allele frequency < 5%). In addition to many known loci, we identified seven novel locus-trait associations: KCND3, NR3C1, and PLN for PR interval, KCNE1, SGIP1, and NFKB1 for QT interval, and ATP2A2 for QRS duration, of which six were successfully replicated. At these seven loci, we performed conditional analyses and annotated significant SNPs (in exons and regulatory regions), demonstrating involvement of cardiac-related pathways and regulation of nearby genes.

19.
Clin Chem ; 65(3): 406-418, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30647123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical practice guidelines recommend estimation of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using validated equations based on serum creatinine (eGFRcr), cystatin C (eGFRcys), or both (eGFRcr-cys). However, when compared with the measured GFR (mGFR), only eGFRcr-cys meets recommended performance standards. Our goal was to develop a more accurate eGFR method using a panel of metabolites without creatinine, cystatin C, or demographic variables. METHODS: An ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay for acetylthreonine, phenylacetylglutamine, pseudouridine, and tryptophan was developed, and a 20-day, multiinstrument analytical validation was conducted. The assay was tested in 2424 participants with mGFR data from 4 independent research studies. A new GFR equation (eGFRmet) was developed in a random subset (n = 1615) and evaluated in the remaining participants (n = 809). Performance was assessed as the frequency of large errors [estimates that differed from mGFR by at least 30% (1 - P30); goal <10%]. RESULTS: The assay had a mean imprecision (≤10% intraassay, ≤6.9% interassay), linearity over the quantitative range (r 2 > 0.98), and analyte recovery (98.5%-113%). There was no carryover, no interferences observed, and analyte stability was established. In addition, 1 - P30 in the validation set for eGFRmet (10.0%) was more accurate than eGFRcr (13.1%) and eGFRcys (12.0%) but not eGFRcr-cys (8.7%). Combining metabolites, creatinine, cystatin C, and demographics led to the most accurate equation (7.0%). Neither equation had substantial variation among population subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: The new eGFRmet equation could serve as a confirmatory test for GFR estimation.

20.
Nutrients ; 11(1)2019 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30609725

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine if increased mortality associated with low levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) reflects a causal relationship by using a Mendelian randomisation (MR) approach with genetic variants in the vitamin D synthesis pathway. Individual participant data from three European cohorts were harmonized with standardization of 25(OH)D according to the Vitamin D Standardization Program. Most relevant single nucleotide polymorphisms of the genes CYP2R1 (rs12794714, rs10741657) and DHCR7/NADSYN1 (rs12785878, rs11234027), were combined in two allelic scores. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used with the ratio estimator and the delta method for calculating the hazards ratio (HR) and standard error of genetically determined 25(OH)D effect on all-cause mortality. We included 10,501 participants (50.1% females, 67.1±10.1 years) of whom 4003 died during a median follow-up of 10.4 years. The observed adjusted HR for all-cause mortality per decrease in 25(OH)D by 20 nmol/L was 1.20 (95% CI: 1.15⁻1.25). The HR per 20 nmol/L decrease in genetically determined 25(OH)D was 1.32 (95% CI: 0.80⁻2.24) and 1.35 (95% CI of 0.81 to 2.37) based on the two scores. In conclusion, the results of this MR study in a combined sample from three European cohort studies provide further support for a causal relationship between vitamin D deficiency and increased all-cause mortality. However, as the current study, even with ~10,000 participants, was underpowered for the study of the effect of the allele score on mortality, larger studies on genetics and mortality are needed to improve the precision.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carbono-Nitrogênio Ligases com Glutamina como Doadora de N-Amida/genética , Carbono-Nitrogênio Ligases com Glutamina como Doadora de N-Amida/metabolismo , Colestanotriol 26-Mono-Oxigenase/genética , Colestanotriol 26-Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Família 2 do Citocromo P450/genética , Família 2 do Citocromo P450/metabolismo , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-CH/genética , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-CH/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Vitamina D/sangue
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