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1.
Mol Genet Metab ; 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711734

RESUMO

Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) are rare to extremely rare monogenic disorders. Their incidence, however, has probably been underestimated owing to their complex clinical manifestations. Sialidosis is a prototypical LSD inherited as an autosomal recessive trait and caused by mutations in the NEU1 gene that result in a deficiency of alpha-N-acetyl neuraminidase 1 (NEU1). Two basic forms of this disease, type I and type II, are known. The dysmorphic type II form features LSD symptoms including congenital hydrops, dysmorphogenetic traits, hepato-splenomegaly and severe intellectual disability. The diagnosis is more challenging in the normosomatic type I forms, whose clinical findings at onset include ocular defects, ataxia and generalized myoclonus. Here we report the clinical, biochemical and molecular analysis of five patients with sialidosis type I. Two patients presented novel NEU1 mutations. One of these patients was compound heterozygous for two novel NEU1 missense mutations: c.530A>T (p.Asp177Val) and c.1010A>G (p.His337Arg), whereas a second patient was compound heterozygous for a known mutation and a novel c.839G>A (p.Arg280Gln) mutation. We discuss the impact of these new mutations on the structural properties of NEU1. We also review available clinical reports of patients with sialidosis type I, with the aim of identifying the most frequent initial clinical manifestations and achieving more focused diagnoses.

2.
Brain ; 142(12): 3876-3891, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31688942

RESUMO

Ohtahara syndrome, early infantile epileptic encephalopathy with a suppression burst EEG pattern, is an aetiologically heterogeneous condition starting in the first weeks or months of life with intractable seizures and profound developmental disability. Using whole exome sequencing, we identified biallelic DMXL2 mutations in three sibling pairs with Ohtahara syndrome, belonging to three unrelated families. Siblings in Family 1 were compound heterozygous for the c.5135C>T (p.Ala1712Val) missense substitution and the c.4478C>G (p.Ser1493*) nonsense substitution; in Family 2 were homozygous for the c.4478C>A (p.Ser1493*) nonsense substitution and in Family 3 were homozygous for the c.7518-1G>A (p.Trp2507Argfs*4) substitution. The severe developmental and epileptic encephalopathy manifested from the first day of life and was associated with deafness, mild peripheral polyneuropathy and dysmorphic features. Early brain MRI investigations in the first months of life revealed thin corpus callosum with brain hypomyelination in all. Follow-up MRI scans in three patients revealed progressive moderate brain shrinkage with leukoencephalopathy. Five patients died within the first 9 years of life and none achieved developmental, communicative or motor skills following birth. These clinical findings are consistent with a developmental brain disorder that begins in the prenatal brain, prevents neural connections from reaching the expected stages at birth, and follows a progressive course. DMXL2 is highly expressed in the brain and at synaptic terminals, regulates v-ATPase assembly and activity and participates in intracellular signalling pathways; however, its functional role is far from complete elucidation. Expression analysis in patient-derived skin fibroblasts demonstrated absence of the DMXL2 protein, revealing a loss of function phenotype. Patients' fibroblasts also exhibited an increased LysoTracker® signal associated with decreased endolysosomal markers and degradative processes. Defective endolysosomal homeostasis was accompanied by impaired autophagy, revealed by lower LC3II signal, accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins, and autophagy receptor p62, with morphological alterations of the autolysosomal structures on electron microscopy. Altered lysosomal homeostasis and defective autophagy were recapitulated in Dmxl2-silenced mouse hippocampal neurons, which exhibited impaired neurite elongation and synaptic loss. Impaired lysosomal function and autophagy caused by biallelic DMXL2 mutations affect neuronal development and synapse formation and result in Ohtahara syndrome with profound developmental impairment and reduced life expectancy.

3.
Drugs ; 79(18): 1917-1935, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734883

RESUMO

Rare diseases provide a challenge in the evaluation of new therapies. However, orphan drug development is of increasing interest because of the legislation enabling facilitated support by regulatory agencies through scientific advice, and the protection of the molecules with orphan designation. In the landscape of the rare epilepsies, very few syndromes, namely Dravet syndrome, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and West syndrome, have been subject to orphan drug development. Despite orphan designations for rare epilepsies having dramatically increased in the past 10 years, the number of approved drugs remains limited and restricted to a handful of epilepsy syndromes. In this paper, we describe the current state of orphan drug development for rare epilepsies. We identified a large number of compounds currently under investigation, but mostly in the same rare epilepsy syndromes as in the past. A rationale for further development in rare epilepsies could be based on the match between the drug mechanisms of action and the knowledge of the causative gene mutation or by evidence from animal models. In case of the absence of strong pathophysiological hypotheses, exploratory/basket clinical studies could be helpful to identify a subpopulation that may benefit from the new drug. We provide some suggestions for future improvements in orphan drug development such as promoting paediatric drug investigations, better evaluation of the incidence and the prevalence, together with the natural history data, and the development of new primary outcomes.

4.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 17684, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776384

RESUMO

GM1 ganglioside, a monosialic glycosphingolipid and a crucial component of plasma membranes, accumulates in lysosomal storage disorders, primarily in GM1 gangliosidosis. The development of biomarkers for simplifying diagnosis, monitoring disease progression and evaluating drug therapies is an important objective in research into neurodegenerative lysosomal disorders. With this in mind, we established fluorescent imaging and flow-cytometric methods to track changes in GM1 ganglioside levels in patients with GM1 gangliosidosis and in control cells. We also evaluated GM1 ganglioside content in patients' cells treated with the commercially available Miglustat, a substrate inhibitor potentially suitable for the treatment of late-onset GM1 gangliosidosis. The flow-cytometric method proved to be sensitive, unbiased, and rapid in determining variations in GM1 ganglioside content in human lymphocytes derived from small amounts of fresh blood. We detected a strong correlation between GM1 ganglioside content and the clinical severity of GM1 gangliosidosis. We confirm the ability of Miglustat to act as a substrate reduction agent in the patients' treated cells. As well as being suitable for diagnosing and managing patients with GM1 gangliosidosis this method could be useful in the diagnosis and management of other lysosomal diseases, such as galactosialidosis, Type C Niemann-Pick, and any other disease with pathologic variations of GM1 ganglioside.

5.
Genet Med ; 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776469

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To delineate the genotype-phenotype correlation in individuals with likely pathogenic variants in the CLTC gene. METHODS: We describe 13 individuals with de novo CLTC variants. Causality of variants was determined by using the tolerance landscape of CLTC and computer-assisted molecular modeling where applicable. Phenotypic abnormalities observed in the individuals identified with missense and in-frame variants were compared with those with nonsense or frameshift variants in CLTC. RESULTS: All de novo variants were judged to be causal. Combining our data with that of 14 previously reported affected individuals (n = 27), all had intellectual disability (ID), ranging from mild to moderate/severe, with or without additional neurologic, behavioral, craniofacial, ophthalmologic, and gastrointestinal features. Microcephaly, hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, and epilepsy were more frequently observed in individuals with missense and in-frame variants than in those with nonsense and frameshift variants. However, this difference was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: The wide phenotypic variability associated with likely pathogenic CLTC variants seems to be associated with allelic heterogeneity. The detailed clinical characterization of a larger cohort of individuals with pathogenic CLTC variants is warranted to support the hypothesis that missense and in-frame variants exert a dominant-negative effect, whereas the nonsense and frameshift variants would result in haploinsufficiency.

6.
Ann Neurol ; 86(6): 821-831, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618474

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures (EIMFS) is one of the most severe developmental and epileptic encephalopathies. We delineate the genetic causes and genotype-phenotype correlations of a large EIMFS cohort. METHODS: Phenotypic and molecular data were analyzed on patients recruited through an international collaborative study. RESULTS: We ascertained 135 patients from 128 unrelated families. Ninety-three of 135 (69%) had causative variants (42/55 previously reported) across 23 genes, including 9 novel EIMFS genes: de novo dominant GABRA1, GABRB1, ATP1A3; X-linked CDKL5, PIGA; and recessive ITPA, AIMP1, KARS, WWOX. The most frequently implicated genes were KCNT1 (36/135, 27%) and SCN2A (10/135, 7%). Mosaicism occurred in 2 probands (SCN2A, GABRB3) and 3 unaffected mothers (KCNT1). Median age at seizure onset was 4 weeks, with earlier onset in the SCN2A, KCNQ2, and BRAT1 groups. Epileptic spasms occurred in 22% patients. A total of 127 patients had severe to profound developmental impairment. All but 7 patients had ongoing seizures. Additional features included microcephaly, movement disorders, spasticity, and scoliosis. Mortality occurred in 33% at median age 2 years 7 months. INTERPRETATION: We identified a genetic cause in 69% of patients with EIMFS. We highlight the genetic heterogeneity of EIMFS with 9 newly implicated genes, bringing the total number to 33. Mosaicism was observed in probands and parents, carrying critical implications for recurrence risk. EIMFS pathophysiology involves diverse molecular processes from gene and protein regulation to ion channel function and solute trafficking. ANN NEUROL 2019;86:821-831.

7.
Epilepsia ; 60(11): 2255-2262, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630399

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the long-term efficacy and tolerability of stiripentol (STP) as an adjunctive treatment in different forms of refractory epilepsies. METHODS: The medical records of all individuals consecutively treated with STP as add-on therapy for refractory epilepsies, irrespective of their being focal, generalized, or both, and followed at Meyer Children's Hospital between January 2007 and May 2018, were reviewed. The drug scheme administration consisted of a starting dose of STP of 10-15 mg/kg/d with increments every week, up to a maximum of 50 mg/kg/d, based on both age and weight. Etiology of epilepsy was codified as structural, genetic, infectious, immune, metabolic, and unknown. Responders were defined as patients who achieved a seizure frequency reduction of ≥50%. Retention rate was defined as the probability of continuing STP without additional therapy. Tolerability was assessed by reporting adverse events. RESULTS: A total of 132 individuals aged from 5 months to 43 years received add-on STP, including 30 patients with Dravet syndrome (DS). The median follow-up was 14.8 months (range = 4 months-18 years, interquartile range = 25.72). Twenty-nine individuals (22%) received more than two antiepileptic drugs. Benzodiazepines, mainly clobazam, were the most commonly used add-on drugs. Sixty-six patients (50%) were responders, and 13 of them (9.8%) were seizure-free. Responder rate was higher in the genetic etiology group (57%), especially in DS (18/30; 60%), and in patients with refractory focal onset epilepsy without bilateral tonic-clonic seizures (5/15; 33%). The median relapse-free survival was 27 months in the 66 responders. The median time to STP failure was 24.6 months in all 132 individuals. SIGNIFICANCE: This study confirms the long-term efficacy of add-on STP treatment in patients with different types of refractory epilepsies, including focal onset epilepsy without bilateral tonic-clonic seizures. Further confirmations based on prospectively designed studies are required to confirm STP efficacy in focal epilepsy.

9.
Neurology ; 93(14): e1360-e1373, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484711

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To better evaluate the imaging spectrum of subcortical heterotopic gray matter brain malformations (subcortical heterotopia [SUBH]), we systematically reviewed neuroimaging and clinical data of 107 affected individuals. METHODS: SUBH is defined as heterotopic gray matter, located within the white matter between the cortex and lateral ventricles. Four large brain malformation databases were searched for individuals with these malformations; data on imaging, clinical outcomes, and results of molecular testing were systematically reviewed and integrated with all previously published subtypes to create a single classification system. RESULTS: Review of the databases revealed 107 patients with SUBH, the large majority scanned during childhood (84%), including more than half before 4 years (59%). Although most individuals had cognitive or motor disability, 19% had normal development. Epilepsy was documented in 69%. Additional brain malformations were common and included abnormalities of the corpus callosum (65/102 [64%]), and, often, brainstem or cerebellum (47/106 [44%]). Extent of the heterotopic gray matter brain malformations (unilateral or bilateral) did not influence the presence or age at onset of seizures. Although genetic testing was not systematically performed in this group, the sporadic occurrence and frequent asymmetry suggests either postzygotic mutations or prenatal disruptive events. Several rare, bilateral forms are caused by mutations in genes associated with cell proliferation and polarity (EML1, TUBB, KATNB1, CENPJ, GPSM2). CONCLUSION: This study reveals a broad clinical and imaging spectrum of heterotopic malformations and provides a framework for their classification.

10.
Hum Mutat ; 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513310

RESUMO

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEE) refer to a heterogeneous group of devastating neurodevelopmental disorders. Variants in KCNB1 have been recently reported in patients with early-onset DEE. KCNB1 encodes the α subunit of the delayed rectifier voltage-dependent potassium channel Kv 2.1. We review the 37 previously reported patients carrying 29 distinct KCNB1 variants and significantly expand the mutational spectrum describing 18 novel variants from 27 unreported patients. Most variants occur de novo and mainly consist of missense variants located on the voltage sensor and the pore domain of Kv 2.1. We also report the first inherited variant (p.Arg583*). KCNB1-related encephalopathies encompass a wide spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders with predominant language difficulties and behavioral impairment. Eighty-five percent of patients developed epilepsies with variable syndromes and prognosis. Truncating variants in the C-terminal domain are associated with a less-severe epileptic phenotype. Overall, this report provides an up-to-date review of the mutational and clinical spectrum of KCNB1, strengthening its place as a causal gene in DEEs and emphasizing the need for further functional studies to unravel the underlying mechanisms.

11.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411685

RESUMO

Single germline or somatic activating mutations of mTOR pathway genes are emerging as a major cause of Type II Focal Cortical Dysplasia (FCD), hemimegalencephaly (HME), and Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC). A double hit mechanism, based on a primary germline mutation in one allele and a secondary somatic hit affecting the other allele of the same gene in a small number of cells, has been documented in some patients with TSC or FCD. In a patient with HME, severe intellectual disability, intractable seizures, and hypochromic skin patches, we identified the RPS6 p.R232H variant, present as somatic mosaicism at ~ 15.1% in dysplastic brain tissue and ~ 11% in blood, and the MTOR p.S2215F variant, detected as ~ 8.8% mosaicism in brain tissue, but not in blood. Overexpressing the two variants independently in animal models, we demonstrated that MTOR p.S2215F caused neuronal migration delay and cytomegaly, while RPS6 p.R232H prompted increased cell proliferation. Double mutants exhibited a more severe phenotype, with increased proliferation and migration defects at embryonic stage and, at postnatal stage, cytomegalic cells exhibiting eccentric nuclei and binucleation, which are typical features of balloon cells. These findings suggest a synergistic effect of the two variants. This study indicates that, in addition to single activating mutations and double-hit inactivating mutations in mTOR pathway genes, severe forms of cortical dysplasia can also result from activating mutations affecting different genes in this pathway. RPS6 is a potential novel disease-related gene.

12.
Epilepsy Res ; 156: 106181, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394400

RESUMO

Infantile spasms (IS) is a developmental and epileptic encephalopathy with heterogeneous etiologies including many genetic causes. Genetic studies have identified pathogenic variants in over 30 genes as causes of IS. Many of these genetic causes are extremely rare, with only one reported incidence in an individual with IS. To better understand the genetic landscape of IS, we used targeted sequencing to screen 42 candidate IS genes and 53 established developmental and epileptic encephalopathy genes in 92 individual with IS. We identified a genetic diagnosis for 7.6% of our cohort, including pathogenic variants in KCNB1 (n = 2), GNAO1 (n = 1), STXBP1 (n = 1), SLC35A2 (n = 1), TBL1XR1 (n = 1), and KIF1A (n = 1). Our data emphasize the genetic heterogeneity of IS and will inform the diagnosis and management of individuals with this devastating disorder.

13.
Epilepsy Behav ; : 106373, 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300382

RESUMO

Status epilepticus is a life-threatening medical condition which requires immediate diagnosis and treatment. In children, it may be a recurrent manifestation in the context of heterogeneous severe developmental genetic encephalopathies, as well as the first neurological manifestation. Mutations in several genes have been consistently associated with status epilepticus despite none of them can be considered as 'pure' Mendelian status epilepticus gene. Most genetic conditions featuring status epilepticus can be assigned to specific phenotypic subgroups, including cortical dysplasias, inborn errors of metabolism, mitochondrial diseases, or epileptic encephalopathies and childhood syndromes. Next generation sequencing (NGS) has increased the number of genes associated with, and improved the turnaround time for molecular diagnosis of, status epilepticus, allowing more timely and rationale management choices for specific conditions. Next generation sequencing might become part of the standard of care in the near future for a large subset of patients with status epilepticus, especially in early life. At present, trios whole exome sequencing, with a first analysis of point and copy number variants of an in silico panel containing 'status epilepticus' genes might represent best choice as it would allow a rapid screening. This article is part of the Special Issue "Proceedings of the 7th London-Innsbruck Colloquium on Status Epilepticus and Acute Seizures".

14.
Brain Res ; 1721: 146341, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326404

RESUMO

Long-term video-EEG monitoring has improved diagnosis and treatment of epilepsy, especially in children. However, the amount of data neurophysiologists must analyze has grown remarkably. The main purpose of this paper is to provide a diagnostic support to speed up and ease EEG interpretation for a specific application concerning absence seizures, a type of non-motor generalized epileptic seizures. The proposed method consists of a pre-processing step where signals are filtered through the Stationary Wavelet Transform for the reduction of possible artefacts. Subsequently, a supervised automatic classification method is implemented for seizure detection, based on the Support Vector Machine Fine Gaussian method. Finally, a post-processing step is implemented in which spatial and temporal thresholds are defined for both online and offline application. In addition, a method that applies sonification techniques is developed. Sonification techniques could speed up the process of interpreting information, allowing rapid clinical intervention and a continuous monitoring of the event. The dataset consists of 30 EEG recordings performed in 24 children with absence seizures, clinically evaluated at the Meyer Children's Hospital in Firenze, Italy. The method shows encouraging results both in terms of balanced accuracy (about 96%) and latency times (1.25 s on average), which might make it suitable for online clinical trials. In fact, it was implemented in the perspective of a possible real-time application in clinical practice.

15.
Brain ; 142(8): 2319-2335, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257402

RESUMO

Genetic mutations in TBC1D24 have been associated with multiple phenotypes, with epilepsy being the main clinical manifestation. The TBC1D24 protein consists of the unique association of a Tre2/Bub2/Cdc16 (TBC) domain and a TBC/lysin motif domain/catalytic (TLDc) domain. More than 50 missense and loss-of-function mutations have been described and are spread over the entire protein. Through whole genome/exome sequencing we identified compound heterozygous mutations, R360H and G501R, within the TLDc domain, in an index family with a Rolandic epilepsy exercise-induced dystonia phenotype (http://omim.org/entry/608105). A 20-year long clinical follow-up revealed that epilepsy was self-limited in all three affected patients, but exercise-induced dystonia persisted into adulthood in two. Furthermore, we identified three additional sporadic paediatric patients with a remarkably similar phenotype, two of whom had compound heterozygous mutations consisting of an in-frame deletion I81_K84 and an A500V mutation, and the third carried T182M and G511R missense mutations, overall revealing that all six patients harbour a missense mutation in the subdomain of TLDc between residues 500 and 511. We solved the crystal structure of the conserved Drosophila TLDc domain. This allowed us to predict destabilizing effects of the G501R and G511R mutations and, to a lesser degree, of R360H and potentially A500V. Next, we characterized the functional consequences of a strong and a weak TLDc mutation (TBC1D24G501R and TBC1D24R360H) using Drosophila, where TBC1D24/Skywalker regulates synaptic vesicle trafficking. In a Drosophila model neuronally expressing human TBC1D24, we demonstrated that the TBC1D24G501R TLDc mutation causes activity-induced locomotion and synaptic vesicle trafficking defects, while TBC1D24R360H is benign. The neuronal phenotypes of the TBC1D24G501R mutation are consistent with exacerbated oxidative stress sensitivity, which is rescued by treating TBC1D24G501R mutant animals with antioxidants N-acetylcysteine amide or α-tocopherol as indicated by restored synaptic vesicle trafficking levels and sustained behavioural activity. Our data thus show that mutations in the TLDc domain of TBC1D24 cause Rolandic-type focal motor epilepsy and exercise-induced dystonia. The humanized TBC1D24G501R fly model exhibits sustained activity and vesicle transport defects. We propose that the TBC1D24/Sky TLDc domain is a reactive oxygen species sensor mediating synaptic vesicle trafficking rates that, when dysfunctional, causes a movement disorder in patients and flies. The TLDc and TBC domain mutations' response to antioxidant treatment we observed in the animal model suggests a potential for combining antioxidant-based therapeutic approaches to TBC1D24-associated disorders with previously described lipid-altering strategies for TBC domain mutations.

16.
Handb Clin Neurol ; 161: 3-15, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307608

RESUMO

Idiopathic generalized epilepsies (IGE) are characterized by normal background EEG activity and generalized interictal spike-and-wave discharges in the absence of any evidence of brain lesion. Absence epilepsies are the prototypes of IGEs. In childhood and juvenile absence epilepsies, by definition, all patients manifest absence seizures associated with an EEG pattern of generalized spike-wave (GSW) discharges. In juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, myoclonic jerks, usually affecting shoulders and arms bilaterally and appearing upon awakening, are the most characteristic clinical feature. Myoclonic jerks are accompanied on the EEG by generalized spike/polyspike-and-wave (GSW, GPWS) complexes at 3.5-6Hz. Idiopathic generalized epilepsy with generalized tonic-clonic seizures only is a broad and nonspecific category including all patients with generalized tonic-clonic seizures and an interictal EEG pattern of GSW discharges. Despite the strong heritability and the recent advances in genetic technology, the genetic basis of IGEs remains largely elusive and only in a small minority of patients with classic IGE phenotypes is a monogenic cause identified. Early myoclonic encephalopathy (EME), early infantile encephalopathy with suppression bursts, West syndrome, and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, once classified among the generalized epilepsies, are now considered to be epileptic encephalopathies. Among them, only Lennox-Gastaut syndrome is characterized by prominent generalized clinical and EEG features.

17.
Epilepsia ; 60(7): 1281-1292, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211425

RESUMO

Seven large European Union (EU)-funded epilepsy-related research projects joined forces in May 2018 in Brussels, Belgium, in a unique community building event-the epiXchange conference. During this conference, 170 investigators from the projects DESIRE, EpimiRNA, EPISTOP, EpiTarget, EpiXchange, and EpiPGX as well as the European Reference Network EpiCARE, met up with key stakeholders including representatives of the European Commission, patient organizations, commercial partners, and other European and International groups. The epiXchange conference focused on sharing and reviewing the advances made by each project in the previous 5 years; describing the infrastructures generated; and discussing the innovations and commercial applications across five thematic areas: biomarkers, genetics, therapeutics, comorbidities, and biobanks and resources. These projects have, in fact, generated major breakthroughs including the discovery of biofluid-based molecules for diagnosis, elucidating new genetic causes of epilepsy, creating advanced new models of epilepsy, and the pre-clinical development of novel compounds. Workshop-style discussions focused on how to overcome scientific and clinical challenges for accelerating translation of research outcomes and how to increase synergies between the projects and stakeholders at a European level. The resulting advances would lead toward a measurable impact of epilepsy research through better diagnostics, treatments, and quality-of-life for persons with epilepsy. In addition, epiXchange provided a unique forum for examining how the different projects could build momentum for future novel groundbreaking epilepsy research in Europe and beyond. This report includes the main recommendations that resulted from these discussions.

18.
Epilepsia ; 60(6): 1091-1103, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074842

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is a major cause of drug-resistant focal epilepsy in children, and the clinicopathological classification remains a challenging issue in daily practice. With the recent progress in DNA methylation-based classification of human brain tumors we examined whether genomic DNA methylation and gene expression analysis can be used to also distinguish human FCD subtypes. METHODS: DNA methylomes and transcriptomes were generated from massive parallel sequencing in 15 surgical FCD specimens, matched with 5 epilepsy and 6 nonepilepsy controls. RESULTS: Differential hierarchical cluster analysis of DNA methylation distinguished major FCD subtypes (ie, Ia, IIa, and IIb) from patients with temporal lobe epilepsy patients and nonepileptic controls. Targeted panel sequencing identified a novel likely pathogenic variant in DEPDC5 in a patient with FCD type IIa. However, no enrichment of differential DNA methylation or gene expression was observed in mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway-related genes. SIGNIFICANCE: Our studies extend the evidence for disease-specific methylation signatures toward focal epilepsies in favor of an integrated clinicopathologic and molecular classification system of FCD subtypes incorporating genomic methylation.

19.
Epilepsia ; 60(5): 830-844, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30968951

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Pathogenic variants in SCN8A have been associated with a wide spectrum of epilepsy phenotypes, ranging from benign familial infantile seizures (BFIS) to epileptic encephalopathies with variable severity. Furthermore, a few patients with intellectual disability (ID) or movement disorders without epilepsy have been reported. The vast majority of the published SCN8A patients suffer from severe developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE). In this study, we aimed to provide further insight on the spectrum of milder SCN8A-related epilepsies. METHODS: A cohort of 1095 patients were screened using a next generation sequencing panel. Further patients were ascertained from a network of epilepsy genetics clinics. Patients with severe DEE and BFIS were excluded from the study. RESULTS: We found 36 probands who presented with an SCN8A-related epilepsy and normal intellect (33%) or mild (61%) to moderate ID (6%). All patients presented with epilepsy between age 1.5 months and 7 years (mean = 13.6 months), and 58% of these became seizure-free, two-thirds on monotherapy. Neurological disturbances included ataxia (28%) and hypotonia (19%) as the most prominent features. Interictal electroencephalogram was normal in 41%. Several recurrent variants were observed, including Ile763Val, Val891Met, Gly1475Arg, Gly1483Lys, Phe1588Leu, Arg1617Gln, Ala1650Val/Thr, Arg1872Gln, and Asn1877Ser. SIGNIFICANCE: With this study, we explore the electroclinical features of an intermediate SCN8A-related epilepsy with mild cognitive impairment, which is for the majority a treatable epilepsy.

20.
Epileptic Disord ; 21(2): 185-191, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30977726

RESUMO

Epilepsy with auditory features (EAF) is a focal epilepsy syndrome characterized by prominent auditory ictal manifestations. Two main genes, LGI1 and RELN, have been implicated in EAF, but the genetic aetiology remains unknown in half of families and most sporadic cases. We previously described a pathogenic SCN1A missense variant (p.Thr956Met) segregating in a large family in which the proband and her affected daughter had EAF, thus satisfying the minimum requirement for diagnosis of autosomal dominant EAF (ADEAF). However, the remaining eight affected family members had clinical manifestations typically found in families with genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+). We aimed to investigate the role/impact of SCN1A mutations in EAF. We detailed the phenotype of this family and report on SCN1A screening in a cohort of 29 familial and 52 sporadic LGI1 variant-negative EAF patients. We identified two possibly pathogenic missense variants (p.Tyr790Phe and p.Thr140Ile) in sporadic patients (3.8%) showing typical EAF and no antecedent febrile seizures. Both p.Thr956Met and p.Tyr790Phe were previously described in unrelated patients with epilepsies within the GEFS+ spectrum. SCN1A mutations may be involved in EAF within the GEFS+ spectrum, however, the role of SCN1A in EAF without features that lead to a suspicion of underlying GEFS+ remains unclear and should be elucidated in future studies.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Percepção Auditiva , Epilepsias Parciais , Epilepsia Generalizada , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.1/genética , Convulsões Febris , Adulto , Idoso , Transtornos da Percepção Auditiva/etiologia , Transtornos da Percepção Auditiva/genética , Transtornos da Percepção Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Epilepsias Parciais/complicações , Epilepsias Parciais/genética , Epilepsias Parciais/fisiopatologia , Epilepsia Generalizada/complicações , Epilepsia Generalizada/genética , Epilepsia Generalizada/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Linhagem , Convulsões Febris/complicações , Convulsões Febris/genética , Convulsões Febris/fisiopatologia
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