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1.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 771464, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34899795

RESUMO

Changes in the chemical environment at the maturation stage in Pinus spp. somatic embryogenesis will be a determinant factor in the conversion of somatic embryos to plantlets. Furthermore, the study of biochemical and morphological aspects of the somatic embryos could enable the improvement of somatic embryogenesis in Pinus spp. In the present work, the influence of different amino acid combinations, carbohydrate sources, and concentrations at the maturation stage of Pinus radiata D. Don and Pinus halepensis Mill. was analyzed. In P. radiata, the maturation medium supplemented with 175 mM of sucrose and an increase in the amino acid mixture (1,100 mgL-1 of L-glutamine, 1,050 mgL-1 of L-asparagine, 350 mgL-1 of L-arginine, and 35 mgL-1 of L-proline) promoted bigger embryos, with a larger stem diameter and an increase in the number of roots in the germinated somatic embryos, improving the acclimatization success of this species. In P. halepensis, the maturation medium supplemented with 175 mM of maltose improved the germination of somatic embryos. The increase in the amount of amino acids in the maturation medium increased the levels of putrescine in the germinated somatic embryos of P. halepensis. We detected significant differences in the amounts of polyamines between somatic plantlets of P. radiata and P. halepensis; putrescine was less abundant in both species. For the first time, in P. radiata and P. halepensis somatic embryogenesis, we detected the presence of cadaverine, and its concentration changed according to the species.

2.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(11)2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34834744

RESUMO

While some genetically modified (GM) plants have been targeted to confer tolerance to abiotic stressors, transgenes are impacted by abiotic stressors, causing adverse effects on plant physiology and yield. However, routine safety analyses do not assess the response of GM plants under different environmental stress conditions. In the context of climate change, the combination of abiotic stressors is a reality in agroecosystems. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the metabolic cost by assessing the proteomic profiles of GM soybean varieties under glyphosate spraying and water deficit conditions compared to their non-transgenic conventional counterparts. We found evidence of cumulative adverse effects that resulted in the reduction of enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, along with the expression of amino acids and nitrogen metabolic enzymes. Ribosomal metabolism was significantly enriched, particularly the protein families associated with ribosomal complexes L5 and L18. The interaction network map showed that the affected module representing the ribosome pathway interacts strongly with other important proteins, such as the chloro-plastic gamma ATP synthase subunit. Combined, these findings provide clear evidence for increasing the metabolic costs of GM soybean plants in response to the accumulation of stress factors. First, alterations in the ribosome pathway indicate that the GM plant itself carries a metabolic burden associated with the biosynthesis of proteins as effects of genetic transformation. GM plants also showed an imbalance in energy demand and production under controlled conditions, which was increased under drought conditions. Identifying the consequences of altered metabolism related to the interaction between plant transgene stress responses allows us to understand the possible effects on the ecology and evolution of plants in the medium and long term and the potential interactions with other organisms when these organisms are released in the environment.

3.
Plant Mol Biol ; 105(4-5): 559-574, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33386578

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: The plastomes of E. edulis and E. oleracea revealed several molecular markers useful for genetic studies in natural populations and indicate specific evolutionary features determined by vicariant speciation. Arecaceae is a large and diverse family occurring in tropical and subtropical ecosystems worldwide. E. oleracea is a hyperdominant species of the Amazon forest, while E. edulis is a keystone species of the Atlantic forest. It has reported that E. edulis arose from vicariant speciation after the emergence of the belt barrier of dry environment (Cerrado and Caatinga biomes) between Amazon and Atlantic forests, isolating the E. edulis in the Atlantic forest. We sequenced the complete plastomes of E. edulis and E. oleracea and compared them concerning plastome structure, SSRs, tandem repeats, SNPs, indels, hotspots of nucleotide polymorphism, codon Ka/Ks ratios and RNA editing sites aiming to investigate evolutionary traits possibly affected by distinct environments. Our analyses revealed 303 SNPs, 91 indels, and 82 polymorphic SSRs among both species. Curiously, the narrow correlation among localization of repetitive sequences and indels strongly suggests that replication slippage is involved in plastid DNA mutations in Euterpe. Moreover, most non-synonymous substitutions represent amino acid variants in E. edulis that evolved specifically or in a convergent manner across the palm phylogeny. Amino acid variants observed in several plastid proteins in E. edulis were also identified as positive signatures across palm phylogeny. The higher incidence of specific amino acid changes in plastid genes of E. edulis in comparison with E. oleracea probably configures adaptive genetic variations determined by vicariant speciation. Our data indicate that the environment generates a selective pressure on the plastome making it more adapted to specific conditions.


Assuntos
Euterpe/genética , Evolução Molecular , Florestas , Genomas de Plastídeos/genética , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Arecaceae/classificação , Arecaceae/genética , Proteínas de Cloroplastos/genética , Proteínas de Cloroplastos/metabolismo , DNA de Cloroplastos/análise , DNA de Cloroplastos/genética , Ecossistema , Euterpe/classificação , Genes de Cloroplastos/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Mutação , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie
4.
Genet Mol Biol ; 43(4): e20200023, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926069

RESUMO

Butia eriospatha is an endemic palm species from the Atlantic Rainforest in Brazil, a biodiversity hotspot. This species is currently listed in the IUCN red list as vulnerable and lacks specific plastid markers for population genetics studies. In addition, the evolutionary relationship within the genus Butia is not yet well resolved. Here, we sequenced and characterized the complete plastid genome (plastome) sequence of B. eriospatha. The complete plastome sequence is 154,048 bp in length, with the typical quadripartite structure. This plastome length and genes content is consistent with other six species from tribe Cocoseae. However, the Inverted Repeat (IR) borders show some variation among the analyzed species from this tribe. Species from the Bactridinae (Astrocaryum and Acrocomia) and Elaeidinae (Elaeis) subtribes present the rps19 gene completely duplicated in the IR region. In contrast, all plastomes sequenced from the subtribe Attaleinae (Butia, Cocos, Syagrus) present one complete CDS of rps19 and one partial copy of rps19. The difference in the IR/LSC junctions between Attaleinae and the sister clades Bactridinae + Elaeidinae might be considered an evolutionary signal and the plastome sequence of B. eriopatha may be used in future studies of population genetics and phylogeny.

6.
Genet Mol Biol ; 43(2): e20180377, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555941

RESUMO

Plastomes are very informative structures for comparative phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses. We sequenced and analyzed the complete plastome of Campomanesia xanthocarpa and compared its gene order, structure, and evolutionary characteristics within Myrtaceae. Analyzing 48 species of Myrtaceae, we identified six genes representing 'hotspots' of variability within the plastomes (ycf2, atpA, rpoC2, pcbE, ndhH and rps16), and performed phylogenetic analyses based on: (i) the ycf2 gene, (ii) all the six genes identified as 'hotspots' of variability, and (iii) the genes identified as 'hotspots' of variability, except the ycf2 gene. The structure, gene order, and gene content of the C. xanthocarpa plastome are similar to other Myrtaceae species. Phylogenetic analyses revealed the ycf2 gene as a promissing region for barcoding within this family, having also a robust phylogenetic signal. The synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates and the Ka/Ks ratio revealed low values for the ycf2 gene among C. xanthocarpa and the other 47 analyzed species of Myrtaceae, with moderate purifying selection acting on this gene. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) analysis of the whole plastomes produced phylogenetic trees supporting the monophyly of three Myrtaceae tribes. The findings of this study provide support for planning conservation, breeding, and biotechnological programs for this species.

7.
Protoplasma ; 257(3): 911-920, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31897810

RESUMO

Despite their great economic importance, relatively little is known about bamboo sexual reproduction because they usually spread through rhizomes and have long intervals between flowering periods. Bambusa tuldoides is no exception; the intervals between flowering periods are about 23 years and often do not result in successful caryopsis production. The aim of the present work was to characterize Bambusa tuldoides sexual reproduction at three stages of flower development and investigate possible male sterility. Pollen was cultured onto several types of culture medium in order to encourage germination, but not a single of the thousands of observed pollen germinated under any condition. Anthers and microspores were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and optical microscopy techniques. Anther dehiscence appeared to be normal when compared to other species. In contrast, microspores began to develop abnormally starting as early as the first flower development stage: retraction of the cytoplasm and rupture of the nuclear and mitochondria membrane. As the interior machinery of the microspores degenerated, starch accumulated within numerous amyloplasts during stages two to four of flower development. The sporoderms of these microspores were similarly incomplete: though they possessed an exine, they lacked an intine. The results here obtained suggest that the non-viability of these abnormal pollen grains prevents the development of Bambusa tuldoides caryopses.


Assuntos
Bambusa/química , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infertilidade das Plantas/fisiologia
8.
Protoplasma ; 256(6): 1495-1506, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144034

RESUMO

This is the first study to describe in a timescale morphohistological and ultrastructural characteristics of fruit (cypsela) and seed development in Trichocline catharinensis, which was completed 21 days after anthesis (DAA). At anthesis, we identified an ovary with three differentiated regions, including the inner epidermis, inner part, and outer epidermis. The mature ovule showed an integument with the outer epidermis, integumentary parenchyma, and endothelium. Cells around the endothelium form the periendothelial zone with thick cell walls that showed Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive reaction. The periendothelial zone and endothelium showed degradation of the cells during embryogenesis. The main stages of embryo development from fecundation through mature seed were identified. The ripe cypsela showed the pericarp (exocarp), seed coat (exotesta), and remaining endosperm surrounding the embryo. Mature embryos were straight with shoot apical meristem (SAM), and root apical meristem (RAM) was separated by the hypocotyl. Light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses indicate cells with characteristics of meristem cells, as well as proteins and lipid bodies and mitochondria with few cristae in cotyledon cells. Our findings provide insight into taxonomic and physiological studies by detailing cypsela and seed ontogenesis from an endemic and vulnerable Asteraceae from southern Brazil. This study is also a starting point for establishing the biological criteria for seed harvesting and future studies of seed physiology and conservation of plant genetic resource.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Plantas/química , Sementes/química , Brasil
9.
Photosynth Res ; 142(1): 51-56, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31093838

RESUMO

An easy and inexpensive method of determining the photosynthetic pathway in grasses using a dye widely used in microscopy. To evaluate the efficiency of a new histochemical test for determination of the photosynthetic pathway in grasses (Poacea). Leaves of 58 grass species were sectioned transversally, and the sections treated with a 2% sodium hypochlorite solution to clarify the tissue. After discoloration, sections were washed with distilled water and double-stained with astra blue and safranin (1% each in 50% ethanol) for 1 min. Sections were then mounted between microscopy glass slides and coverslips using water. Grass species showing red staining of the bundle sheath cells were considered C4, and species with translucent bundle sheath were considered C3. The results of the histochemical test were then compared with results from carbon isotope composition analysis and the relevant scientific literature. Observations from the histochemical test were congruent with results from δ13C isotope composition analysis, and with data previously presented in the scientific literature. The proposed histochemical test proved efficient for characterization of the photosynthetic pathway in the tested grasses; however, the method should be further tested in a greater number of grass species, encompassing, preferably, all Poacea subfamilies. Future studies may elucidate if the proposed method can effectively be used in other botanical families. Furthermore, additional investigations may determine whether the phenolic compounds indicated by the histochemical test are exclusive to the bundle sheath of C4 grasses and if possible relations exist between these phenolic compounds and the C4 photosynthetic pathway in grasses.


Assuntos
Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Poaceae/metabolismo , Isótopos de Carbono , Indóis , Fenazinas , Fenóis/análise
10.
Planta ; 249(2): 563-582, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30310983

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: The plastome of B. orellana reveals specific evolutionary features, unique RNA editing sites, molecular markers and the position of Bixaceae within Malvales. Annatto (Bixa orellana L.) is a native species of tropical Americas with center of origin in Brazilian Amazonia. Its seeds accumulate the apocarotenoids, bixin and norbixin, which are only found in high content in this species. The seeds of B. orellana are commercially valued by the food industry because its dyes replace synthetic ones from the market due to potential carcinogenic risks. The increasing consumption of B. orellana seeds for dye extraction makes necessary the increase of productivity, which is possible accessing the genetic basis and searching for elite genotypes. The identification and characterization of molecular markers are essential to analyse the genetic diversity of natural populations and to establish suitable strategies for conservation, domestication, germplasm characterization and genetic breeding. Therefore, we sequenced and characterized in detail the plastome of B. orellana. The plastome of B. orellana is a circular DNA molecule of 159,708 bp with a typical quadripartite structure and 112 unique genes. Additionally, a total of 312 SSR loci were identified in the plastome of B. orellana. Moreover, we predicted in 23 genes a total of 57 RNA-editing sites of which 11 are unique for B. orellana. Furthermore, our plastid phylogenomic analyses, using the plastome sequences available in the plastid database belonging to species of order Malvales, indicate a closed relationship between Bixaceae and Malvaceae, which formed a sister group to Thymelaeaceae. Finally, our study provided useful data to be employed in several genetic and biotechnological approaches in B. orellana and related species of the family Bixaceae.


Assuntos
Bixaceae/genética , Plastídeos/genética , Bixaceae/metabolismo , Corantes/metabolismo , Genes de Plantas/genética , Malvaceae/genética , Filogenia , Edição de RNA/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Thymelaeaceae/genética
11.
Gene ; 671: 36-49, 2018 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29802993

RESUMO

Crambe abyssinica is an important oilseed crop that accumulates high levels of erucic acid, which is being recognized as a potential oil platform for several industrial purposes. It belongs to the family Brassicaceae, assigned within the tribe Brassiceae. Both family and tribe have been the subject of several phylogenetic studies, but the relationship between some lineages and genera remains unclear. Here, we report the complete sequencing and characterization of the C. abyssinica plastome. Plastome structure, gene order, and gene content of C. abyssinica are similar to other species of the family Brassicaceae. The only exception is the rps16 gene, which is absent in many genera within the family Brassicaceae, but seems to be functional in the tribe Brassiceae, including C. abyssinica. However, the analysis of gene divergence shows that the rps16 is the most divergent gene in C. abyssinica and within the tribe Brassiceae. In addition, species of the tribe Brassiceae also show similar SSR loci distribution, with some regions containing a high number of SSRs, which are located mainly at the single copy regions. Six hotspots of nucleotide divergence among Brassiceae species were located in the single copy regions by sliding window analysis. Brassicaceae phylogenomic analysis, based on the complete plastomes of 72 taxa, resulted in a well-supported and well-resolved tree. The genus Crambe is positioned within the Brassiceae clade together with the genera Brassica, Raphanus, Sinapis, Cakile, Orychophragmus and Sinalliaria. Moreover, we report several losses and gains of RNA editing sites that occurred in plastomes of Brassiceae species during evolution.


Assuntos
Cloroplastos/genética , Crambe (Planta)/genética , Edição de RNA , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Evolução Molecular , Ordem dos Genes , Tamanho do Genoma , Genoma de Cloroplastos , Repetições de Microssatélites , Filogenia
12.
Front Plant Sci ; 9: 2004, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30705684

RESUMO

Climate change will inevitably lead to environmental variations, thus plant drought tolerance will be a determinant factor in the success of plantations and natural forestry recovery. Some metabolites, such as soluble carbohydrates and amino acids, have been described as being the key to both embryogenesis efficiency and abiotic stress response, contributing to phenotypic plasticity and the adaptive capacity of plants. For this reason, our main objectives were to evaluate if the temperature during embryonal mass initiation in radiata pine was critical to the success of somatic embryogenesis, to alter the morphological and ultrastructural organization of embryonal masses at cellular level and to modify the carbohydrate, protein, or amino acid contents. The first SE initiation experiments were carried out at moderate and high temperatures for periods of different durations prior to transfer to the control temperature of 23°C. Cultures initiated at moderate temperatures (30°C, 4 weeks and 40°C, 4 days) showed significantly lower initiation and proliferation rates than those at the control temperature or pulse treatment at high temperatures (50°C, 5 min). No significant differences were observed either for the percentage of embryogenic cell lines that produced somatic embryos, or for the number of somatic embryos per gram of embryonal mass. Based on the results from the first experiments, initiation was carried out at 40°C 4 h; 50°C, 30 min; and a pulse treatment of 60°C, 5 min. No significant differences were found for the initiation or number of established lines or for the maturation of somatic embryos. However, large morphological differences were observed in the mature somatic embryos. At the same time, changes observed at cellular level suggested that strong heat shock treatments may trigger the programmed cell death of embryogenic cells, leading to an early loss of embryogenic potential, and the formation of supernumerary suspensor cells. Finally, among all the differences observed in the metabolic profile, it is worth highlighting the accumulation of tyrosine and isoleucine, both amino acids involved in the synthesis of abiotic stress response-related secondary metabolites.

13.
Plant Cell Rep ; 37(2): 307-328, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29086003

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: The plastome of Linum usitatissimum was completely sequenced allowing analyses of evolution of genome structure, RNA editing sites, molecular markers, and indicating the position of Linaceae within Malpighiales. Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is an economically important crop used as food, feed, and industrial feedstock. It belongs to the Linaceae family, which is noted by high morphological and ecological diversity. Here, we reported the complete sequence of flax plastome, the first species within Linaceae family to have the plastome sequenced, assembled and characterized in detail. The plastome of flax is a circular DNA molecule of 156,721 bp with a typical quadripartite structure including two IRs of 31,990 bp separating the LSC of 81,767 bp and the SSC of 10,974 bp. It shows two expansion events from IRB to LSC and from IRB to SSC, and a contraction event in the IRA-LSC junction, which changed significantly the size and the gene content of LSC, SSC and IRs. We identified 109 unique genes and 2 pseudogenes (rpl23 and ndhF). The plastome lost the conserved introns of clpP gene and the complete sequence of rps16 gene. The clpP, ycf1, and ycf2 genes show high nucleotide and aminoacid divergence, but they still possibly retain the functionality. Moreover, we also identified 176 SSRs, 20 tandem repeats, and 39 dispersed repeats. We predicted in 18 genes a total of 53 RNA editing sites of which 32 were not found before in other species. The phylogenetic inference based on 63 plastid protein-coding genes of 38 taxa supports three major clades within Malpighiales order. One of these clades has flax (Linaceae) sister to Chrysobalanaceae family, differing from earlier studies that included Linaceae into the euphorbioid clade.


Assuntos
Linho/genética , Genomas de Plastídeos/genética , Linaceae/genética , Plastídeos/genética , Edição de RNA , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Proteínas de Cloroplastos/genética , DNA de Cloroplastos/química , DNA de Cloroplastos/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genes de Cloroplastos/genética , Linaceae/classificação , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
14.
Acta sci., Biol. sci ; 39(4): 497-505, Oct. - Dec. 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-878449

RESUMO

Cattleya tigrina is endemic to the Atlantic forest biome and classified as vulnerable in the Red Book of Brazilian Flora. In vitro techniques comprise valuable tools for the conservation of endangered plant species. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the morphological features, global DNA methylation levels and free polyamines during protocorm- like bodies (PLBs) induction of C. tigrina. Along with that, an efficient protocol for in vitro propagation of this species is proposed. The first evidences of PLBs induction in C. tigrina occurred at seven days in culture, starting from the basal portion of the leaf abaxial surface. A hypomethylation marked the beginning of cell differentiation, followed by an increased global DNA methylation at 35 days in culture, coinciding with a subtle change in the structures morphogenetic development. During PLBs induction, putrescine exhibited higher levels as compared to spermidine and spermine, and apparently presents a major role during the PLBs induction in C. tigrina. Due to the apparent secondary PLBs formation, this protocol can represent a highly efficient method for in vitro propagation of this species.


Cattleya tigrina é uma espécie endêmica do bioma Mata Atlântica e classificada como vulnerável no Livro Vermelho da Flora Brasileira. As técnicas in vitro compreendem ferramentas valiosas a serem empregadas na conservação de espécies de plantas ameaçadas. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar as características morfológicas, os níveis globais de metilação do DNA e as poliaminas livres durante a indução de estruturas semelhantes a protocormos (ESPs). Paralelamente, um protocolo eficiente para a propagação in vitro desta espécie é apresentado. As primeiras evidências de indução de ESPs em C. tigrina foram observadas aos sete dias de cultivo, a partir da porção basal da superfície abaxial da folha. Uma hipometilação foi observada concomitante ao início da diferenciação celular, e um aumento da metilação global do DNA foi encontrada aos 35 dias de cultivo, coincidindo com uma sutil mudança no desenvolvimento morfogenético das estruturas. Durante a indução de ESPs, a putrescina exibiu níveis aumentados em comparação a espermidina e espermina e, aparentemente, apresenta um papel importante durante a indução dessas estruturas em C. tigrina. Devido à aparente formação secundária de ESPs, este protocolo pode representar um método altamente eficiente para a propagação in vitro desta espécie.


Assuntos
Epigenômica , Técnicas In Vitro , Orchidaceae
15.
Genetica ; 145(2): 163-174, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28185042

RESUMO

Given their distribution, importance, and richness, Myrtaceae species comprise a model system for studying the evolution of tropical plant diversity. In addition, chloroplast (cp) genome sequencing is an efficient tool for phylogenetic relationship studies. Feijoa [Acca sellowiana (O. Berg) Burret; CN: pineapple-guava] is a Myrtaceae species that occurs naturally in southern Brazil and northern Uruguay. Feijoa is known for its exquisite perfume and flavorful fruits, pharmacological properties, ornamental value and increasing economic relevance. In the present work, we reported the complete cp genome of feijoa. The feijoa cp genome is a circular molecule of 159,370 bp with a quadripartite structure containing two single copy regions, a Large Single Copy region (LSC 88,028 bp) and a Small Single Copy region (SSC 18,598 bp) separated by Inverted Repeat regions (IRs 26,372 bp). The genome structure, gene order, GC content and codon usage are similar to those of typical angiosperm cp genomes. When compared to other cp genome sequences of Myrtaceae, feijoa showed closest relationship with pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.). Furthermore, a comparison of pitanga synonymous (Ks) and nonsynonymous (Ka) substitution rates revealed extremely low values. Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference analyses produced phylogenomic trees identical in topology. These trees supported monophyly of three Myrtoideae clades.


Assuntos
DNA Circular/genética , Feijoa/genética , Genoma de Cloroplastos/genética , Myrtaceae/genética , Composição de Bases/genética , Teorema de Bayes , Brasil , Códon/genética , DNA Circular/química , Feijoa/classificação , Ordem dos Genes , Genes de Cloroplastos/genética , Cadeias de Markov , Método de Monte Carlo , Mutação , Myrtaceae/classificação , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA
16.
Protoplasma ; 254(1): 435-443, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27002964

RESUMO

Nodule cultures are formed through an intermediate morphogenetic route that lies between organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis. Although well described in many species, different aspects of the morphological and histological development of nodules remain to be clarified. Based on their threatened status and high ornamental value, Billbergia alfonsi-joannis and Billbergia zebrina, two epiphytic bromeliad species endemic to the South American Atlantic Forest, were studied. Nodular cultures were induced to grow from nodal segments taken from etiolated seedlings grown in vitro for 12 weeks in the dark on MS medium supplemented with 1 µM TDZ. Samples were taken for analysis weekly over 8 weeks of growth and analyzed under light, transmission electron, and scanning electron microscopes. Morphological and histological analysis showed that nodular clusters originated from stem pericycles and consisted of a polycenter, cambial tissue, cortical parenchyma, and a covering tissue. The polycenter consisted of an organizational center dispersed in parenchymal tissue. Each organizational center was formed by a vascular system surrounded by a bundle sheath. A cambial tissue surrounded these polycenters, promoting the regeneration of new nodules and leading to the formation of buds and roots. Primary nodules could generate secondary nodules in a repetitive process. Thus, histological analysis revealed the origin and formation of nodular cultures. These new data will support the establishment of micropropagation protocols and regeneration on a large scale for these species.


Assuntos
Bromeliaceae/anatomia & histologia , Bromeliaceae/citologia , Diferenciação Celular , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos/métodos , Bromeliaceae/ultraestrutura , Modelos Biológicos , Especificidade da Espécie
17.
J Proteomics ; 151: 264-274, 2017 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27235723

RESUMO

Grapevine is one of the major fruit crops worldwide and requires phytochemical use due to susceptibility to numerous pests, including downy mildew. The pyramiding of previous identified QTL resistance regions allows selection of genotypes with combined resistance loci in order to build up sustainable resistance. This study investigates resistance response of pyramided plants containing Rpv1 and Rpv3 loci to Plasmopara viticola infection process. Phenotypic characterization showed complete resistance and lack of necrotic hypersensitive response spots. Principal Component Analysis revealed infected 96hpi (hours post-inoculation) samples with the most distant proteomes of the entire dataset, followed by the proteome of infected 48hpi samples. Quantitative and qualitative protein differences observed using 2-DE gels coupled to nanoHPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis showed a lack of transient breakdown in defense responses (biphasic modulation) accompanying the onset of disease. Forty-one proteins were identified, which were mainly included into functional categories of redox and energy metabolism. l-ascorbate degradation pathway was the major altered pathway and suggests up-regulation of anti-oxidant metabolism in response to apoplastic oxidative burst after infection. Overall, these data provide new insights into molecular basis of this incompatible interaction and suggests several targets that could potentially be exploited to develop new protection strategies against this pathogen. BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This study provide new insights into the molecular basis of incompatible interaction between Plasmopara viticola and pyramided Rpv1/Rpv3 grapevine and suggests several targets that could potentially be exploited to develop new protection strategies against this pathogen. This is the first proteomic characterization of resistant grapevine available in the literature and it presents contrasting proteomic profiles of that of susceptible plants. The resistance against downy mildew in grapevine has been a long sought and the availability of resistance loci is of major importance. This is the first molecular characterization of resistance provided by Rpv1 and Rpv3 genes.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Peronospora/patogenicidade , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteoma/análise , Vitis/microbiologia , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Metabolismo Energético , Genes de Plantas/fisiologia , Oxirredução , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Proteômica/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
18.
Plant Sci ; 253: 98-106, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27969001

RESUMO

Here we propose a protocol for embryogenic cultures induction, proliferation and maturation for the Brazilian conifer Podocarpus lambertii, and investigated the effect of abscisic acid (ABA) and glutathione (GSH) supplementation on the maturation phase. ABA, zeatin (Z) and salicylic acid (SA) endogenous levels were quantified. Number of somatic embryos obtained in ABA-supplemented treatment was significant higher than in ABA-free treatment, showing the relevance of ABA supplementation during somatic embryos maturation. Histological analysis showed the stereotyped sequence of developmental stages in conifer somatic embryos, reaching the late torpedo-staged embryo. GSH supplementation in maturation culture medium improved the somatic embryos number and morphological features. GSH 0mM and GSH 0.1mM treatments correlated with a decreased ABA endogenous level during maturation, while GSH 0.5mM treatment showed constant levels. All treatments resulted in decreased Z endogenous levels, supporting the concept that cytokinins are important during the initial cell division but not for the later stages of embryo development. The lowest SA levels found in GSH 0.5mM treatment were coincident with early embryonic development, and this treatment resulted in the highest development of somatic embryos. Thus, a correlation between lower SA levels and improved somatic embryo formation can be hypothesized.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/administração & dosagem , Glutationa/administração & dosagem , Técnicas de Embriogênese Somática de Plantas/métodos , Traqueófitas/embriologia , Traqueófitas/efeitos dos fármacos , Traqueófitas/metabolismo
19.
Curr Genet ; 62(2): 443-53, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26643654

RESUMO

The complete plastome sequencing is an efficient option for increasing phylogenetic resolution and evolutionary studies, as well as may greatly facilitate the use of plastid DNA markers in plant population genetic studies. Merostachys and Guadua stand out as the most common and the highest potential utilization bamboos indigenous of Brazil. Here, we sequenced the complete plastome sequences of the Brazilian Guadua chacoensis and Merostachys sp. to perform full plastome phylogeny and characterize the occurrence, type, and distribution of SRRs using 20 Bambuseae species. The determined plastome sequence of Merostachys sp. and G. chacoensis is 136,334 and 135,403 bp in size, respectively, with an identical gene content and typical quadripartite structure consisting of a pair of IRs separated by the LSC and SSC regions. The Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference analyses produced phylogenomic trees identical in topology. These trees supported monophyly of Paleotropical and Neotropical Bamboos clades. The Neotropical bamboos segregated into three well-supported lineages, Chusqueinae, Guaduinae, and Arthrostylidiinae, with the last two forming a well-supported sister relationship. Paleotropical bamboos segregated into two well-supported lineages, Hickeliinae and Bambusinae + Melocanninae. We identified 141.8 cpSSR in Bambuseae plastomes and an inferior value (38.15) for plastome coding sequences. Among them, we identified 16 polymorphic SSR loci, with number of alleles varying from 3 to 10. These 16 polymorphic cpSSR loci in Bambuseae plastome can be assessed for the intraspecific level of polymorphism, leading to innovative highly sensitive phylogeographic and population genetics studies for this tribe.


Assuntos
Genomas de Plastídeos , Filogenia , Plastídeos/genética , Poaceae/genética , Loci Gênicos , Análise de Sequência de DNA
20.
Estud. av ; 29(83): 183-207, 2015.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-767986

RESUMO

A agrobiodiversidade é a parcela da biodiversidade constituída por um conjunto de organismos e ecossistemas que apresentam fortes relações com os seres humanos, podendo ser domesticados, semidomesticados, cultivados ou manejados pelo homem. Essa diversidade, conservada há séculos pelo uso (conservação in situ ou conservação on farm) pelos pequenos agricultores em todas as regiões do planeta, encontra-se ameaçada. De um lado, a agricultura industrial ou química através de suas práticas, ricas em insumos químicos, provoca muitas externalidades negativas, até recentemente pouco consideradas. De outro lado, as mudanças climáticas, igualmente, produzem efeitos adversos à diversidade genética. No entanto, as preocupações com a produção de alimentos de alta qualidade biológica em sistemas agrícolas sustentáveis remontam ainda o início do século xx. Dentre os vários sistemas agrícolas sustentáveis ou alternativos, a agroecologia apresenta vários atributos favoráveis: não faz uso de insumos químicos, é sustentável em todas as suas dimensões, faz uso de grande diversidade genética no cultivo, é socioeconômico-associada, estimula as relações de vizinhança e produz alimentos com alta qualidade biológica e nutricional. No âmbito da agroecologia e não da agricultura industrial ou química, há inúmeras oportunidades para a C&T desenvolver pesquisas participativas, contextualizadas, que podem empoderar tanto a agricultura familiar quanto as comunidades tradicionais no aperfeiçoamento dos processos e princípios agroecológicos utilizados. Assim, muitas das externalidades negativas atualmente inadmissíveis poderiam ser evitadas.


Agrobiodiversity is the portion of biodiversity consisting of a set of organisms and ecosystems that has strong relationships with humans, being domesticated, semi-domesticated, cultivated or managed by human beings. This diversity, which has been preserved by the practices (in situ on-farm conservation) of smallholder farmers in all regions of the world, is under threat. On one hand, industrial or chemical agriculture, because their practices are rich in external chemical inputs, causes many negative externalities that have not been considered much until recently. On the other hand, climate changes also produce adverse effects on the genetic diversity. However, since the beginning of the twentieth century concerns about the production of high quality organic foods in sustainable agricultural systems have been affirmed. Among several alternative or sustainable farming systems, agroecology comes with many favorable features: it makes no use of agrochemicals, it is environmentally sustainable, it makes use of high geneticdiversity in cropping, it is socioeconomically associated, it stimulates neighborhood relations, and it has food products of high biological quality. In the context of agroecology, but not in industrial or chemical agriculture, there are numerous opportunities for science and technology to develop participatory research, contextualized, that can empower family farming as well traditional communities in improving agroecological principles and processes. Thus, many of the currently unacceptable negative externalities could be avoided.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Biodiversidade , Produção de Alimentos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Variação Genética , Pesquisa , Estratégias de Saúde , Agricultura Sustentável , Cultivos Agrícolas
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