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1.
J Bacteriol ; 203(18): e0024921, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34181483

RESUMO

During growth, bacteria increase in size and divide. Division is initiated by the formation of the Z-ring, a ring-like cytoskeletal structure formed by treadmilling protofilaments of the tubulin homolog FtsZ. FtsZ localization is thought to be controlled by the Min and Noc systems, and here we explore why cell division fails at high temperature when the Min and Noc systems are simultaneously mutated. Microfluidic analysis of a minD noc double mutant indicated that FtsZ formed proto-Z-rings at periodic interchromosome locations but that the rings failed to mature and become functional. Extragenic suppressor analysis indicated that a variety of mutations restored high temperature growth to the minD noc double mutant, and while many were likely pleiotropic, others implicated the proteolysis of the transcription factor Spx. Further analysis indicated that a Spx-dependent pathway activated the expression of ZapA, a protein that primarily compensates for the absence of Noc. In addition, an Spx-independent pathway reduced the length of the cytokinetic period, perhaps by increasing divisome activity. Finally, we provide evidence of an as-yet-unidentified protein that is activated by Spx and governs the frequency of polar division and minicell formation. IMPORTANCE Bacteria must properly position the location of the cell division machinery in order to grow, divide, and ensure each daughter cell receives one copy of the chromosome. In Bacillus subtilis, cell division site selection depends on the Min and Noc systems, and while neither is individually essential, cells fail to grow at high temperature when both are mutated. Here, we show that cell division fails in the absence of Min and Noc, due not to a defect in FtsZ localization but rather to a failure in the maturation of the cell division machinery. Suppressor mutations that restored growth were selected, and while some activated the expression of ZapA via the Spx stress response pathway, others appeared to directly enhance divisome activity.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Divisão Celular/genética , Mutação , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde
2.
mBio ; 12(1)2021 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33531398

RESUMO

Bacteria that divide by binary fission form FtsZ rings at the geometric midpoint of the cell between the bulk of the replicated nucleoids. In Bacillus subtilis, the DNA- and membrane-binding Noc protein is thought to participate in nucleoid occlusion by preventing FtsZ rings from forming over the chromosome. To explore the role of Noc, we used time-lapse fluorescence microscopy to monitor FtsZ and the nucleoid of cells growing in microfluidic channels. Our data show that Noc does not prevent de novo FtsZ ring formation over the chromosome nor does Noc control cell division site selection. Instead, Noc corrals FtsZ at the cytokinetic ring and reduces migration of protofilaments over the chromosome to the future site of cell division. Moreover, we show that FtsZ protofilaments travel due to a local reduction in ZapA association, and the diffuse FtsZ rings observed in the Noc mutant can be suppressed by ZapA overexpression. Thus, Noc sterically hinders FtsZ migration away from the Z-ring during cytokinesis and retains FtsZ at the postdivisional polar site for full disassembly by the Min system.IMPORTANCE In bacteria, a condensed structure of FtsZ (Z-ring) recruits cell division machinery at the midcell, and Z-ring formation is discouraged over the chromosome by a poorly understood phenomenon called nucleoid occlusion. In B. subtilis, nucleoid occlusion has been reported to be mediated, at least in part, by the DNA-membrane bridging protein, Noc. Using time-lapse fluorescence microscopy of cells growing in microchannels, we show that Noc neither protects the chromosome from proximal Z-ring formation nor determines the future site of cell division. Rather, Noc plays a corralling role by preventing protofilaments from leaving a Z-ring undergoing cytokinesis and traveling over the nucleoid.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis/fisiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/fisiologia , Citocinese/fisiologia , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/fisiologia , Bacillus subtilis/citologia , Bacillus subtilis/genética , Cromossomos Bacterianos , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas
3.
Biophys Rev ; 13(6): 1039-1051, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35059026

RESUMO

Winning the war against resistant bacteria will require a change of paradigm in antibiotic discovery. A promising new direction is the targeting of non-essential pathways required for successful infection, such as quorum-sensing, virulence, and biofilm formation. Similarly important will be strategies to prevent or revert antibiotic resistance. Here, we argue that the (p)ppGpp signaling pathway should be a prime target of this effort, since its inactivation could potentially achieve all these goals simultaneously. The hyperphosphorylated guanine nucleotide (p)ppGpp is an ancient and universal second messenger of bacteria that has pleotropic effects on the physiology of these organisms. Initially described as a stress signal-an alarmone-it is now clear that (p)ppGpp plays a more general and fundamental role in bacterial adaptation, by integrating multiple internal and environmental signals to establish the optimal balance between growth and maintenance functions at any given time. Given such centrality, perturbation of the (p)ppGpp pathway will affect bacteria in multiple ways, from the ability to adjust metabolism to the available nutrients to the capacity to differentiate into developmental forms adapted to colonize different niches. Here, we provide an overview of the (p)ppGpp pathway, how it affects bacterial growth, survival and virulence, and its connection with antibiotic tolerance and persistence. We will emphasize the dysfunctions of cells living without (p)ppGpp and finalize by reviewing the efforts and prospects of developing inhibitors of this pathway, and how these could be employed to improve current antibiotic therapy.

4.
Bioorg Chem ; 100: 103921, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32464403

RESUMO

Enterococci are gram-positive, widespread nosocomial pathogens that in recent years have developed resistance to various commonly employed antibiotics. Since finding new infection-control agents based on secondary metabolites from organisms has proved successful for decades, natural products are potentially useful sources of compounds with activity against enterococci. Herein are reported the results of a natural product library screening based on a whole-cell assay against a gram-positive model organism, which led to the isolation of a series of anacardic acids identified by analysis of their spectroscopic data and by chemical derivatizations. Merulinic acid C was identified as the most active anacardic acid derivative obtained against antibiotic-resistant enterococci. Fluorescence microscopy analyses showed that merulinic acid C targets the bacterial membrane without affecting the peptidoglycan and causes rapid cellular ATP leakage from cells. Merulinic acid C was shown to be synergistic with gentamicin against Enterococcus faecium, indicating that this compound could inspire the development of new antibiotic combinations effective against drug-resistant pathogens.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus faecium/efeitos dos fármacos , Gentamicinas/farmacologia , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Enterococcus faecium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Enterococcus faecium/metabolismo , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Humanos , Hidroxibenzoatos/farmacologia
5.
J Biol Chem ; 295(7): 2148-2159, 2020 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919098

RESUMO

PlsX is the first enzyme in the pathway that produces phosphatidic acid in Gram-positive bacteria. It makes acylphosphate from acyl-acyl carrier protein (acyl-ACP) and is also involved in coordinating phospholipid and fatty acid biosyntheses. PlsX is a peripheral membrane enzyme in Bacillus subtilis, but how it associates with the membrane remains largely unknown. In the present study, using fluorescence microscopy, liposome sedimentation, differential scanning calorimetry, and acyltransferase assays, we determined that PlsX binds directly to lipid bilayers and identified its membrane anchoring moiety, consisting of a hydrophobic loop located at the tip of two amphipathic dimerization helices. To establish the role of the membrane association of PlsX in acylphosphate synthesis and in the flux through the phosphatidic acid pathway, we then created mutations and gene fusions that prevent PlsX's interaction with the membrane. Interestingly, phospholipid synthesis was severely hampered in cells in which PlsX was detached from the membrane, and results from metabolic labeling indicated that these cells accumulated free fatty acids. Because the same mutations did not affect PlsX transacylase activity, we conclude that membrane association is required for the proper delivery of PlsX's product to PlsY, the next enzyme in the phosphatidic acid pathway. We conclude that PlsX plays a dual role in phospholipid synthesis, acting both as a catalyst and as a chaperone protein that mediates substrate channeling into the pathway.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Ácidos Fosfatídicos/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/biossíntese , Bacillus subtilis/genética , Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Catálise , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Lipogênese/genética , Ácidos Fosfatídicos/genética , Fosfolipídeos/genética
6.
J Biol Chem ; 295(7): 2136-2147, 2020 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796629

RESUMO

PlsX plays a central role in the coordination of fatty acid and phospholipid biosynthesis in Gram-positive bacteria. PlsX is a peripheral membrane acyltransferase that catalyzes the conversion of acyl-ACP to acyl-phosphate, which is in turn utilized by the polytopic membrane acyltransferase PlsY on the pathway of bacterial phospholipid biosynthesis. We have recently studied the interaction between PlsX and membrane phospholipids in vivo and in vitro, and observed that membrane association is necessary for the efficient transfer of acyl-phosphate to PlsY. However, understanding the molecular basis of such a channeling mechanism remains a major challenge. Here, we disentangle the binding and insertion events of the enzyme to the membrane, and the subsequent catalysis. We show that PlsX membrane binding is a process mostly mediated by phospholipid charge, whereas fatty acid saturation and membrane fluidity remarkably influence the membrane insertion step. Strikingly, the PlsXL254E mutant, whose biological functionality was severely compromised in vivo but remains catalytically active in vitro, was able to superficially bind to phospholipid vesicles, nevertheless, it loses the insertion capacity, strongly supporting the importance of membrane insertion in acyl-phosphate delivery. We propose a mechanism in which membrane fluidity governs the insertion of PlsX and thus regulates the biosynthesis of phospholipids in Gram-positive bacteria. This model may be operational in other peripheral membrane proteins with an unprecedented impact in drug discovery/development strategies.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/genética , Fluidez de Membrana/genética , Fosfolipídeos/biossíntese , Bacillus subtilis/genética , Enterococcus faecalis/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/genética
7.
ACS Infect Dis ; 5(4): 539-549, 2019 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30693760

RESUMO

Violacein is a tryptophan-derived purple pigment produced by environmental bacteria, which displays multiple biological activities, including strong inhibition of Gram-positive pathogens. Here, we applied a combination of experimental approaches to identify the mechanism by which violacein kills Gram-positive bacteria. Fluorescence microscopy showed that violacein quickly and dramatically permeabilizes B. subtilis and S. aureus cells. Cell permeabilization was accompanied by the appearance of visible discontinuities or rips in the cytoplasmic membrane, but it did not affect the cell wall. Using in vitro experiments, we showed that violacein binds directly to liposomes made with commercial and bacterial phospholipids and perturbs their structure and permeability. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulations were employed to reveal how violacein inserts itself into lipid bilayers. Thus, our combined results demonstrate that the cytoplasmic membrane is the primary target of violacein in bacteria. The implications of this finding for the development of violacein as a therapeutic agent are discussed.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacillus subtilis/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Indóis/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/química , Bacillus subtilis/química , Bacillus subtilis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Membrana Celular/química , Indóis/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Staphylococcus aureus/química , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
8.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek ; 111(11): 2213-2223, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29915893

RESUMO

Magnetotactic bacteria, for the most part, are free-living, motile, unicellular prokaryotes that inhabit almost all marine and freshwater environments. One notable exception to the unicellular mode, however, are the magnetotactic multicellular prokaryotes. These morphologically unique prokaryotes (e.g., Candidatus Magnetoglobus multicellularis) are motile aggregates of 20-40 genetically identical, Gram-negative cells organised as a sphere (or ovoid in shape) and only motile as a unit. No specific close physical association between magnetotactic bacteria and non-magnetotactic microorganisms has ever been reported. Here, using culture-independent approaches, we show an unusual association between the spherical magnetotactic multicellular prokaryote Ca. Magnetoglobus multicellularis and Pseudoalteromonas species in environmental sediment and water samples collected from the Araruama Lagoon in Brazil. Cells of Pseudoalteromonas species were observed to be physically attached to the surface and, notably, even in the intercellular space of these spherical magnetotactic multicellular prokaryotes. An attempt to correlate the frequency of association between Pseudoalteromonas and magnetotactic multicellular prokaryotes with sediment depth was made but only a slight decrease in the number of Pseudoalteromonas cells per magnetotactic multicellular prokaryote was observed with increasing depth. Similar observations were made with magnetotactic multicellular prokaryotes from another Brazilian Lagoon (Rodrigo de Freitas) and the putative symbiont/parasite was detected. Although our results suggest some sort of specificity in the relationship between these prokaryotes, the precise nature of this association remains unclear.


Assuntos
Deltaproteobacteria/fisiologia , Água Doce/microbiologia , Pseudoalteromonas/fisiologia , Brasil , Deltaproteobacteria/química , Deltaproteobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Magnetismo , Pseudoalteromonas/química , Pseudoalteromonas/isolamento & purificação
9.
Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr ; 1860(8): 1502-1516, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29750913

RESUMO

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) work as a primary defense against pathogenic microorganisms. BP100, (KKLFKKILKYL-NH2), a rationally designed short, highly cationic AMP, acts against many bacteria, displaying low toxicity to eukaryotic cells. Previously we found that its mechanism of action depends on membrane surface charge and on peptide-to-lipid ratio. Here we present the synthesis of two BP100 analogs: BP100­alanyl­hexadecyl­1­amine (BP100-Ala-NH-C16H33) and cyclo(1­4)­d­Cys1, Ile2, Leu3, Cys4-BP100 (Cyclo(1­4)­cILC-BP100). We examined their binding to large unilamellar vesicles (LUV), conformational and functional properties, and compared with those of BP100. The analogs bound to membranes with higher affinity and a lesser dependence on electrostatic forces than BP100. In the presence of LUV, BP100 and BP100-Ala-NH-C16H33 acquired α-helical conformation, while Cyclo(1­4)­cILC-BP100) was partly α-helical and partly ß-turn. Taking in conjunction: 1. particle sizes and zeta potential, 2. effects on lipid flip-flop, 3. leakage of LUVs internal contents, and 4. optical microscopy of giant unilamellar vesicles, we concluded that at high concentrations, all three peptides acted by a carpet mechanism, while at low concentrations the peptides acted by disorganizing the lipid bilayer, probably causing membrane thinning. The higher activity and lesser membrane surface charge dependence of the analogs was probably due to their greater hydrophobicity. The MIC values of both analogs towards Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were similar to those of BP100 but both analogues were more hemolytic. Confocal microscopy showed Gram-positive B. subtilis killing with concomitant extensive membrane damage suggestive of lipid clustering, or peptide-lipid aggregation. These results were in agreement with those found in model membranes.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/síntese química , Oligopeptídeos/química , Peptídeos Cíclicos/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Anti-Infecciosos/metabolismo , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Eritrócitos/citologia , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Oligopeptídeos/metabolismo , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Ligação Proteica , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Lipossomas Unilamelares/química , Lipossomas Unilamelares/metabolismo
10.
Mol Microbiol ; 103(4): 698-712, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27875634

RESUMO

The stringent response is a universal adaptive mechanism to protect bacteria from nutritional and environmental stresses. The role of the stringent response during lipid starvation has been studied only in Gram-negative bacteria. Here, we report that the stringent response also plays a crucial role in the adaptation of the model Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis to fatty acid starvation. B. subtilis lacking all three (p)ppGpp-synthetases (RelBs , RelP and RelQ) or bearing a RelBs variant that no longer synthesizes (p)ppGpp suffer extreme loss of viability on lipid starvation. Loss of viability is paralleled by perturbation of membrane integrity and function, with collapse of membrane potential as the likely cause of death. Although no increment of (p)ppGpp could be detected in lipid starved B. subtilis, we observed a substantial increase in the GTP/ATP ratio of strains incapable of synthesizing (p)ppGpp. Artificially lowering GTP with decoyinine rescued viability of such strains, confirming observations that low intracellular GTP is important for survival of nutritional stresses. Altogether, our results show that activation of the stringent response by lipid starvation is a broadly conserved response of bacteria and that a key role of (p)ppGpp is to couple biosynthetic processes that become detrimental if uncoordinated.


Assuntos
Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Bacillus subtilis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Guanosina Trifosfato/metabolismo , Ligases/genética , Potenciais da Membrana/fisiologia , Inanição/metabolismo , Cerulenina/farmacologia , Inibidores da Síntese de Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos/biossíntese , Estresse Fisiológico
11.
Mol Microbiol ; 100(4): 621-34, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26816052

RESUMO

PlsX is a central enzyme of phospholipid synthesis in bacteria, converting acyl-ACP to acyl-phosphate on the pathway to phosphatidic acid formation. PlsX has received attention because it plays a key role in the coordination of fatty acid and phospholipid synthesis. Recently, PlsX was also suggested to coordinate membrane synthesis with cell division in Bacillus subtilis. Here, we have re-investigated the cell biology of PlsX and determined that the enzyme is uniformly distributed on the membrane of most cells, but occasionally appears as membrane foci as well. Foci and homogenous patterns seem freely interconvertible but the prevalence of the uniform staining suggests that PlsX does not need to localize to specific sites to function correctly. We also investigated the relationship between PlsX and the divisome. In contrast to previous observations, PlsX's foci showed no obvious periodicity of localization and did not colocalize with the divisome. Furthermore, depletion of PlsX did not affect cell division if phospholipid synthesis is maintained by an alternative enzyme. These results suggest that coordination between division and membrane synthesis may not require physical or functional interactions between the divisome and phospholipid synthesis enzymes.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis/citologia , Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Divisão Celular , Fosfolipídeos/biossíntese , Bacillus subtilis/enzimologia , Bacillus subtilis/genética , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo
12.
Biomol NMR Assign ; 9(2): 387-91, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25967379

RESUMO

Bacterial division begins with the formation of a contractile protein ring at midcell, which constricts the bacterial envelope to generate two daughter cells. The central component of the division ring is FtsZ, a tubulin-like protein capable of self-assembling into filaments which further associate into a higher order structure known as the Z ring. Proteins that bind to FtsZ play a crucial role in the formation and regulation of the Z ring. One such protein is ZapA, a widely conserved 21 kDa homodimeric protein that associates with FtsZ filaments and promotes their bundling. Although ZapA was discovered more than a decade ago, the structural details of its interaction with FtsZ remain unknown. In this work, backbone and side chain NMR assignments for the Geobacillus stearothermophilus ZapA homodimer are described. We titrated FtsZ into (15)N(2)H-ZapA and mapped ZapA residues whose resonances are perturbed upon FtsZ binding. This information provides a structural understanding of the interaction between FtsZ and ZapA.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Geobacillus stearothermophilus/metabolismo , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Modelos Moleculares , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 112(17): E2130-8, 2015 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25848052

RESUMO

Cytoskeletal structures are dynamically remodeled with the aid of regulatory proteins. FtsZ (filamentation temperature-sensitive Z) is the bacterial homolog of tubulin that polymerizes into rings localized to cell-division sites, and the constriction of these rings drives cytokinesis. Here we investigate the mechanism by which the Bacillus subtilis cell-division inhibitor, MciZ (mother cell inhibitor of FtsZ), blocks assembly of FtsZ. The X-ray crystal structure reveals that MciZ binds to the C-terminal polymerization interface of FtsZ, the equivalent of the minus end of tubulin. Using in vivo and in vitro assays and microscopy, we show that MciZ, at substoichiometric levels to FtsZ, causes shortening of protofilaments and blocks the assembly of higher-order FtsZ structures. The findings demonstrate an unanticipated capping-based regulatory mechanism for FtsZ.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/química , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/química , Bacillus subtilis/genética , Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Cristalografia por Raios X , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Estrutura Quaternária de Proteína , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína
14.
Biomol NMR Assign ; 9(1): 1-5, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24366721

RESUMO

Bacterial cell division proteins must assemble at the middle of the cell to ensure the viability of both daughter cells. The first step in the assembly of the cell division apparatus is the polymerization of the tubulin-like protein FtsZ into a ring-shaped scaffold, the Z-ring. The Min system contributes to the spatial precision of division by inhibiting FtsZ polymerization at the cell poles. The component of this system that interacts with FtsZ is MinC, a 25 kDa protein that has two domains. The N-terminal domain of MinC is the main responsible for FtsZ inhibition, being sufficient to block Z-ring assembly when overexpressed in vivo, and to inhibit FtsZ polymerization in vitro. Despite intensive studies, little is known about the MinC binding site for FtsZ. We have assigned the backbone and side chain resonances of the MinC N-terminal domain of Bacillus subtilis through NMR spectroscopy. These assignments provide the basis to characterize the interaction between the N-terminal domain of MinC and FtsZ by NMR methods.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis/citologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Divisão Celular , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína
15.
PLoS One ; 8(4): e60690, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23577149

RESUMO

Cell division in bacteria is regulated by proteins that interact with FtsZ and modulate its ability to polymerize into the Z ring structure. The best studied of these regulators is MinC, an inhibitor of FtsZ polymerization that plays a crucial role in the spatial control of Z ring formation. Recent work established that E. coli MinC interacts with two regions of FtsZ, the bottom face of the H10 helix and the extreme C-terminal peptide (CTP). Here we determined the binding site for MinC on Bacillus subtilis FtsZ. Selection of a library of FtsZ mutants for survival in the presence of Min overexpression resulted in the isolation of 13 Min-resistant mutants. Most of the substitutions that gave rise to Min resistance clustered around the H9 and H10 helices in the C-terminal domain of FtsZ. In addition, a mutation in the CTP of B. subtilis FtsZ also produced MinC resistance. Biochemical characterization of some of the mutant proteins showed that they exhibited normal polymerization properties but reduced interaction with MinC, as expected for binding site mutations. Thus, our study shows that the overall architecture of the MinC-FtsZ interaction is conserved in E. coli and B. subtilis. Nevertheless, there was a clear difference in the mutations that conferred Min resistance, with those in B. subtilis FtsZ pointing to the side of the molecule rather than to its polymerization interface. This observation suggests that the mechanism of Z ring inhibition by MinC differs in both species.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis/genética , Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Bacillus subtilis/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Sítios de Ligação , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/química , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Ligação Proteica , Multimerização Proteica , Estrutura Quaternária de Proteína , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína
16.
J Bacteriol ; 194(17): 4608-18, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22730127

RESUMO

During sporulation, Bacillus subtilis redeploys the division protein FtsZ from midcell to the cell poles, ultimately generating an asymmetric septum. Here, we describe a sporulation-induced protein, RefZ, that facilitates the switch from a medial to a polar FtsZ ring placement. The artificial expression of RefZ during vegetative growth converts FtsZ rings into FtsZ spirals, arcs, and foci, leading to filamentation and lysis. Mutations in FtsZ specifically suppress RefZ-dependent division inhibition, suggesting that RefZ may target FtsZ. During sporulation, cells lacking RefZ are delayed in polar FtsZ ring formation, spending more time in the medial and transition stages of FtsZ ring assembly. A RefZ-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion localizes in weak polar foci at the onset of sporulation and as a brighter midcell focus at the time of polar division. RefZ has a TetR DNA binding motif, and point mutations in the putative recognition helix disrupt focus formation and abrogate cell division inhibition. Finally, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays identified sites of RefZ enrichment in the origin region and near the terminus. Collectively, these data support a model in which RefZ helps promote the switch from medial to polar division and is guided by the organization of the chromosome. Models in which RefZ acts as an activator of FtsZ ring assembly near the cell poles or as an inhibitor of the transient medial ring at midcell are discussed.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis/genética , Bacillus subtilis/fisiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Divisão Celular , Proteínas de Bactérias/fisiologia , Sequência de Bases , Cromossomos Bacterianos , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/fisiologia , Genes Bacterianos , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutação , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Esporos Bacterianos/genética , Esporos Bacterianos/fisiologia
17.
J Bacteriol ; 194(14): 3661-9, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22582279

RESUMO

ComN (YrzD) is a small, 98-amino-acid protein recently shown to be involved in the posttranscriptional control of the late competence comE operon in Bacillus subtilis. We show here that ComN localizes to the division site and cell poles in a DivIVA-dependent fashion. Yeast two-hybrid and glutathione S-transferase pulldown experiments showed that ComN interacts directly with DivIVA. ComN is not essential for the polar assembly of the core competence DNA uptake machinery. Nevertheless, polar localization of ComN should play some role in competence acquisition because delocalization of ComN leads to a small reduction in competence efficiency. We found that ComN promotes the accumulation of its target comE mRNA to septal and polar sites. Thus, we speculate that localized translation of ComE proteins may be required for efficient competence development. Our results underscore the versatility of DivIVA as a promoter of the differentiation of bacterial poles and demonstrate that the repertoire of polarly localized molecules in B. subtilis is broad, including a regulator of gene expression and its target mRNA. Moreover, our findings suggest that mRNA localization may play a role in the subcellular organization of bacteria.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Divisão Celular , Polaridade Celular , Clonagem Molecular , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Mutação , RNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
18.
Mol Microbiol ; 83(2): 261-74, 2012 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22111992

RESUMO

Spore formation in Bacillus subtilis takes place in a sporangium consisting of two chambers, the forespore and the mother cell, which are linked by pathways of cell-cell communication. One pathway, which couples the proteolytic activation of the mother cell transcription factor σ(E) to the action of a forespore synthesized signal molecule, SpoIIR, has remained enigmatic. Signalling by SpoIIR requires the protein to be exported to the intermembrane space between forespore and mother cell, where it will interact with and activate the integral membrane protease SpoIIGA. Here we show that SpoIIR signal activity as well as the cleavage of its N-terminal extension is strictly dependent on the prespore fatty acid biosynthetic machinery. We also report that a conserved threonine residue (T27) in SpoIIR is required for processing, suggesting that signalling of SpoIIR is dependent on fatty acid synthesis probably because of acylation of T27. In addition, SpoIIR localization in the forespore septal membrane depends on the presence of SpoIIGA. The orchestration of σ(E) activation in the intercellular space by an acylated signal protein provides a new paradigm to ensure local transmission of a weak signal across the bilayer to control cell-cell communication during development.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Comunicação Celular , Fator sigma/metabolismo , Esporos Bacterianos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esporos Bacterianos/metabolismo , Acilação , Bacillus subtilis/fisiologia , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Esporos Bacterianos/fisiologia
19.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 53(5): 997-1004, Sept.-Oct. 2010. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-564075

RESUMO

In this work, different reactions in vitro between an environmental bacterial isolate and fungal species were related. The Gram-positive bacteria had terminal and subterminal endospores, presented metabolic characteristics of mesophilic and acidophilic growth, halotolerance, positive to nitrate reduction and enzyme production, as caseinase and catalase. The analysis of partial sequences containing 400 to 700 bases of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene showed identity with the genus Bacillus. However, its identity as B. subtilis was confirmed after analyses of the rpoB, gyrA, and 16S rRNA near-full-length sequences. Strong inhibitory activity of environmental microorganisms, such as Penicillium sp, Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, and phytopathogens, such as Colletotrichum sp, Alternaria alternata, Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum f.sp vasinfectum, was shown on co-cultures with B. subtilis strain, particularly on Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) and DNase media. Red and red-ochre color pigments, probably phaeomelanins, were secreted by A. alternata and A. niger respectively after seven days of co-culture.


Na presente investigação, nosso objetivo principal foi relatar diferentes interações in vitro de um isolado bacteriano ambiental com espécies fúngicas. Através da identificação clássica, nós verificamos que o bacilo ambiental apresentava endósporos terminais e subterminais, características metabólicas de mesofilia, acidofilia, halotolerância, redução de nitrato e produção de enzimas, como caseinase e catalase. Análise de seqüências parciais do gene 16S RNAr contendo de 400 a 700 bases revelou identidade com gênero Bacillus. No entanto, a espécie Bacillus subtilis foi confirmada somente depois da análise de seqüências dos genes rpoB, gyrA, and 16S RNAr. Intensa atividade inibitória aos fungos ambientais, como Penicillium sp, Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, e fitopatogênicos, como Colletotrichum sp, Alternaria alternata, Fusarium solani e F. oxysporum f.sp vasinfectum, foi observada em coculturas com a cepa bacteriana (B. subtilis), particularmente em ágar Sabouraud dextrose e ágar DNase. Pigmentos de cor avermelhada e vermelho-amarronzado, provavelmente feomelaninas, foram secretados respectivamente por colônias de A. alternata e A. niger depois de sete dias de co-cultivo.

20.
J Biol Chem ; 284(50): 34735-46, 2009 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19828445

RESUMO

Microplusin, a Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus antimicrobial peptide (AMP) is the first fully characterized member of a new family of cysteine-rich AMPs with histidine-rich regions at the N and C termini. In the tick, microplusin belongs to the arsenal of innate defense molecules active against bacteria and fungi. Here we describe the NMR solution structure of microplusin and demonstrate that the protein binds copper II and iron II. Structured as a single alpha-helical globular domain, microplusin consists of five alpha-helices: alpha1 (residues Gly-9 to Arg-21), alpha2 (residues Glu-27 to Asn-40), alpha3 (residues Arg-44 to Thr-54), alpha4 (residues Leu-57 to Tyr-64), and alpha5 (residues Asn-67 to Cys-80). The N and C termini are disordered. This structure is unlike any other AMP structures described to date. We also used NMR spectroscopy to map the copper binding region on microplusin. Finally, using the Gram-positive bacteria Micrococcus luteus as a model, we studied of mode of action of microplusin. Microplusin has a bacteriostatic effect and does not permeabilize the bacterial membrane. Because microplusin binds metals, we tested whether this was related to its antimicrobial activity. We found that the bacteriostatic effect of microplusin was fully reversed by supplementation of culture media with copper II but not iron II. We also demonstrated that microplusin affects M. luteus respiration, a copper-dependent process. Thus, we conclude that the antibacterial effect of microplusin is due to its ability to bind and sequester copper II.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/química , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/metabolismo , Cobre/química , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Rhipicephalus/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/genética , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Sítios de Ligação , Bovinos , Dicroísmo Circular , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Consumo de Oxigênio , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos
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