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1.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; : CIRCGEN121003460, 2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34732054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated cardiac troponin levels in blood are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and mortality. Cardiac troponin levels are heritable, but their genetic architecture remains elusive. METHODS: We conducted a transethnic genome-wide association analysis on high-sensitivity cTnT (cardiac troponin T; hs-cTnT) and high-sensitivity cTnI (cardiac troponin I; hs-cTnI) levels in 24 617 and 14 336 participants free of coronary heart disease and heart failure from 6 population-based cohorts, followed by a series of bioinformatic analyses to decipher the genetic architecture of hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI. RESULTS: We identified 4 genome-wide significant loci for hs-cTnT including a novel locus rs3737882 in PPFIA4 and 3 previously reported loci at NCOA2, TRAM1, and BCL2. One known locus at VCL was replicated for hs-cTnI. One copy of C allele for rs3737882 was associated with a 6% increase in hs-cTnT levels (minor allele frequency, 0.18; P=2.80×10-9). We observed pleiotropic loci located at BAG3 and ANO5. The proportions of variances explained by single-nucleotide polymorphisms were 10.15% and 7.74% for hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI, respectively. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms were colocalized with BCL2 expression in heart tissues and hs-cTnT and with ANO5 expression in artery, heart tissues, and whole blood and both troponins. Mendelian randomization analyses showed that genetically increased hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI levels were associated with higher odds of atrial fibrillation (odds ratio, 1.38 [95% CI, 1.25-1.54] for hs-cTnT and 1.21 [95% CI, 1.06-1.37] for hs-cTnI). CONCLUSIONS: We identified a novel genetic locus associated with hs-cTnT in a multiethnic population and found that genetically regulated troponin levels were associated with atrial fibrillation.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34800195

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To study whether dietary patterns in adolescence are associated with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS: Food frequency data were obtained from the AGES-Reykjavik study, conducted between 2002 and 2006, which included 5,078 (58% women) participants with mean age of 77 (± 5.8) years. Principal component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. Participants were followed through linkage to the Icelandic Cancer Registry. Multivariable Cox models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) of CRC and 95% confidence interval (CI) by dietary patterns. RESULTS: During the follow-up period (mean 8.2 years), 136 participants (75 women and 61 men) were diagnosed with CRC. The main dietary pattern in adolescence was characterized by high intake of traditional food items consumed in the earlier half of the twentieth century, namely, salted or smoked meat and fish, milk, offal, rye bread, and oatmeal. Compared to the lowest tertile, the middle tertile of this pattern was associated with increased risk of CRC (HR 1.63, 95% CI 1.04-2.57), while the highest tertile was not statistically associated with CRC (HR 1.48, 95% CI 0.93-2.37), except among women (HR 2.06, 95% CI 1.11-3.84). CONCLUSION: These data suggest that strong adherence to a traditional Icelandic diet in adolescence might increase the risk of CRC, particularly among women. More research is need on the association between food items and dietary patterns of relevance to CRC at different points in the life cycle.

3.
Stroke ; : STROKEAHA121034130, 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809439

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Studies on the association of cerebrovascular risk factors to magnetic resonance imaging detected brain infarcts have been inconsistent, partly reflecting limits of assessment to infarcts anywhere in the brain, as opposed to specific brain regions. We hypothesized that risk-factors may differ depending on where the infarct is located in subcortical-, cortical-, and cerebellar regions. METHODS: Participants (n=2662, mean age 74.6±4.8) from the longitudinal population-based AGES (Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility)-Reykjavik Study underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and on average 5.2 years later. We assessed the number and location of brain infarcts (prevalent versus incident). We estimated the risk-ratios of prevalent (PRR) and incident (IRR) infarcts by baseline cerebrovascular risk-factors using Poisson regression. RESULTS: Thirty-one percent of the study participants had prevalent brain infarcts and 21% developed new infarcts over 5 years. Prevalent subcortical infarcts were associated with hypertension (PRR, 2.7 [95% CI, 1.1-6.8]), systolic blood pressure (PRR, 1.2 [95% CI, 1.1-1.4]), and diabetes (PRR, 2.8 [95% CI, 1.9-4.1]); incident subcortical infarcts were associated with systolic (IRR, 1.2 [95% CI, 1.0-1.4]) and diastolic (IRR, 1.3 [95% CI, 1.0-1.6]) blood pressure. Prevalent and incident cortical infarcts were associated with carotid plaques (PRR, 1.8 [95% CI, 1.3-2.5] and IRR, 1.9 [95% CI, 1.3-2.9], respectively), and atrial fibrillation was significantly associated with prevalent cortical infarcts (PRR, 1.8 [95% CI, 1.2-2.7]). Risk-factors for prevalent cerebellar infarcts included hypertension (PRR, 2.45 [95% CI, 1.5-4.0]), carotid plaques (PRR, 1.45 [95% CI, 1.2-1.8]), and migraine with aura (PRR, 1.6 [95% CI, 1.1-2.2]). Incident cerebellar infarcts were only associated with any migraine (IRR, 1.4 [95% CI, 1.0-2.0]). CONCLUSIONS: The risk for subcortical infarcts tends to increase with small vessel disease risk-factors such as hypertension and diabetes. Risk for cortical infarcts tends to increase with atherosclerotic/coronary processes and risk for cerebellar infarcts with a more mixed profile of factors. Assessment of risk-factors by location of asymptomatic infarcts found on magnetic resonance imaging may improve the ability to target and optimize preventive therapeutic approaches to prevent stroke.

4.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643238

RESUMO

Growth rate is regulated by hormonal pathways that might affect early cancer development. We explored the association between rate of growth in height from age 8 to 13 (childhood) years and from age 13 to height at study entry (adolescence), and risk of breast and prostate cancer. Participants were 2,037 Icelanders born 1915 - 1935, who took part in the Reykjavik Study established 1967. Height measures were obtained from school records and at study entry. We used multivariable Cox regression models to calculate hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals of breast and prostate cancer by rates of growth in tertiles. During a mean follow-up of 66 years (women) and 64 years (men), 117 women were diagnosed with breast cancer and 118 men with prostate cancer (45 w/advanced). Women in the highest tertile of growth rate in adolescence had increased risk of breast cancer, hazard ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval: 1.3, 4.3, compared with women in the lowest tertile. A suggestive inverse association was observed for highest adolescent rate of growth in men and advanced prostate cancer, hazard ratio 0.4, 95% confidence interval: 0.2, 1.0. Rapid growth, particularly in adolescence may affect cancer risk later in life.

5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20173, 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635746

RESUMO

Although previous studies have highlighted the association between physical activity and lower extremity function (LEF) in elderly individuals, the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain debated. Our recent work has recognized the utility of nonlinear trimodal regression analysis (NTRA) parameters in characterizing changes in soft tissue radiodensity as a quantitative construct for sarcopenia in the longitudinal, population-based cohort of the AGES-Reykjavík study. For the present work, we assembled a series of prospective multivariate regression models to interrogate whether NTRA parameters mediate the 5-year longitudinal relationship between physical activity and LEF in AGES-Reykjavík participants. Healthy elderly volunteers from the AGES-Reykjavík cohort underwent mid-thigh X-ray CT scans along with a four-part battery of LEF tasks: normal gait speed, fastest-comfortable gait speed, isometric leg strength, and timed up-and-go. These data were recorded at two study timepoints which were separated by approximately 5 years: AGES-I (n = 3157) and AGES-II (n = 3098). Participants in AGES-I were likewise administered a survey to approximate their weekly frequency of engaging in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (PAAGES-I). Using a multivariate mediation analysis framework, linear regression models were assembled to test whether NTRA parameters mediated the longitudinal relationship between PAAGES-I and LEFAGES-II; all models were covariate-adjusted for age, sex, BMI, and baseline LEF, and results were corrected for multiple statistical comparisons. Our first series of models confirmed that all four LEF tasks were significantly related to PAAGES-I; next, modelling the relationship between PAAGES-I and NTRAAGES-II identified muscle amplitude (Nm) and location (µm) as potential mediators of LEF to test. Finally, adding these two parameters into our PAAGES-I → LEFAGES-II models attenuated the prior effect of PAAGES-I; bootstrapping confirmed Nm and µm as significant partial mediators of the PAAGES-I → LEFAGES-II relationship, with the strongest effect found in isometric leg strength. This work describes a novel approach toward clarifying the mechanisms that underly the relationship between physical activity and LEF in aging individuals. Identifying Nm and µm as significant partial mediators of this relationship provides strong evidence that physical activity protects aging mobility through the preservation of both lean tissue quantity and quality.

6.
J Bone Miner Res ; 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34585782

RESUMO

Observational studies have consistently reported a higher risk of fractures among those with low levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). Emerging evidence suggests that low serum 25(OH)D levels may increase the rate of falls through impaired physical function. Examine to what extent baseline measures of volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), absolute bone mineral content (BMC), and markers of physical function may explain incident hip fractures in older adults with different serum levels of 25(OH)D. A prospective study of 4309 subjects (≥66 years) recruited between 2002 and 2006 into the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik (AGES-Reykjavik) study. Hip fractures occurring until the end of 2012 were extracted from hospital records. Prevalence of serum 25(OH)D deficiency (<30 nmol/L), inadequacy (30-<50 nmol/L), and sufficiency (≥50 nmol/L) was 6%, 23%, and 71% for males; and 11%, 28%, and 53% for females, respectively. Female participants had ~30% lower absolute BMC compared to males. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were positively associated with vBMD and BMC of the femoral neck and markers of physical function, including leg strength and balance. Those who had deficient compared to sufficient status at baseline had a higher age-adjusted risk of incidence hipfractures with hazard ratios (HRs) of 3.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9-5.2) and 1.8 (95% CI, 1.3-2.5) among males and females, respectively. When adjusting for vBMD and measures of physical function, the association was attenuated and became nonsignificant for males (1.3; 95% CI, 0.6-2.5) but remained significant for females (1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.4). Deficient compared to sufficient serum 25(OH)D status was associated with a higher risk of incident hip fractures. This association was explained by poorer vBMD and physical function for males but to a lesser extent for females. Lower absolute BMC among females due to smaller bone volume may account for these sex-specific differences. © 2021 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).

7.
Bone ; 154: 116219, 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34571206

RESUMO

Hip fractures associated with a high economic burden, loss of independence, and a high rate of post-fracture mortality, are a major health concern for modern societies. Areal bone mineral density is the current clinical metric of choice when assessing an individual's future risk of fracture. However, this metric has been shown to lack sensitivity and specificity in the targeted selection of individuals for preventive interventions. Although femoral strength derived from computed tomography based finite element models has been proposed as an alternative based on its superior femoral strength prediction ex vivo, such predictions have only shown marginal or no improvement for assessing hip fracture risk. This study compares finite element derived femoral strength to aBMD as a metric for hip fracture risk assessment in subjects (N = 601) from the AGES Reykjavik Study cohort and analyses the dependence of femoral strength predictions and classification accuracy on the material model and femoral loading alignment. We found hip fracture classification based on finite element derived femoral strength to be significantly improved compared to aBMD. Finite element models with non-linear material models performed better at classifying hip fractures compared to finite element models with linear material models and loading alignments with low internal rotation and adduction, which do not correspond to weak femur alignments, were found to be most suitable for hip fracture classification.

8.
N Engl J Med ; 385(19): 1737-1749, 2021 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34554658

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current equations for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) that use serum creatinine or cystatin C incorporate age, sex, and race to estimate measured GFR. However, race in eGFR equations is a social and not a biologic construct. METHODS: We developed new eGFR equations without race using data from two development data sets: 10 studies (8254 participants, 31.5% Black) for serum creatinine and 13 studies (5352 participants, 39.7% Black) for both serum creatinine and cystatin C. In a validation data set of 12 studies (4050 participants, 14.3% Black), we compared the accuracy of new eGFR equations to measured GFR. We projected the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and GFR stages in a sample of U.S. adults, using current and new equations. RESULTS: In the validation data set, the current creatinine equation that uses age, sex, and race overestimated measured GFR in Blacks (median, 3.7 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 of body-surface area; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8 to 5.4) and to a lesser degree in non-Blacks (median, 0.5 ml per minute per 1.73 m2; 95% CI, 0.0 to 0.9). When the adjustment for Black race was omitted from the current eGFR equation, measured GFR in Blacks was underestimated (median, 7.1 ml per minute per 1.73 m2; 95% CI, 5.9 to 8.8). A new equation using age and sex and omitting race underestimated measured GFR in Blacks (median, 3.6 ml per minute per 1.73 m2; 95% CI, 1.8 to 5.5) and overestimated measured GFR in non-Blacks (median, 3.9 ml per minute per 1.73 m2; 95% CI, 3.4 to 4.4). For all equations, 85% or more of the eGFRs for Blacks and non-Blacks were within 30% of measured GFR. New creatinine-cystatin C equations without race were more accurate than new creatinine equations, with smaller differences between race groups. As compared with the current creatinine equation, the new creatinine equations, but not the new creatinine-cystatin C equations, increased population estimates of CKD prevalence among Blacks and yielded similar or lower prevalence among non-Blacks. CONCLUSIONS: New eGFR equations that incorporate creatinine and cystatin C but omit race are more accurate and led to smaller differences between Black participants and non-Black participants than new equations without race with either creatinine or cystatin C alone. (Funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.).


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais , Creatinina/sangue , Cistatina C/sangue , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etnologia , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Idoso , Algoritmos , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
Elife ; 102021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402426

RESUMO

Background: The virus SARS-CoV-2 can exploit biological vulnerabilities (e.g. host proteins) in susceptible hosts that predispose to the development of severe COVID-19. Methods: To identify host proteins that may contribute to the risk of severe COVID-19, we undertook proteome-wide genetic colocalisation tests, and polygenic (pan) and cis-Mendelian randomisation analyses leveraging publicly available protein and COVID-19 datasets. Results: Our analytic approach identified several known targets (e.g. ABO, OAS1), but also nominated new proteins such as soluble Fas (colocalisation probability >0.9, p=1 × 10-4), implicating Fas-mediated apoptosis as a potential target for COVID-19 risk. The polygenic (pan) and cis-Mendelian randomisation analyses showed consistent associations of genetically predicted ABO protein with several COVID-19 phenotypes. The ABO signal is highly pleiotropic, and a look-up of proteins associated with the ABO signal revealed that the strongest association was with soluble CD209. We demonstrated experimentally that CD209 directly interacts with the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, suggesting a mechanism that could explain the ABO association with COVID-19. Conclusions: Our work provides a prioritised list of host targets potentially exploited by SARS-CoV-2 and is a precursor for further research on CD209 and FAS as therapeutically tractable targets for COVID-19. Funding: MAK, JSc, JH, AB, DO, MC, EMM, MG, ID were funded by Open Targets. J.Z. and T.R.G were funded by the UK Medical Research Council Integrative Epidemiology Unit (MC_UU_00011/4). JSh and GJW were funded by the Wellcome Trust Grant 206194. This research was funded in part by the Wellcome Trust [Grant 206194]. For the purpose of open access, the author has applied a CC BY public copyright licence to any Author Accepted Manuscript version arising from this submission.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , 2',5'-Oligoadenilato Sintetase/genética , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Moléculas de Adesão Celular , Humanos , Lectinas Tipo C , Proteoma , Receptores de Superfície Celular , Receptores Depuradores Classe A/genética , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Receptor fas/genética
10.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 36(10): 1025-1041, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34308533

RESUMO

We aimed to evaluate the external performance of prediction models for all-cause dementia or AD in the general population, which can aid selection of high-risk individuals for clinical trials and prevention. We identified 17 out of 36 eligible published prognostic models for external validation in the population-based AGES-Reykjavik Study. Predictive performance was assessed with c statistics and calibration plots. All five models with a c statistic > .75 (.76-.81) contained cognitive testing as a predictor, while all models with lower c statistics (.67-.75) did not. Calibration ranged from good to poor across all models, including systematic risk overestimation or overestimation for particularly the highest risk group. Models that overestimate risk may be acceptable for exclusion purposes, but lack the ability to accurately identify individuals at higher dementia risk. Both updating existing models or developing new models aimed at identifying high-risk individuals, as well as more external validation studies of dementia prediction models are warranted.


Assuntos
Demência/diagnóstico , Demência/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco
11.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 14(4): e003258, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34241534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery calcification (CAC) and carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) are measures of subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic individuals and strong risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is an independent cardiovascular disease risk factor that accelerates atherosclerosis. METHODS: We performed meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies in up to 2500 T2D individuals of European ancestry (EA) and 1590 T2D individuals of African ancestry with or without exclusion of prevalent cardiovascular disease, for CAC measured by cardiac computed tomography, and 3608 individuals of EA and 838 individuals of African ancestry with T2D for cIMT measured by ultrasonography within the CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology) Consortium. RESULTS: We replicated 2 loci (rs9369640 and rs9349379 near PHACTR1 and rs10757278 near CDKN2B) for CAC and one locus for cIMT (rs7412 and rs445925 near APOE-APOC1) that were previously reported in the general EA populations. We identified one novel CAC locus (rs8000449 near CSNK1A1L/LINC00547/POSTN at 13q13.3) at P=2.0×10-8 in EA. No additional loci were identified with the meta-analyses of EA and African ancestry. The expression quantitative trait loci analysis with nearby expressed genes derived from arterial wall and metabolic tissues from the Genotype-Tissue Expression project pinpoints POSTN, encoding a matricellular protein involved in bone formation and bone matrix organization, as the potential candidate gene at this locus. In addition, we found significant associations (P<3.1×10-4) for 3 previously reported coronary artery disease loci for these subclinical atherosclerotic phenotypes (rs2891168 near CDKN2B-AS1 and rs11170820 near FLJ12825 for CAC, and rs7412 near APOE for cIMT). CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide potential biological mechanisms that could link CAC and cIMT to increased cardiovascular disease risk in individuals with T2D.

12.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(10): 2876-2889, 2021 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212197

RESUMO

CONTEXT: FSH may have independent actions on bone remodeling and body fat regulation. Cross-sectionally, we have shown that serum FSH is associated with bone mineral density (BMD) and body fat in older postmenopausal women, but it remains unknown whether FSH predicts bone and fat changes. OBJECTIVE: We examined whether baseline FSH level is associated with subsequent bone loss or body composition changes in older adults. SETTING, DESIGN, PARTICIPANTS: We studied 162 women and 158 men (mean age 82 ± 4 years) from the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES)-Bone Marrow Adiposity cohort, a substudy of the AGES-Reykjavik Study of community-dwelling older adults. Skeletal health and body composition were characterized at baseline and 3 years later. MAIN OUTCOMES: Annualized change in BMD and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Models were adjusted for serum estradiol and testosterone levels. RESULTS: There was no evidence for an association between baseline FSH level and change in BMD or body composition by DXA or QCT. For femoral neck areal BMD, adjusted mean difference (95% CI) per SD increase in FSH was 1.3 (-0.7 to 3.3) mg/cm2/y in women, and -0.2 (-2.6 to 2.2) mg/cm2/y in men. For visceral fat, adjusted mean difference (95% CI) per SD increase in FSH was 1.80 (-0.03 to 3.62) cm2/y in women, and -0.33 (-3.73 to 3.06) cm2/y in men. CONCLUSIONS: Although cross-sectional studies and studies in perimenopausal women have demonstrated associations between FSH and BMD and body composition, in older adults, FSH level is not associated with bone mass or body composition changes.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Composição Corporal , Densidade Óssea , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/sangue , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Absorciometria de Fóton , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Colo do Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino
14.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2329, 2021 04 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33888689

RESUMO

The health effects of omega-3 fatty acids have been controversial. Here we report the results of a de novo pooled analysis conducted with data from 17 prospective cohort studies examining the associations between blood omega-3 fatty acid levels and risk for all-cause mortality. Over a median of 16 years of follow-up, 15,720 deaths occurred among 42,466 individuals. We found that, after multivariable adjustment for relevant risk factors, risk for death from all causes was significantly lower (by 15-18%, at least p < 0.003) in the highest vs the lowest quintile for circulating long chain (20-22 carbon) omega-3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids). Similar relationships were seen for death from cardiovascular disease, cancer and other causes. No associations were seen with the 18-carbon omega-3, alpha-linolenic acid. These findings suggest that higher circulating levels of marine n-3 PUFA are associated with a lower risk of premature death.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/sangue , Mortalidade Prematura , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco
16.
Hum Mol Genet ; 30(15): 1443-1456, 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33856023

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a leading cause of chronic liver disease and is highly correlated with metabolic disease. NAFLD results from environmental exposures acting on a susceptible polygenic background. This study performed the largest multiethnic investigation of exonic variation associated with NAFLD and correlated metabolic traits and diseases. An exome array meta-analysis was carried out among eight multiethnic population-based cohorts (n = 16 492) with computed tomography (CT) measured hepatic steatosis. A fixed effects meta-analysis identified five exome-wide significant loci (P < 5.30 × 10-7); including a novel signal near TOMM40/APOE. Joint analysis of TOMM40/APOE variants revealed the TOMM40 signal was attributed to APOE rs429358-T; APOE rs7412 was not associated with liver attenuation. Moreover, rs429358-T was associated with higher serum alanine aminotransferase, liver steatosis, cirrhosis, triglycerides and obesity; as well as, lower cholesterol and decreased risk of myocardial infarction and Alzheimer's disease (AD) in phenome-wide association analyses in the Michigan Genomics Initiative, United Kingdom Biobank and/or public datasets. These results implicate APOE in imaging-based identification of NAFLD. This association may or may not translate to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; however, these results indicate a significant association with advanced liver disease and hepatic cirrhosis. These findings highlight allelic heterogeneity at the APOE locus and demonstrate an inverse link between NAFLD and AD at the exome level in the largest analysis to date.

17.
Prostate ; 81(8): 487-496, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33860950

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Melatonin levels are partially driven by the parenchyma volume of the pineal gland. Low urinary levels of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin have been associated with increased risk of advanced prostate cancer, but the relationship between pineal gland volume and composition and prostate cancer risk has not been examined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We utilized data from 864 men from the AGES-Reykjavik Study with complete pineal gland volumes and urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin measurements. Pineal parenchyma, calcification, and cyst volumes were calculated from brain magnetic resonance imaging. Levels of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin were assayed from prediagnostic urine samples. We calculated Pearson correlation coefficients between parenchyma volume and urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to calculate multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) comparing prostate cancer risk across parenchyma volume tertiles and across categories factoring in parenchyma volume, gland composition, and urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin level. RESULTS: Parenchyma volume was moderately correlated with urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin level (r = .24; p < .01). There was no statistically significant association between parenchyma volume tertile and prostate cancer risk. Men with high parenchyma volume, pineal cysts and calcifications, and low urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels had almost twice the risk of total prostate cancer as men with low parenchyma volume, no pineal calcifications or cysts, and low urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels (HR: 1.98; 95% CI: 1.02, 3.84; p: .04). CONCLUSIONS: Although parenchyma volume is not associated with prostate cancer risk, pineal gland composition and other circadian dynamics may influence risk for prostate cancer. Additional studies are needed to examine the interplay of pineal gland volume, composition, and melatonin levels on prostate cancer risk.

18.
Obes Sci Pract ; 7(2): 239-243, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33841894

RESUMO

Objective: As severity of outcome in COVID-19 is disproportionately higher among individuals with obesity, smokers, patients with hypertension, kidney disease, chronic pulmonary disease, coronary heart disease (CHD), and/or type 2 diabetes (T2D), serum levels of ACE2, the cellular entry point for the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, were examined in these high-risk groups. Methods: Associations of ACE2 levels to smokers and patients with hypertension, T2D, obesity, CHD, or COPD were investigated in a single center population-based study of 5457 Icelanders from the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility Reykjavík Study (AGES-RS) of the elderly (mean age 75 ± 6 years), using multiple linear regression analysis. Results: Serum levels of ACE2 were higher in smokers and individuals with T2D and/or obesity while they were unaffected in the other patient groups. Conclusion: ACE2 levels are higher in some patient groups with comorbidities linked to COVID-19 including obesity and T2D and as such may have an emerging role as a circulating biomarker for severity of outcome in the disease.

19.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 114(1): 16-28, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826696

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Threshold serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations for extraskeletal outcomes are uncertain and could differ from recommendations (20-30 ng/mL) for skeletal health. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify and validate sex-specific threshold 25(OH)D concentrations for older adults' physical function. METHODS: Using 5 large prospective, population-based studies-Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik (n = 4858, Iceland); Health, Aging, and Body Composition (n = 2494, United States); Invecchiare in Chianti (n = 873, Italy); Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (n = 2301, United States); and Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (n = 5862, United States)-we assessed 16,388 community-dwelling adults (10,376 women, 6012 men) aged ≥65 y. We analyzed 25(OH)D concentrations with the primary outcome (incident slow gait: women <0.8 m/s; men <0.825 m/s) and secondary outcomes (gait speed, incident self-reported mobility, and stair climb impairment) at median 3.0-y follow-up. We identified sex-specific 25(OH)D thresholds that best discriminated incident slow gait using machine learning in training data (2/3 cohort-stratified random sample) and validated using the remaining (validation) data and secondary outcomes. RESULTS: Mean age in the cohorts ranged from 74.4 to 76.5 y in women and from 73.3 to 76.6 y in men. Overall, 1112/6123 women (18.2%) and 494/3937 men (12.5%) experienced incident slow gait, 1098/7011 women (15.7%) and 474/3962 men (12.0%) experienced incident mobility impairment, and 1044/6941 women (15.0%) and 432/3993 men (10.8%) experienced incident stair climb impairment. Slow gait was best discriminated by 25(OH)D <24.0 ng/mL compared with 25(OH)D ≥24.0 ng/mL in women (RR: 1.29; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.50) and 25(OH)D <21.0 ng/mL compared with 25(OH)D ≥21.0 ng/mL in men (RR: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.01, 2.02). Most associations between 25(OH)D and secondary outcomes were modest; estimates were similar between validation and training datasets. CONCLUSIONS: Empirically identified and validated sex-specific threshold 25(OH)D concentrations for physical function for older adults, 24.0 ng/mL for women and 21.0 ng/mL for men, may inform candidate reference concentrations or the design of vitamin D intervention trials.


Assuntos
Vida Independente , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Composição Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D
20.
Laeknabladid ; 107(5): 227-233, 2021 May.
Artigo em Islandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33904831

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The number of people with type 2 diabetes has increased in Iceland in the last few decades. We utilized the national database on prescribed medication from the Directorate of Health to estimate the prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes in Iceland and made prediction on the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Iceland in 10 and 20 years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes for the period 2005-2018 was estimated based on prescriptions of diabetes medication in the national prescription database containing all prescriptions in Iceland during the period. The result was compared to the result from the REFINE-Reykjavik study (prospective, population-based cohort study) from 2004 to 2011 and published data from the USA from 1980 to 2016. RESULTS: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes more than doubled in near all age groups in both men and women in the period 2005-2018. The incidence increased by 2.8% annually (in 18-79 years old). The number of people in Iceland with type 2 diabetes was 10600 in 2018 and had increased from 4200 in the year 2005. Comparison with the results of the REFINE-Reykjavik study showed an underestimation (29% in men and women) of the prevalence of type 2 diabetes. If the increase in type 2 diabetes continues at a similar rate as in the years 2005-2018 the number of people with diabetes in Iceland could be near 24000 in the year 2040. CONCLUSION: Linear increase was seen in incidence and prevalence of people with type 2 diabetes in the years 2005-2018. Similar evolution was seen in USA from 1984. In order to counteract the increase of type 2 diabetes following the same path as has been seen in the USA, targeted measures are needed.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Islândia/epidemiologia , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
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