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1.
Front Public Health ; 9: 682365, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34485215

RESUMO

Immunity certificates related to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been under discussion since the beginning of the pandemic with conflicting opinions. In order to identify arguments in favor of and against the possible implementation of documents certifying immunity of an individual based on serological testing, we developed a qualitative study in Geneva, Switzerland. The study took place between two lockdowns with a sense of semi-normalcy during summer 2020 in Switzerland but at a time when no vaccine was available and seroprevalence was below 21%. Eleven focus groups with members of the public and 14 semi-structured interviews with stakeholders were conducted between July and November 2020, with a total of 68 participants with an age range between 24 and 77 years. Interviews and focus groups transcripts were coded with the ATLAS.ti CAQDAS. Few participants considered immunity certificates based on serological testing as an acceptable public health measure. Major concerns included the reliability of scientific data related to COVID-19 immunity and serological testing potential re-infection as well as the possibility that the use of certificates could result in deleterious outcomes. Discrimination, counterfeiting, incitement for self-infection, invasion of the private sphere, violation of personal integrity, and violation of medical secrecy were perceived as the major risks. Benefits of immunity certificates were more perceived when in relation to vaccination, and included gains in medical knowledge and protection in certain contexts involving leisure or work-related activities. The consequences of implementing immunity certificates are numerous, and the acceptability by the general population has to be considered when engaging in such policy. Even if the results provide a snapshot of arguments discussed around immunity certificates based on serological testing before the implementation of the COVID-19 vaccine, most of the issues discussed are central in the current debates about vaccination certificates.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , Idoso , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Suíça , Adulto Jovem
2.
Rev Med Suisse ; 17(752): 1635-1636, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34585859
3.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579945

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relations between caffeine-derived metabolites (methylxanthines) and plasma lipids by use of population-based data from 2 European countries. METHODS: Families were randomly selected from the general population of northern Belgium (FLEMENGHO), from August 12, 1985, until November 22, 1990, and 3 Swiss cities (SKIPOGH), from November 25, 2009, through April 4, 2013. We measured plasma concentrations (FLEMENGHO, SKIPOGH) and 24-hour urinary excretions (SKIPOGH) of 4 methylxanthines-caffeine, paraxanthine, theobromine, and theophylline-using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We used enzymatic methods to estimate total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels and the Friedewald equation for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in plasma. We applied sex-specific mixed models to investigate associations between methylxanthines and plasma lipids, adjusting for major confounders. RESULTS: In both FLEMENGHO (N=1987; 1055 [53%] female participants) and SKIPOGH (N=990; 523 [53%] female participants), total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels increased across quartiles of plasma caffeine, paraxanthine, and theophylline (total cholesterol levels by caffeine quartiles in FLEMENGHO, male participants: 5.01±0.06 mmol/L, 5.05±0.06 mmol/L, 5.27±0.06 mmol/L, 5.62±0.06 mmol/L; female participants: 5.24±0.06 mmol/L, 5.15±0.05 mmol/L, 5.25±0.05 mmol/L, 5.42±0.05 mmol/L). Similar results were observed using urinary methylxanthines in SKIPOGH (total cholesterol levels by caffeine quartiles, male participants: 4.54±0.08 mmol/L, 4.94±0.08 mmol/L, 4.87±0.08 mmol/L, 5.27±0.09 mmol/L; female participants: 5.12±0.07 mmol/L, 5.21±0.07 mmol/L, 5.28±0.05 mmol/L, 5.28±0.07 mmol/L). Furthermore, urinary caffeine and theophylline were positively associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in SKIPOGH male participants. CONCLUSION: Plasma and urinary caffeine, paraxanthine, and theophylline were positively associated with plasma lipids, whereas the associations involving theobromine were less clear. We postulate that the positive association between caffeine intake and plasma lipids may be related to the sympathomimetic function of methylxanthines, mitigating the overall health-beneficial effect of caffeine intake.

4.
Sante Publique ; Vol. 33(1): 121-126, 2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372631

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In a context of future generalization of access to genetic risk profiles, general practitioners (GP) will have a major role to play. The objective of this study was to understand their attitude towards this approach and the potential consequences on their practice. METHODS: In 2018, the University Center of General Medicine and Public Health of Lausanne, the Department of Primary Care Medicine of the University Hospitals of Geneva, and the Institute of Social Sciences of the University of Lausanne set up a study with patients and general practitioners concerning the access to genetic risk profiles. The GPs attitude, the subject of this study, was explored using the two-round Delphi consensus method. 120 interns and senior clinicians responded to 24 statements. RESULTS: A consensus was reached for 80% of the statements. The GP’s significant role in terms of access to genetic profiles became evident, even if their position seems conditioned by their position as front-line health workers, and doubts remain as to the impact of this process in guiding their practice. The need for training was widely emphasized as well as the possibility multidisciplinary support and management. There was also a consensus for the need of a legislative framework for these practices. CONCLUSION: This study has underlined the importance of anticipating the needs in developing an advanced and evolving training and information program for GPs in the domain of genomic medicine in light of the prevention activities that could result.


Assuntos
Medicina Geral , Clínicos Gerais , Atitude , Doença Crônica , Humanos , Medicina de Precisão
5.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 10(10): e30444, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449403

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The early detection of clusters of infectious diseases such as the SARS-CoV-2-related COVID-19 disease can promote timely testing recommendation compliance and help to prevent disease outbreaks. Prior research revealed the potential of COVID-19 participatory syndromic surveillance systems to complement traditional surveillance systems. However, most existing systems did not integrate geographic information at a local scale, which could improve the management of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to detect active and emerging spatiotemporal clusters of COVID-19-associated symptoms, and to examine (a posteriori) the association between the clusters' characteristics and sociodemographic and environmental determinants. METHODS: This report presents the methodology and development of the @choum (English: "achoo") study, evaluating an epidemiological digital surveillance tool to detect and prevent clusters of individuals (target sample size, N=5000), aged 18 years or above, with COVID-19-associated symptoms living and/or working in the canton of Geneva, Switzerland. The tool is a 5-minute survey integrated into a free and secure mobile app (CoronApp-HUG). Participants are enrolled through a comprehensive communication campaign conducted throughout the 12-month data collection phase. Participants register to the tool by providing electronic informed consent and nonsensitive information (gender, age, geographically masked addresses). Symptomatic participants can then report COVID-19-associated symptoms at their onset (eg, symptoms type, test date) by tapping on the @choum button. Those who have not yet been tested are offered the possibility to be informed on their cluster status (information returned by daily automated clustering analysis). At each participation step, participants are redirected to the official COVID-19 recommendations websites. Geospatial clustering analyses are performed using the modified space-time density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (MST-DBSCAN) algorithm. RESULTS: The study began on September 1, 2020, and will be completed on February 28, 2022. Multiple tests performed at various time points throughout the 5-month preparation phase have helped to improve the tool's user experience and the accuracy of the clustering analyses. A 1-month pilot study performed among 38 pharmacists working in 7 Geneva-based pharmacies confirmed the proper functioning of the tool. Since the tool's launch to the entire population of Geneva on February 11, 2021, data are being collected and clusters are being carefully monitored. The primary study outcomes are expected to be published in mid-2022. CONCLUSIONS: The @choum study evaluates an innovative participatory epidemiological digital surveillance tool to detect and prevent clusters of COVID-19-associated symptoms. @choum collects precise geographic information while protecting the user's privacy by using geomasking methods. By providing an evidence base to inform citizens and local authorities on areas potentially facing a high COVID-19 burden, the tool supports the targeted allocation of public health resources and promotes testing. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/30444.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34245905

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Serological studies have been critical in tracking the evolution of the COVID-19 pandemic. Data on anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies persistence remain sparse, especially from infected individuals with few to no symptoms. The objective of the study was to quantify the sensitivity for detecting historic SARS-CoV-2 infections as a function of time since infection for three commercially available SARS-CoV-2 immunoassays and to explore the implications of decaying immunoassay sensitivity in estimating seroprevalence. METHODS: We followed a cohort of mostly mild/asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals (n = 354) at least 8 months after their presumed infection date and tested their serum for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies with three commercially available assays: Roche-N, Roche-RBD and EuroImmun-S1. We developed a latent class statistical model to infer the specificity and time-varying sensitivity of each assay and show through simulations how inappropriately accounting for test performance can lead to biased serosurvey estimates. RESULTS: Antibodies were detected at follow-up in 74-100% of participants, depending on immunoassays. Both Roche assays maintain high sensitivity, with the EuroImmun assay missing 40% of infections after 9 months. Simulations reveal that without appropriate adjustment for time-varying assay sensitivity, seroprevalence surveys may underestimate infection rates. DISCUSSION: Antibodies persist for at least 8 months after infection in a cohort of mildly infected individuals with detection depending on assay choice. Appropriate assay performance adjustment is important for the interpretation of serological studies in the case of diminishing sensitivity after infection.

7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(7): e2115722, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34228125

RESUMO

Importance: Characteristics of a health care system can facilitate forgoing of health care owing to economic reasons and can influence population health. Whether health insurance deductibles are associated with forgoing of health care in a consumer-driven health care system with universal coverage, such as the Swiss health system, remains to be determined. Objective: To assess the association between insurance plan deductibles and forgoing of health care with consideration of socioeconomic factors. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Geneva, Switzerland, using data collected from January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2019. Population-based samples were obtained yearly through random stratified sampling by age and sex of the general population aged 20 to 74 years. Participants were invited to an appointment at 1 of the 3 study sites in Geneva, where they completed a sociodemographic and health questionnaire. Exposures: Insurance plan deductible level. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was forgoing of health care owing to economic reasons. Unadjusted and multivariable Poisson models were used to assess the association between deductible level and forgoing of health care. Differences in forgoing health care across the range of health insurance deductibles or household income levels were quantified using the relative index of inequality (RII). Results: The study group included 11 872 participants (5974 [50.3%] male; median age, 48.1 years [interquartile range, 38.7-59.1 years]); 1146 (9.7%) reported forgoing health care. Participants with high-deductible plans reported forgoing health care more frequently than those with low-deductible plans (331 [13.5%] vs 591 [8.7%]). In adjusted analysis, higher-deductible plans were associated with a greater likelihood of forgoing health care (RII, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.7-3.0; P < .001) independently of socioeconomic status, known comorbidities, and cardiovascular risk factors. Deductible level was associated with forgoing of health care among participants younger than 40 years (RII, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.6-4.0; P < .001) and those aged 40 to 64 years (RII, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.3-2.9; P = .002) but not among those older than 65 years (RII, 2.9; 95% CI, 0.8-10.4; P = .11). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study, high insurance plan deductibles were associated with forgoing of health care independent of socioeconomic status and preexisting conditions in a universal consumer-driven health care system with good population outcomes in Switzerland. Uncovering health care system design features that could lead to suboptimal population care may help decision makers improve their current health care system design to achieve better outcomes.

8.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0253975, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237094

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Diagnostic ratios calculated from urinary steroid hormone metabolites are used as a measure for the relative activity of steroidogenic enzymes or pathways in the clinical investigation of steroid metabolism disorders. However, population-based sex- and age-specific reference intervals and day-night differences in adults are lacking. METHODS: Sixty-five diagnostic ratios were calculated from steroid metabolites measured by GC-MS in day- and night-time and in 24-hour urine from 1128 adults recruited within the Swiss Kidney Project on Genes in Hypertension (SKIPOGH), a population-based, multicenter cohort study. Differences related to sex, age and day- and night-time were evaluated and reference curves in function of age and sex were modelled by multivariable linear mixed regression for diagnostic ratios and were compared to values from the literature. RESULTS: Most ratios had sex- and age-specific relationships. For each ratio, percentiles were plotted in function of age and sex in order to create reference curves and sex- and age-specific reference intervals derived from 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles were obtained. Most ratios reflected a higher enzyme activity during the day compared to the night. CONCLUSIONS: Sex- and age-specific references for 24 hours, day and night urine steroid metabolite ratios may help distinguishing between health and disease when investigating human disorders affecting steroid synthesis and metabolism. The day-night differences observed for most of the diagnostic ratios suggest a circadian rhythm for enzymes involved in human steroid hormones metabolism.

9.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(11): e13661, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34324704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unravelling autoimmune targets triggered by SARS-CoV-2 infection may provide crucial insights into the physiopathology of the disease and foster the development of potential therapeutic candidate targets and prognostic tools. We aimed at determining (a) the association between anti-SARS-CoV-2 and anti-apoA-1 humoral response and (b) the degree of linear homology between SARS-CoV-2, apoA-1 and Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) epitopes. DESIGN: Bioinformatics modelling coupled with mimic peptides engineering and competition experiments were used to assess epitopes sequence homologies. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 and anti-apoA-1 IgG as well as cytokines were assessed by immunoassays on a case-control (n = 101), an intensive care unit (ICU; n = 126) and a general population cohort (n = 663) with available samples in the pre and post-pandemic period. RESULTS: Using bioinformatics modelling, linear sequence homologies between apoA-1, TLR2 and Spike epitopes were identified but without experimental evidence of cross-reactivity. Overall, anti-apoA-1 IgG levels were higher in COVID-19 patients or anti-SARS-CoV-2 seropositive individuals than in healthy donors or anti-SARS-CoV-2 seronegative individuals (P < .0001). Significant and similar associations were noted between anti-apoA-1, anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG, cytokines and lipid profile. In ICU patients, anti-SARS-CoV-2 and anti-apoA-1 seroconversion rates displayed similar 7-day kinetics, reaching 82% for anti-apoA-1 seropositivity. In the general population, SARS-CoV-2-exposed individuals displayed higher anti-apoA-1 IgG seropositivity rates than nonexposed ones (34% vs 16.8%; P = .004). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 induces a marked humoral response against the major protein of high-density lipoproteins. As a correlate of poorer prognosis in other clinical settings, such autoimmunity signatures may relate to long-term COVID-19 prognosis assessment and warrant further scrutiny in the current COVID-19 pandemic.

10.
Health Place ; 70: 102616, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225236

RESUMO

This study assessed the spatial dependence of daily tobacco consumption and how it is spatially impacted by individual and neighborhood socioeconomic determinants, and tobacco consumption facilities before and after a smoke-free implementation. Individual data was obtained from the Bus Santé, a cross-sectional survey in Geneva. Spatial clusters of high and low tobacco consumption were assessed using Getis-Ord Gi*. Daily tobacco consumption was not randomly clustered in Geneva and may be impacted by tobacco consumption facilities independently of socioeconomic factors and a smoking ban. Spatial analysis should be considered to highlight the impact of smoke-free policies and guide public health interventions.

11.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(9): 1252-1260, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With millions of SARS-CoV-2 infections worldwide, increasing numbers of patients are coming forward with long-term clinical effects of the disease lasting several weeks to months. OBJECTIVE: To characterize symptoms 7 to 9 months after diagnosis of COVID-19. DESIGN: Self-reported surveys and semistructured telephone interviews at enrollment and 30 to 45 days and 7 to 9 months from diagnosis. SETTING: From 18 March to 15 May 2020, symptomatic persons who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 at the Geneva University Hospitals were followed by CoviCare, a virtual, clinical, outpatient follow-up program. Persons were contacted again at 30 to 45 days and 7 to 9 months from diagnosis. PARTICIPANTS: Persons who were a part of the CoviCare program from 18 March to 15 May 2020. MEASUREMENTS: A standardized interview of symptoms consistent with COVID-19, with grading of intensity. RESULTS: Of the 629 participants in the study who completed the baseline interviews, 410 completed follow-up at 7 to 9 months after COVID-19 diagnosis; 39.0% reported residual symptoms. Fatigue (20.7%) was the most common symptom reported, followed by loss of taste or smell (16.8%), dyspnea (11.7%), and headache (10.0%). LIMITATION: Limitations include generalizability and missing data for 34.8% of participants. CONCLUSION: Residual symptoms after SARS-CoV-2 infection are common among otherwise young and healthy persons followed in an outpatient setting. These findings contribute to the recognition of long-term effects in a disease mostly counted by its death toll to date by promoting communication on postacute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 and encouraging physicians to continue long-term monitoring of their patients. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: None.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Dispneia/virologia , Fadiga/virologia , Feminino , Cefaleia/virologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Olfato/virologia , Prevalência , SARS-CoV-2 , Autorrelato , Telefone , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
12.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070444

RESUMO

Inadequate sodium and potassium dietary intakes are associated with major, yet preventable, health consequences. Local public health interventions can be facilitated and informed by fine-scale geospatial analyses. In this study, we assess the existence of spatial clustering (i.e., an unusual concentration of individuals with a specific outcome in space) of estimated sodium (Na), potassium (K) intakes, and Na:K ratio in the Bus Santé 1992-2018 annual population-based surveys, including 22,495 participants aged 20-74 years, residing in the canton of Geneva, using the local Moran's I spatial statistics. We also investigate whether socio-demographic and food environment characteristics are associated with identified spatial clustering, using both global ordinary least squares (OLS) and local geographically weighted regression (GWR) modeling. We identified clear spatial clustering of Na:K ratio, Na, and K intakes. The GWR outperformed the OLS models and revealed spatial variations in the associations between explanatory and outcome variables. Older age, being a woman, higher education, and having a lower access to supermarkets were associated with higher Na:K ratio, while the opposite was seen for having the Swiss nationality. Socio-demographic characteristics explained a major part of the identified clusters. Socio-demographic and food environment characteristics significantly differed between individuals in spatial clusters of high and low Na:K ratio, Na, and K intakes. These findings could guide prioritized place-based interventions tailored to the characteristics of the identified populations.


Assuntos
Potássio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Análise por Conglomerados , Dieta , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Análise Espacial , Suíça/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e044242, 2021 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34145007

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To develop and validate a rule-out prediction model for the risk of hospitalisation among patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection in the ambulatory setting to derive a simple score to determine outpatient follow-up. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Swiss university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: 1459 individuals with a positive result for SARS-CoV-2 infection between 2 March and 23 April 2020. METHODS: We applied the rule of 10 events per variable to construct our multivariable model and included a maximum of eight covariates. We assessed the model performance in terms of discrimination and calibration and performed internal validation to estimate the statistical optimism of the final model. The final prediction model included age, fever, dyspnoea, hypertension and chronic respiratory disease. To develop the OUTCoV score, we assigned points for each predictor that were proportional to the coefficients of the regression equation. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios were estimated, including positive and negative predictive values in different thresholds. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The primary outcome was COVID-19-related hospitalisation. RESULTS: The OUTCoV score ranged from 0 to 7.5 points. The two threshold parameters with optimal rule-out and rule-in characteristics for the risk of hospitalisation were 3 and 5.5, respectively. Outpatients with a score <3 (997/1459; 68.3%) had no follow-up as at low risk of hospitalisation (1.8%; 95% CI 1.1 to 2.8). For a score ≥5.5 (20/1459; 1.4%), the hospitalisation risk was higher (30%; 95% CI 11.9 to 54.3). CONCLUSIONS: The OUTCoV score allows to rule out two-thirds of outpatients with SARS-CoV-2 infection presenting a low hospitalisation risk and to identify those at high risk that require careful follow-up to assess the need for hospitalisation. The model provides a simple decision-making tool for an effective allocation of resources to maintain quality care for outpatient populations.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Febre , Hospitalização , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
Prev Med ; 150: 106696, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174252

RESUMO

During the first wave of the Covid-19 pandemic, access to health care was limited, and patients encountered important delays for scheduled appointments and care. Empirical data relying on patients' reports of forgoing health care are scarce. This study investigated Covid-19-related self-reports of forgoing health care in a sample of vulnerable outpatients in Geneva, Switzerland. We collected data from 1167 adult outpatients, including clinically vulnerable patients (with chronic diseases), geriatric patients (involved in a health care network for people aged 60 or older), and socially vulnerable patients (involved in a migrant health program or a mobile outpatient community care center) in June 2020. Data on sociodemographic factors, forgoing health care, and anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were collected. Of the patients, 38.5% reported forgoing health care. Forgoing health care was more frequent for younger patients, women, patients with a low level of education, and patients with a chronic disease (p < .001). There was no significant association between the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and forgoing health care (p = .983). As the decrease in routine management of patients might have important and unpredictable adverse health consequences, avoiding delayed health care is crucial.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adulto , Idoso , Atenção à Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Suíça
15.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067298

RESUMO

Childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) are at increased risk of developing chronic health conditions. This may potentially be reduced by a balanced diet. We aimed to compare dietary intake and diet quality using the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI) of adult CCSs and the general Swiss population. A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was completed by CCSs with a median age of 34 (IQR: 29-40) years. We compared dietary intake of 775 CCSs to two population-based cohorts who completed the same FFQ: 1276 CoLaus and 2529 Bus Santé study participants. CCSs consumed particular inadequate amounts of fiber and excessive amounts of sodium and saturated fat. Dietary intake was similar in CCSs and the general population. The mean AHEI was low with 49.8 in CCSs (men: 47.7, women: 51.9), 52.3 in CoLaus (men: 50.2, women: 54.0), and 53.7 in Bus Santé (men: 51.8, women: 54.4) out of a maximum score of 110. The AHEI scores for fish, fruit, vegetables, and alcohol were worse in CCSs than in the general population, whereas the score for sugar-sweetened beverages was better (all p < 0.001). Diet quality at follow-up did not differ between clinical characteristics of CCSs. Long-term CCSs and the general population have poor dietary intake and quality in Switzerland, which suggests similar population-based interventions for everyone.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Energia , Adulto , Dieta/métodos , Dieta Saudável , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/terapia , Inquéritos Nutricionais/métodos , Estado Nutricional , Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suíça/epidemiologia , Verduras , Adulto Jovem
16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3643, 2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34131124

RESUMO

Understanding the risk of infection from household- and community-exposures and the transmissibility of asymptomatic infections is critical to SARS-CoV-2 control. Limited previous evidence is based primarily on virologic testing, which disproportionately misses mild and asymptomatic infections. Serologic measures are more likely to capture all previously infected individuals. We apply household transmission models to data from a cross-sectional, household-based population serosurvey of 4,534 people ≥5 years from 2,267 households enrolled April-June 2020 in Geneva, Switzerland. We found that the risk of infection from exposure to a single infected household member aged ≥5 years (17.3%,13.7-21.7) was more than three-times that of extra-household exposures over the first pandemic wave (5.1%,4.5-5.8). Young children had a lower risk of infection from household members. Working-age adults had the highest extra-household infection risk. Seropositive asymptomatic household members had 69.4% lower odds (95%CrI,31.8-88.8%) of infecting another household member compared to those reporting symptoms, accounting for 14.5% (95%CrI, 7.2-22.7%) of all household infections.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Características da Família , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Pandemias , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Suíça/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3455, 2021 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103517

RESUMO

Limited data exist on SARS-CoV-2 infection rates across sectors and occupations, hindering our ability to make rational policy, including vaccination prioritization, to protect workers and limit SARS-CoV-2 spread. Here, we present results from our SEROCoV-WORK + study, a serosurvey of workers recruited after the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Geneva, Switzerland. We tested workers (May 18-September 18, 2020) from 16 sectors and 32 occupations for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies. Of 10,513 participants, 1026 (9.8%) tested positive. The seropositivity rate ranged from 4.2% in the media sector to 14.3% in the nursing home sector. We found considerable within-sector variability: nursing home (0%-31.4%), homecare (3.9%-12.6%), healthcare (0%-23.5%), public administration (2.6%-24.6%), and public security (0%-16.7%). Seropositivity rates also varied across occupations, from 15.0% among kitchen staff and 14.4% among nurses, to 5.4% among domestic care workers and 2.8% among journalists. Our findings show that seropositivity rates varied widely across sectors, between facilities within sectors, and across occupations, reflecting a higher exposure in certain sectors and occupations.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Tamanho da Amostra , Suíça/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1198, 2021 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162363

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Europe, knowledge about the social determinants of health among undocumented migrants is scarce. The canton of Geneva, Switzerland, implemented in 2017-2018 a pilot public policy aiming at regularizing undocumented migrants. We sought to test for associations between self-rated health, proven eligibility for residence status regularization and social and economic integration. METHODS: This paper reports data from the first wave of the Parchemins Study, a prospective study whose aim is to investigate the effect of residence status regularization on undocumented migrants' living conditions and health. The convenience sample included undocumented migrants living in Geneva for at least 3 years. We categorized them into those who were in the process of receiving or had just been granted a residence permit (eligible or newly regularized) and those who had not applied or were ineligible for regularization (undocumented). We conducted multivariate regression analyses to determine factors associated with better self-rated health, i.e., with excellent/very good vs. good/fair/poor self-rated health. Among these factors, measures of integration, social support and economic resources were included. RESULTS: Of the 437 participants, 202 (46%) belonged to the eligible or newly regularized group. This group reported better health more frequently than the undocumented group (44.6% versus 28.9%, p-value < .001), but the association was no longer significant after adjustment for social support and economic factors (odds ratio (OR): 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.67-1.87). Overall, better health was associated with larger social networks (OR: 1.66; 95% CI: 1.04-2.64). This association remained significant even after adjusting for health-related variables. CONCLUSION: At the onset of the regularization program, access to regularization was not associated with better self-rated health. Policies aiming at favouring undocumented migrants' inclusion and engagement in social networks may promote better health. Future research should investigate long-term effects of residence status regularization on self-rated health.


Assuntos
Migrantes , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente) , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Suíça/epidemiologia
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 787: 147483, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000545

RESUMO

To understand the geographical and temporal spread of SARS-CoV-2 during the first documented wave of infection in the state of Vaud, Switzerland, we analyzed clusters of positive cases using the precise residential location of 33,651 individuals tested (RT-PCR) between January 10 and June 30, 2020. We used a prospective Poisson space-time scan statistic (SaTScan) and a Modified Space-Time Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Application with Noise (MST-DBSCAN) to identify both space-time and transmission clusters, and estimated cluster duration, transmission behavior (emergence, growth, reduction, etc.) and relative risk. For each cluster, we computed the number of individuals, the median age of individuals and their viral load. Among the 1684 space-time clusters identified, 457 (27.1%) were significant (p ≤ 0.05), such that they harbored a higher relative risk of infection within the cluster than compared to regions outside the cluster. Clusters lasted a median of 11 days (IQR 7-13) and included a median of 12 individuals per cluster (IQR 5-20). The majority of significant clusters (n = 260; 56.9%) had at least one person with an extremely high viral load (>1 billion copies/ml). Those clusters were considerably larger (median of 17 infected individuals, p < 0.001) than clusters with individuals showing a viral load below 1 million copies/ml (median of three infected individuals). The highest viral loads were found in clusters with the lowest average age group considered in the investigation, while clusters with the highest average age had low to middle viral load. In 20 significant clusters, the viral load of the three first cases was below 100,000 copies/ml, suggesting that subjects with fewer than 100,000 copies/ml may still be contagious. Notably, the dynamics of transmission clusters made it possible to identify three diffusion zones, which predominantly differentiated between rural and urban areas, the latter being more prone to persistence and expansion, which may result in the emergence of new clusters nearby. The use of geographic information is key for public health decision makers in mitigating the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. This study suggests that early localization of clusters may help implement targeted protective measures limiting the spread of the virus.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Suíça/epidemiologia , Carga Viral
20.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043763

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serological assays detecting anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies are being widely deployed in studies and clinical practice. However, the duration and effectiveness of the protection conferred by the immune response remains to be assessed in population-based samples. To estimate the incidence of newly acquired SARS-CoV-2 infections in seropositive individuals as compared to seronegative controls we conducted a retrospective longitudinal matched study. METHODS: A seroprevalence survey including a representative sample of the population was conducted in Geneva, Switzerland between April and June 2020, immediately after the first pandemic wave. Seropositive participants were matched one-to-two to seronegative controls, using a propensity-score including age, gender, immunodeficiency, BMI, smoking status and education level. Each individual was linked to a state-registry of SARS-CoV-2 infections. Our primary outcome was confirmed infections occurring from serological status assessment to the end of the second pandemic wave (January 2021). RESULTS: Among 8344 serosurvey participants, 498 seropositive individuals were selected and matched with 996 seronegative controls. After a mean follow-up of 35.6 (SD 3.2) weeks, 7 out of 498 (1.4%) seropositive subjects had a positive SARS-CoV-2 test, of whom 5 (1.0%) were classified as reinfections. In contrast, the infection rate was higher in seronegative individuals (15.5%, 154/996) during a similar follow-up period (mean 34.7 [SD 3.2] weeks), corresponding to a 94% (95%CI 86% to 98%, P<0.001) reduction in the hazard of having a positive SARS-CoV-2 test for seropositives. CONCLUSIONS: Seroconversion after SARS-CoV-2 infection confers protection against reinfection lasting at least 8 months. These findings could help global health authorities establishing priority for vaccine allocation.

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