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1.
Eur J Nutr ; 2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632658

RESUMO

PURPOSE: An increasing body of evidence suggests that excreting a generous volume of diluted urine is associated with short- and long-term beneficial health effects, especially for kidney and metabolic function. However, water intake and hydration remain under-investigated and optimal hydration is poorly and inconsistently defined. This review tests the hypothesis that optimal chronic water intake positively impacts various aspects of health and proposes an evidence-based definition of optimal hydration. METHODS: Search strategy included PubMed and Google Scholar using relevant keywords for each health outcome, complemented by manual search of article reference lists and the expertise of relevant practitioners for each area studied. RESULTS: The available literature suggest the effects of increased water intake on health may be direct, due to increased urine flow or urine dilution, or indirect, mediated by a reduction in osmotically -stimulated vasopressin (AVP). Urine flow affects the formation of kidney stones and recurrence of urinary tract infection, while increased circulating AVP is implicated in metabolic disease, chronic kidney disease, and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. CONCLUSION: In order to ensure optimal hydration, it is proposed that optimal total water intake should approach 2.5 to 3.5 L day-1 to allow for the daily excretion of 2 to 3 L of dilute (< 500 mOsm kg-1) urine. Simple urinary markers of hydration such as urine color or void frequency may be used to monitor and adjust intake.

2.
Ann Nutr Metab ; 74 Suppl 3: 11-18, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203294

RESUMO

In children, maintaining adequate fluid intake and hydration is important for physiological reasons and for the adoption of healthy, sustainable drinking habits. In the Liq.In7 cross-sectional surveys involving 6,469 children (4-17 years) from 13 countries, 60% of children did not meet the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) adequate intake for water from fluids. Beyond fluid quantity, the quality of what children drink is important for health. In these surveys, the contribution of sugar-sweetened beverages and fruit juices to total fluid intake (TFI) in children exceeded that of water in 6 out of 13 countries. To assess the adequacy of children's fluid intake, urinary biomarkers of hydration such as urine osmolality, urine specific gravity, and urine color may be used. To date, while there are no widely accepted specific threshold values for urine concentration to define adequate hydration in children, the available literature suggests that many children have highly concentrated urine, indicating insufficient fluid intake. This is worrisome since studies have demonstrated a relationship between low fluid intake or insufficient hydration and cognitive performance in children. Furthermore, results of the Liq.In7 surveys showed that at school - where children spend a significant amount of time and require optimal cognitive performance - children drink only 14% of their TFI. Consequently, it is pertinent to better understand the barriers to drinking water at school and encourage the promotion of water intake through multicomponent interventions that combine educational, environmental, and behavioral aspects to support adequate hydration as well as optimal cognition in children.

3.
Eur J Nutr ; 57(6): 2311, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29978379

RESUMO

In the original publication of the article, a mistake was introduced in affiliation of Dr. Michael Nelson.

4.
Eur J Nutr ; 57(Suppl 3): 43-51, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29923117

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In recent years, evidence has emerged about the importance of healthy fluid intake in children for physical and mental performance and health, and in the prevention of obesity. Accurate data on water intake are needed to inform researchers and policymakers and for setting dietary reference values. However, to date, there are few published data on fluid or water intakes in children. This is due partly to the fact that drinking water is not always reported in dietary surveys. The aim of this paper is to review the current status of the literature and highlight the challenges of assessing total fluid intake in children and adolescents. RESULTS: From the dietary assessment literature it is apparent that children present unique challenges to assessing intake due to ongoing cognitive capacity development, limited literacy skills, difficulties in estimating portion sizes and multiple caregivers during any 1 day making it difficult to track intakes. As such, many issues should be considered when assessing total fluid intakes in children or adolescents. Various methods to assess fluid intakes exist, each with its own strengths and weaknesses; the ultimate choice of method depends on the research question and resources available. Based on the literature review, it is apparent that if the research focus is to assess only fluid intake, a fluid-specific method, such as a diary or record, appears to be a feasible approach to provide an accurate estimate of intakes.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Ingestão de Líquidos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dieta , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Energia , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Política Nutricional
5.
Eur J Nutr ; 57(Suppl 3): 113-123, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29858626

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to identify and characterize patterns of fluid intake in children and adolescents from six countries: Argentina, Brazil, China, Indonesia, Mexico and Uruguay. METHODS: Data on fluid intake volume and type amongst children (4-9 years; N = 1400) and adolescents (10-17 years; N = 1781) were collected using the validated 7-day fluid-specific record (Liq.In7 record). To identify relatively distinct clusters of subjects based on eight fluid types (water, milk and its derivatives, hot beverages, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), 100% fruit juices, artificial/non-nutritive sweetened beverages, alcoholic beverages, other beverages), a cluster analysis (partitioning around k-medoids algorithm) was used. Clusters were then characterized according to their socio-demographics and lifestyle indicators. RESULTS: The six interpretable clusters identified were: low drinkers-SSB (n 523), low drinkers-water and milk (n 615), medium mixed drinkers (n 914), high drinkers-SSB (n 513), high drinkers-water (n 352) and very high drinkers-water (n 264). Country of residence was the dominant characteristic, followed by socioeconomic level, in all six patterns. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis showed that consumption of water and SSB were the primary drivers of the clusters. In addition to country, socio-demographic and lifestyle factors played a role in determining the characteristics of each cluster. This information highlights the need to target interventions in particular populations aimed at changing fluid intake behavior and improving health in children and adolescents.


Assuntos
Bebidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Líquidos , Adolescente , Animais , Argentina , Ásia , Brasil , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia , Masculino , México , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uruguai
6.
J Nutr ; 147(10): 2001-2007, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28878034

RESUMO

Background: Mean daily water intake from fluids (WATER-FL) has proven to be difficult to measure because of a range of nonvalidated data collection techniques. Few questionnaires have been validated to estimate WATER-FL against self-reported diaries or urinary hydration markers, which may limit their objectivity.Objectives: The goals of this investigation were 1) to assess the validity of a 7-d fluid record (7dFLR) to measure WATER-FL (WATER-FL-7dFLR) through comparison with WATER-FL as calculated by measuring deuterium oxide (D2O) disappearance (WATER-FL-D2O), and 2) to evaluate the reliability of the 7dFLR in measuring WATER-FL.Methods: Participants [n = 96; 51% female; mean ± SD age: 41 ± 14 y; mean ± SD body mass index (in kg/m2): 26.2 ± 5.1] completed body water turnover analysis over 3 consecutive weeks. They completed the 7dFLR and food diaries during weeks 2 and 4 of the observation. The records were entered into nutritional software to determine the water content of all foods and fluids consumed. WATER-FL-D2O was calculated from water turnover (via the D2O dilution method), minus water from food and metabolic water. The agreement between the 2 methods of determining WATER-FL were compared according to a Bland-Altman plot at week 2. The test-retest reliability of 7dFLR between weeks 2 and 4 was assessed via intraclass correlation (ICC).Results: The mean ± SD difference between WATER-FL-7dFLR and WATER-FL-D2O was -131 ± 845 mL/d. In addition, no bias was observed (F[1,94] = 0.484; R2 = 0.006; P = 0.488). When comparing WATER-FL-7dFLR from weeks 2 and 4, no significant difference (mean ± SD difference: 71 ± 75 mL/d; t[79] = 0.954; P = 0.343) and an ICC of 0.85 (95% CI: 0.77, 0.90) was observed.Conclusions: The main findings of this study were that the use of the 7dFLR is an effective and reliable method to estimate WATER-FL in adults. This style of questionnaire may be extremely helpful for collecting water intake data for large-scale epidemiologic studies.


Assuntos
Água Corporal/metabolismo , Registros de Dieta , Ingestão de Líquidos , Avaliação Nutricional , Inquéritos e Questionários , Água/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Bebidas/análise , Óxido de Deutério , Feminino , Análise de Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autorrelato , Água/metabolismo , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico
7.
Kidney Blood Press Res ; 42(3): 483-494, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28787716

RESUMO

Suboptimal fluid intake may require enhanced release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or vasopressin for the maintenance of adequate hydration. Enhanced copeptin levels (reflecting enhanced vasopressin levels) in 25% of the common population are associated with enhanced risk of metabolic syndrome with abdominal obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease, heart failure, vascular dementia, cognitive impairment, microalbuminuria, chronic kidney disease, inflammatory bowel disease, cancer, and premature mortality. Vasopressin stimulates the release of glucocorticoids which in turn up-regulate the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1). Moreover, dehydration upregulates the transcription factor NFAT5, which in turn stimulates SGK1 expression. SGK1 is activated by insulin, growth factors and oxidative stress via phosphatidylinositide-3-kinase, 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase PDK1 and mTOR. SGK1 is a powerful stimulator of Na+/K+-ATPase, carriers (e.g. the Na+,K+,2Cl- cotransporter NKCC, the NaCl cotransporter NCC, the Na+/H+ exchanger NHE3, and the Na+ coupled glucose transporter SGLT1), and ion channels (e.g. the epithelial Na+ channel ENaC, the Ca2+ release activated Ca2+ channel Orai1 with its stimulator STIM1, and diverse K+ channels). SGK1 further participates in the regulation of the transcription factors nuclear factor kappa-B NFκB, p53, cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB), activator protein-1, and forkhead transcription factor FKHR-L1 (FOXO3a). Enhanced SGK1 activity fosters the development of hypertension, obesity, diabetes, thrombosis, stroke, inflammation including inflammatory bowel disease and autoimmune disease, cardiac fibrosis, proteinuria, renal failure as well as tumor growth. The present brief review makes the case that suboptimal fluid intake in the common population may enhance vasopressin and glucocorticoid levels thus up-regulating SGK1 expression and favouring the development of SGK1 related pathologies.


Assuntos
Desidratação/fisiopatologia , Proteínas Imediatamente Precoces/genética , Estado de Hidratação do Organismo/fisiologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Desidratação/genética , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Humanos , Regulação para Cima , Vasopressinas/metabolismo
8.
Ann Nutr Metab ; 70 Suppl 1: 13-17, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28614807

RESUMO

The primary aim of this cross-sectional survey was to assess the total fluid intake (TFI; sum of drinking water and all other fluids) and the intake of water and all other types of beverages in a sample of pregnant and breastfeeding women representative of Java-Island, Indonesia. Therefore, 299 pregnant and 296 breastfeeding women completed a 7-day fluid-specific record. A secondary aim was to estimate the total water intake (TWI; sum of water from fluids and food moisture), and one 24-h recall was performed to determine water intake from food moisture. The median TFI of pregnant and breastfeeding women were 2,250 (1,800-2,800) and 2,360 (1,954-2,968) mL/day, respectively. The largest contributor to TFI was water (72 and 77% for pregnant/breastfeeding women, respectively). Pregnant women to the extent of 42% and 54% of breastfeeding women did not reach the adequate intake (AI) of water from fluids. In pregnant and breastfeeding women, the median water intake from foods was 592 and 613 mL/day, representing 21 and 20% of TWI. Concluding that a high proportion of the pregnant and breastfeeding subjects did not reach the AI of water from fluid, it seems important to put in place actions such as providing education materials and ensuring access to safe water. Moreover, future surveys should dedicate attention to the assessment of fluid intake and hydration status among pregnant and breastfeeding women in other countries.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Gravidez/fisiologia , Adulto , Bebidas/classificação , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Desidratação/prevenção & controle , Registros de Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia , Recém-Nascido , Estado Nutricional , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
9.
Appetite ; 116: 205-214, 2017 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28433776

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effect of three interventions to increase the plain water consumption of children with unhealthy drinking habits, with an innovative approach combining the three layers of Installation Theory: embodied competences, affordances and social regulation. METHODS: 334 preschool children and their carers were allocated to three interventions: Control (control): no intervention, Information (info): online coaching sessions on water health benefits aiming at modifying embodied competences (knowledge), Information + Water Affordance (info + w): the same plus home delivery of small bottles of water. After three months, half of the info and info + w subjects were allocated to Social Regulation (+social) (on-line discussion forum) or no further intervention (-social). Intake of plain water and all other fluid types of the children were recorded by the carers 6 times over a year using an online 7-day fluid-specific dietary record. RESULTS: Over 1 year, all groups significantly increased daily water consumption by 3.0-7.8 times (+118 to +222 mL). Info + w + social and Info-social generated the highest increase in plain water intake after one year compared to baseline, by 7.8 times (+216 mL) and 6.7 times (+222 mL) respectively; both significantly exceeded the control (3.0 times, +118 mL), whilst the effect of info + w-social (5.0 times, +158 mL) and info + social (5.3 times, +198 mL) did not differ from that of control. All groups saw a decrease of sweetened beverages intake, again with info + w + social generating the largest decrease (-27%; -172 mL). No changes in other fluids or total fluid intake were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Sustainable increased water consumption can be achieved in children with unhealthy drinking habits by influencing representations, changing material affordances, and providing social regulation. Combining the three provided the strongest effect as predicted by Installation Theory.


Assuntos
Água Potável/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Líquidos , Comportamento Social , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Registros de Dieta , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Tamanho da Amostra , Fatores Socioeconômicos
10.
Eur J Nutr ; 56(1): 355-362, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26572890

RESUMO

AIM: Urine concentration measured via osmolality (U OSM) and specific gravity (U SG) reflects the adequacy of daily fluid intake, which has important relationships to health in pregnant (PREG) and lactating (LACT) women. Urine color (U COL) may be a practical, surrogate marker for whole-body hydration status. PURPOSE: To determine whether U COL was a valid measure of urine concentration in PREG and LACT, and pair-matched non-pregnant, non-lactating control women (CON). METHODS: Eighteen PREG/LACT (age 31 ± 1 years, pre-pregnancy BMI 24.3 ± 5.9 kg m-2) and eighteen CON (age 29 ± 4 years, BMI 24.1 ± 3.7 kg m-2) collected 24-h and single-urine samples on specified daily voids at five time points (15 ± 2, 26 ± 1, and 37 ± 1 weeks gestation, 3 ± 1 and 9 ± 1 weeks postpartum during lactation; CON visits were separated by similar time intervals) for measurement of 24-h U OSM, U SG, and U COL and single-sample U OSM and U COL. RESULTS: Twenty-four-hour U COL was significantly correlated with 24-h U OSM (r = 0.6085-0.8390, P < 0.0001) and 24-h U SG (r = 0.6213-0.8985, P < 0.0001) in all groups. A 24-h U COL ≥ 4 (AUC = 0.6848-0.9513, P < 0.05) and single-sample U COL ≥ 4 (AUC = 0.9094-0.9216, P < 0.0001) indicated 24-h U OSM ≥ 500 mOsm kg-1 (representing inadequate fluid intake) in PREG, LACT, and CON. CONCLUSIONS: Urine color was a valid marker of urine concentration in all groups. Thus, PREG, LACT, and CON can utilize U COL to monitor their daily fluid balance. Women who present with a U COL ≥ 4 likely have a U OSM ≥ 500 mOsm kg-1 and should increase fluid consumption to improve overall hydration status.


Assuntos
Desidratação/diagnóstico , Desidratação/urina , Lactação , Gravidez , Adulto , Biomarcadores/urina , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cor , Ingestão de Líquidos , Feminino , Humanos , Concentração Osmolar , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Gravidade Específica , Urinálise , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico
11.
Eur J Nutr ; 56(6): 2161-2170, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27519184

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Previous research established significant relationships between total fluid intake (TFI) and urinary biomarkers of the hydration process in free-living males and females; however, the nature of this relationship is not known for pregnant (PREG) and lactating (LACT) women. PURPOSE: To determine the relationship between urinary and hematological hydration biomarkers with TFI in PREG and LACT. METHODS: Eighteen PREG/LACT (age: 31 ± 3 years, pre-pregnancy BMI: 24.26 ± 5.85 kg m-2) collected 24-h urine samples, recorded TFI, and provided a blood sample at 5 time points (15 ± 2, 26 ± 1, 37 ± 1 weeks gestation, 3 ± 1 and 9 ± 1 weeks postpartum during lactation); 18 pair-matched non-pregnant (NP), non-lactating (NL) women (age: 29 ± 4 years, BMI: 24.1 ± 3.7 kg m-2) provided samples at similar time intervals. Twenty-four-hour urine volume (U VOL), osmolality (U OSM), specific gravity (U SG), and color (U COL) were measured. Hematocrit, serum osmolality (S OSM), and serum total protein (S TP) were measured in blood. RESULTS: Significant relationships were present between TFI and urinary biomarkers in all women (P < 0.004); these relationships were not different between PREG and NP, and LACT and NL, except U VOL in PREG (P = 0.0017). No significant relationships between TFI and hematological biomarkers existed (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Urinary biomarkers of hydration, but not hematological biomarkers, have a strong relationship with TFI in PREG, LACT, NP, and NL women. These data suggest that urinary biomarkers of hydration reflect TFI during pregnancy and breast-feeding.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/urina , Ingestão de Líquidos , Lactação , Estado de Hidratação do Organismo , Gravidez , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Aleitamento Materno , Desidratação/diagnóstico , Desidratação/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico
12.
Nutrients ; 8(11)2016 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27809236

RESUMO

This study aimed to examine the association between drinking water intake and diet quality, and to analyse the adherence of French men and women to the European Food Safety Authority 2010 Adequate Intake (EFSA AI). A representative sample of French adults (≥18) from the Individual and National Survey on Food Consumption (INCA2) was classified, by sex, into small, medium, and large drinking water consumers. Diet quality was assessed with several nutritional indices (mean adequacy ratio (MAR), mean excess ratio (MER), probability of adequate intakes (PANDiet), and solid energy density (SED)). Of the total sample, 72% of men and 46% of women were below the EFSA AI. This percentage of non-adherence decreased from the small to the large drinking water consumers (from 95% to 34% in men and from 81% to 9% in women). For both sexes, drinking water intake was associated with higher diet quality (greater MAR and PANDiet). This association remained significant independently of socio-economic status for women only. Low drinking water consumers did not compensate with other sources (beverages and food moisture) and a high drinking water intake was not a guarantee for reaching the EFSA AI, meaning that increasing consumption of water should be encouraged in France.


Assuntos
Desidratação/prevenção & controle , Dieta Saudável , Ingestão de Líquidos , Cooperação do Paciente , Recomendações Nutricionais , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bebidas/efeitos adversos , Desidratação/epidemiologia , Desidratação/etiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta/etnologia , Dieta Saudável/etnologia , Ingestão de Líquidos/etnologia , Ingestão de Energia/etnologia , União Europeia , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Cooperação do Paciente/etnologia , Risco , Caracteres Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Nutrients ; 8(11)2016 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27879652

RESUMO

During pregnancy and lactation, the adequate intake (AI) for total water intake is increased. This cross-sectional survey aimed to assess Total Fluid Intake (TFI; sum of drinking water and all other fluids) of 300 pregnant and 300 breastfeeding women in Indonesia. A seven-day fluid specific record was used to assess TFI. Mean TFI of pregnant and breastfeeding women were 2332 ± 746 mL/day and 2525 ± 843 mL/day, respectively. No significant difference in TFI between pregnancy trimesters was observed, while TFI of women breastfeeding for 12-24 months postpartum (2427 ± 955 mL/day) was lower than that of the two other groups (0-5 months: 2607 ± 754 mL/day; 6-11 months: 2538 ± 807 mL/day, respectively). Forty-two and 54% of the pregnant and breastfeeding subjects, respectively, did not reach the AI of water from fluids. These AI were actually known by only 14% and 23% of the pregnant and breastfeeding subjects. However, having the knowledge about the AI did not increase the odds of reaching the AI. Concluding that a high proportion of the pregnant and breastfeeding subjects did not reach the AI of water from fluid, it seems pertinent to further assess the fluid intake, as well as their hydration status, in other countries.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Aleitamento Materno , Ingestão de Líquidos , Lactação , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Desidratação/etiologia , Desidratação/fisiopatologia , Desidratação/prevenção & controle , Registros de Dieta , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Indonésia , Avaliação Nutricional , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Recomendações Nutricionais , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
14.
Nutrients ; 8(10)2016 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27754402

RESUMO

Little has been published on the contribution of food moisture (FM) to total water intake (TWI); therefore, the European Food Safety Authority assumed FM to contribute 20%-30% to TWI. The aim of the present analysis was to estimate and compare TWI, the percentage of water from FM and from fluids in population samples of France and UK. Data from 2 national nutrition surveys (Enquête Comportements et Consommations Alimentaires en France (CCAF) 2013 and the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) 2008/2009-2011/2012) were analyzed for TWI and the contribution of water from FM and fluids. Children and adults TWI were significantly lower in France than in the UK. The contribution of water from foods was lower in the UK than in France (27% vs. 36%). As TWI increased, the proportion of water from fluids increased, suggesting that low drinkers did not compensate by increasing intake of water-rich foods. In addition, 80%-90% of the variance in TWI was explained by differences in water intake from fluids. More data on the contribution of FM to TWI is needed to develop more robust dietary recommendations on TWI and guidance on fluid intake for the general public.


Assuntos
Dieta , Ingestão de Líquidos , Comportamento Alimentar , Água/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Alimentos , França , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Reino Unido , Água/análise , Adulto Jovem
15.
Ann Nutr Metab ; 68 Suppl 2: 1-5, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27300809

RESUMO

Reliable data at population level are essential to firmly establish links between fluid intake, hydration and health, investigate dose-response relationships and develop meaningful public health strategies or reference intake values. However, limited research exists regarding the most appropriate methodology for assessing beverage or total fluid intake (TFI). To date, methodologies have been developed to assess food and nutrient intake without due consideration of water or fluid intake behavior. A recent crossover study showed that a 24-hour food recall significantly underestimated mean TFI by 382 ml (95% CI 299-465) compared with a fluid specific 7-day record. The authors postulated that this average difference was mainly the result of missed drinking acts between meals a 24-hour recall was used. Using a 7-day record administered in paper form or on-line has also been shown to lead to a significantly different mean TFI of 129 ml. Therefore, the choice of methodology might result in measurement errors that limit between-survey or between-country comparisons. Such errors may contribute to variations in estimates of TFI that cannot be explained by differences in climate, physical activity or cultural habits. A recent survey confirmed the variation in methodologies used in European national dietary surveys. Since these surveys form the basis for setting adequate intakes for total water intake, measurement error between surveys should be limited, highlighting the need for the development of a consistent methodology that is validated for water and TFI estimation.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Desidratação/fisiopatologia , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Arginina Vasopressina , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Desidratação/complicações , Desidratação/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Glicopeptídeos/sangue , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/prevenção & controle , Modelos Biológicos , Prognóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco , Urina , Vasopressinas/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico
16.
Ann Nutr Metab ; 68 Suppl 2: 6-11, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27299303

RESUMO

In the last decade, cross-sectional and multiple cohort studies have associated total fluid intake or water intake with the risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and even the risk of developing hyperglycemia. Urine biomarkers have also been linked to the risk of CKD and lithiasis, and these biomarkers respond quickly to variations in fluid intake. High circulating copeptin levels, a surrogate marker of arginine vasopressin, have been associated with metabolic syndrome, renal dysfunction and increased risk for diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and death. The aim of this paper was to explore how the various findings on water intake, hydration and health are interconnected, to highlight current gaps in our understanding and to propose a model that links water intake, homeostatic mechanisms to maintain water balance and health outcomes. Since plasma copeptin and vasopressin have been demonstrated to be sensitive to changes in water intake, inversely associated with 24-hour urine volume, and associated with urine biomarkers and fluid intake, vasopressin is proposed as the central player in this theoretical physiological model.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Vasopressinas/fisiologia , Arginina Vasopressina , Biomarcadores/urina , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Glicopeptídeos/sangue , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Hiperglicemia , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Modelos Biológicos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Fatores de Risco , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/fisiologia
17.
Ann Nutr Metab ; 68 Suppl 2: 12-8, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27299575

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the intake of water and all other beverages in children, adolescents and adults. METHODS: Three thousand six hundred eleven children (8 ± 2 years), 8,109 adolescents (13 ± 2 years) and 16,276 adults (40 ± 14 years) (47% men) were recruited in 15 cross-sectional surveys (liquid intake across 7 days, Liq.In7 study) and completed a 7-day fluid-specific record to assess total fluid intake (TFI), where TFI was defined as the sum of drinking water and other type of beverages. RESULTS: The median TFI was 1.2, 1.2 and 1.8 liters/day in children, adolescents and adults respectively, with important differences observed between countries. Only 39% of children, 25% of adolescents and 51% of adults met the European Food Safety Authority adequate intake (AI) recommendations of water from fluids. In the surveys of Spain, France, Belgium, Germany, Turkey, Iran, Indonesia and China, water was the major contributor (47-78%) to TFI. In the adult surveys of UK, Poland, Japan and Argentina, hot beverages were the highest contributor to TFI. The fluid intake of children and adolescents in Mexico, Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay was characterized by a contribution of juices and sweet beverages that was as important as the contribution of water to TFI. CONCLUSION: Given that a relatively high proportion of subjects, especially children and adolescents, failed to meet the recommended AI of water from fluids and that water intake was not the highest contributor to TFI in all countries, undertaking actions to increase water intake are warranted.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Líquidos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Bebidas , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Desidratação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação Nutricional , Política Nutricional , Recomendações Nutricionais , Fatores Sexuais
18.
Eur J Nutr ; 54 Suppl 2: 17-25, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26072215

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare total fluid intake (TFI), defined as the sum of water and all other fluid types, assessed with a 24-h dietary (food and fluid) recall with mean TFI assessed with a 7-day fluid-specific record among adolescents and adults. METHODS: This repeated cross-sectional study compared TFI as assessed by two fluid assessment instruments using a crossover approach. 290 adolescents (17.3 ± 0.8 years, 50 % boys) and 289 adults (43 ± 9.3 years, 50 % men) from Indonesia completed the study. RESULTS: Significant correlations were observed between fluid intake assessed with the 24-h recall and the 7-day fluid record (r = 0.333; p < 0.001). The Bland-Altman method, however, showed an underestimation (bias) of mean TFI by a 24-h recall when compared with the 7-day fluid record [mean difference (95 % CI) -382 mL (-299, -465); p < 0.001]. The mean difference also increased with increasing TFI: Mean difference for the lowest and highest quartiles of TFI was 139 versus -1265 mL/day. The 7-day fluid record recorded two (95 % CI -1.9, -2.4; p < 0.0001) extra drinking acts compared with the 24-h recall, whereas the mean volume per drinking act was significantly higher with the 24-h recall [mean difference (95 % CI) 39 mL (31, 47); p < 0.001]. CONCLUSION: Compared with a 7-day fluid record, a 24-h dietary recall significantly underestimated TFI. Subjects recalled two less drinking acts, while estimating the volume consumed per drinking act to be larger. Since the adequate intakes for total water intake are based on median intakes observed in national surveys that most frequently used the 24-h recall method, they may potentially be underestimated.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Adolescente , Bebidas , Dieta , Ingestão de Líquidos , Avaliação Nutricional , Política Nutricional , Cooperação do Paciente , Adolescente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Adolescente/etnologia , Adulto , Bebidas/análise , Estudos Cross-Over , Estudos Transversais , Desidratação/etnologia , Desidratação/prevenção & controle , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta/etnologia , Registros de Dieta , Ingestão de Líquidos/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cooperação do Paciente/etnologia , Recomendações Nutricionais , Autorrelato , Água/administração & dosagem , Água/análise , Adulto Jovem
19.
Eur J Nutr ; 54 Suppl 2: 57-67, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26081646

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe total fluid intake (TFI) according to socio-demographic characteristics in children and adolescents worldwide. METHODS: Data of 3611 children (4-9 years) and 8109 adolescents (10-18 years) were retrieved from 13 cross-sectional surveys (47 % males). In three countries, school classes were randomly recruited with stratified cluster sampling design. In the other countries, participants were randomly recruited based on a quota method. TFI (drinking water and beverages of all kinds) was obtained with a fluid-specific record over 7 consecutive days. Adequacy was assessed by comparing TFI to 80 % of adequate intake (AI) for total water intake set by European Food Safety Authority. Data on height, weight and socio-economic level were collected in most countries. RESULTS: The mean (SD) TFI ranged from [1.32 (0.68)] to [1.35 (0.71)] L/day. Non-adherence to AIs for fluids ranged from 10 % (Uruguay) to >90 % (Belgium). Females were more likely to meet the AIs for fluids than males (4-9 years: 28 %, OR 0.72, p = 0.002; 10-18 years: 20 %, OR 0.80, p = 0.001), while adolescents were less likely to meet the AI than children (OR 1.645, p < 0.001 in males and OR 1.625, p < 0.001 in females). CONCLUSIONS: A high proportion of children and adolescents are at risk of an inadequate fluid intake. This risk is especially high in males and adolescents when compared with females or children categories. This highlights water intake among young populations as an issue of global concern.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Dieta , Ingestão de Líquidos , Saúde Global , Política Nutricional , Cooperação do Paciente , Adolescente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Adolescente/etnologia , Ásia/epidemiologia , Bebidas/análise , Criança , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil/etnologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Desidratação/epidemiologia , Desidratação/etnologia , Desidratação/prevenção & controle , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta/etnologia , Ingestão de Líquidos/etnologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Saúde Global/etnologia , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Masculino , Avaliação Nutricional , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Cooperação do Paciente/etnologia , Recomendações Nutricionais , Risco , Água/administração & dosagem , Água/análise
20.
Ann Nutr Metab ; 66 Suppl 3: 26-30, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26088044

RESUMO

On average, children and adults in developed countries consume too little water, which can lead to negative health consequences. In a one-year longitudinal field experiment in Poland, we compared the impact of three home-based interventions on helping children and their parents/caregivers to develop sustainable increased plain water consumption habits. Fluid consumption of 334 children and their caregivers were recorded over one year using an online specific fluid dietary record. They were initially randomly allocated to one of the three following conditions: Control, Information (child and carer received information on the health benefits of water), or Placement (in addition to information, free small bottles of still water for a limited time period were delivered at home). After three months, half of the non-controls were randomly assigned to Community (child and caregiver engaged in an online community forum providing support on water consumption). All conditions significantly increased the water consumption of children (by 21.9-56.7%) and of adults (by 22-89%). Placement + Community generated the largest effects. Community enhanced the impact of Placement for children and parents, as well as the impact of Information for parents but not children. The results suggest that the family setting offers considerable scope for successful installation of interventions encouraging children and caregivers to develop healthier consumption habits, in mutually reinforcing ways. Combining information, affordances, and social influence gives the best, and most sustainable, results.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Líquidos , Família , Adulto , Cuidadores , Criança , Água Potável/administração & dosagem , Comunicação em Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pais , Polônia , Características de Residência , Apoio Social
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