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1.
Ann Card Anaesth ; 24(4): 470-472, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34747756

RESUMO

Hydatid infection of the heart is rare and there is always the lethal hazard of cyst perforation. We present an 18-year-old male from Kashmir valley who was admitted to the emergency department of our hospital with fever and chest pain for the last 4 days. Using echocardiography and cardiac tomography (CT), cardiac Echinococcosis was diagnosed. The results of surgical treatment of cardiac Echinococcosis were better than the conservative strategy. Surgical excision was performed. The patient had an uneventful recovery.


Assuntos
Equinococose , Cardiopatias , Adolescente , Dor no Peito , Equinococose/diagnóstico por imagem , Equinococose/cirurgia , Ecocardiografia , Coração , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiopatias/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino
2.
Front Oncol ; 11: 710585, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34568037

RESUMO

Background: Treatment of malignant melanoma has undergone a paradigm shift with the advent of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) and targeted therapies. However, access to ICI is limited in low-middle income countries (LMICs). Patients and Methods: Histologically confirmed malignant melanoma cases registered from 2013 to 2019 were analysed for pattern of care, safety, and efficacy of systemic therapies (ST). Results: There were 659 patients with a median age of 53 (range 44-63) years; 58.9% were males; 55.2% were mucosal melanomas. Most common primary sites were extremities (36.6%) and anorectum (31.4%). Nearly 10.8% of the metastatic cohort were BRAF mutated. Among 368 non-metastatic patients (172 prior treated, 185 de novo, and 11 unresectable), with a median follow-up of 26 months (0-83 months), median EFS and OS were 29.5 (95% CI: 22-40) and 33.3 (95% CI: 29.5-41.2) months, respectively. In the metastatic cohort, with a median follow up of 24 (0-85) months, the median EFS for BSC was 3.1 (95% CI 1.9-4.8) months versus 3.98 (95% CI 3.2-4.7) months with any ST (HR: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.52-0.92; P = 0.011). The median OS was 3.9 (95% CI 3.3-6.4) months for BSC alone versus 12.0 (95% CI 10.5-15.1) months in any ST (HR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.28-0.50; P < 0.001). The disease control rate was 51.55%. Commonest grade 3-4 toxicity was anemia with chemotherapy (9.5%) and ICI (8.8%). In multivariate analysis, any ST received had a better prognostic impact in the metastatic cohort. Conclusions: Large real-world data reflects the treatment patterns adopted in LMIC for melanomas and poor access to expensive, standard of care therapies. Other systemic therapies provide meaningful clinical benefit and are worth exploring especially when the standard therapies are challenging to administer.

3.
Br J Radiol ; : 20210333, 2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111977

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) status on the prediction of head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) chemoradiotherapy (CRT) outcomes with pre-treatment quantitative diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI). METHODS: Following ethical approval, 65 participants (53 male, age 59.9 ± 7.86) underwent pre-treatment DW-MRI in this prospective cohort observational study. There were 46 HPV OPC and 19 other HNSCC cases with stage III/IV HNSCC. Regions of interest (ROIs) (volume, largest area, core) at the primary tumour (n = 57) and largest pathological node (n = 59) were placed to analyse ADCmean and ADCmin. Unpaired t-test or Mann-Whitney test evaluated the impact of HPV OPC status and clinical parameters on their prediction of post-CRT 2 year loco-regional and disease-free survival (LRFS and DFS). Multivariate logistic regression compared significant variables with 2 year outcomes. RESULTS: On univariate analysis of all participants, the primary tumour area ADCmean was predictive of 2 year LRFS (p = 0.04). However, only the HPV OPC diagnosis (LFRS p = 0.03; DFS p = 0.02) predicted outcomes on multivariate analysis. None of the pre-treatment ADC values were predictive of 2 year DFS in the HPV OPC subgroup (p = 0.21-0.68). Amongst participants without 2 year disease-free survival, HPV-OPC was found to have much lower primary tumour ADCmean values than other HNSCC. CONCLUSION: Knowledge of HPV OPC status is required in order to determine the impact of the pre-treatment ADC values on post-CRT outcomes in HNSCC. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: Pre-treatment ADCmean and ADCmin values acquired using different ROI methods are not predictive of 2 year survival outcomes in HPV OPC.

4.
Dentomaxillofac Radiol ; 50(7): 20200579, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33956510

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Post chemoradiotherapy (CRT) interval changes in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) have prognostic value in head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC). The impact of using different region of interest (ROI) methods on interobserver agreement and their ability to reliably detect the changes in the ADC values was assessed. METHODS: Following ethical approval, 25 patients (mean age 59.5 years, 21 male) with stage 3-4 HNSCC undergoing CRT were recruited for this prospective cohort study. Diffusion weighted MRI (DW-MRI) was performed pre-treatment and at 6 and 12 weeks following CRT. Two radiologists independently delineated ROIs using whole volume (ROIv), largest area (ROIa) or representative area (ROIr) methods at primary tumour (n = 22) and largest nodal (n = 24) locations and recorded the ADCmean. When no clear focus of increased DWI signal was evident at follow-up, a standardised ROI was placed (non-measurable or NM). Bland-Altman plots and interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were assessed. Paired t-tests evaluated interval changes in pre- and post-treatment ADCmean at each location, which were compared to the smallest detectable difference (SDD). RESULTS: Excellent agreement was obtained for all ROI methods at pre-treatment (ICC 0.94-0.98) and 6-week post-treatment (ICC 0.94-0.98). At 12-week post-treatment, agreement was excellent (ICC 0.91-0.94) apart from ROIr (ICC 0.86) and the NM nodal disease (ICC 0.87). There were significant interval increases in ADCmean between pre-treatment and post-treatment studies, which were greater than the SDD for all ROIs. CONCLUSIONS: ADCmean values can be reproducibly obtained in HNSCC using the different ROI techniques on pre- and post-CRT MRI, and this reliably detects the interval changes.


Assuntos
Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Quimiorradioterapia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Br J Neurosurg ; : 1-10, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33410366

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cerebellopontine angle (CPA) epidermoids, although of benign nature, are of considerable neurosurgical interest because of their close proximity and adherence to the cranial nerves and brain stem. In this paper, we describe our experience and attempt to correlate the final outcomes with the extent of surgical removal. The main objectives were to study various modes of surgical management of CPA epidermoids with regard to removal and preservation of the cranial nerves and also to evaluate the role of endoscopic assisted microsurgical excision thereby minimizing recurrences. This case series is one of the largest series reported so far worldwide. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2006 to 2016, 139 patients with CPA epidermoids were operated at Grant Medical College and J. J. Hospital, Mumbai. All patients underwent detailed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain. Lesions were classified according Rogelio Revuelta-Gutiérrez et al. with respect to their anatomic extent: grade I- within the boundaries of the CPA, grade II- extension to the suprasellar and perimesencephalic cisterns, and grade III-parasellar and temporomesial region involvement. Retrosigmoidal and sub temporal approaches were taken to excise the lesions. Endoscopic assisted microsurgical excision was done in cases with extensions beyond the CPA. Patient follow-up was based on outpatient repeated brain MRI studies. RESULTS: The mean duration of symptoms before surgery was 42 months (range, 2 months to 6 years). The mean follow-up period was 27 months (range, 2-60 months). The main presenting sympt om was headache in 69% (96/139) of the cases and trigeminal neuralgia in 30% cases was the second most common cause of consultation. Seventy-five percent of patients had some degree of cranial nerve (CN) involvement. Retrosigmoid approach was taken in 92% patients and 7 patients with supratentorial extension were operated by combined retrosigmoidal and subtemporal approach. Endoscopic assisted microsurgical excision was done in 40% cases. Use of angled views by an endoscope helped to excise residual tumor in 47 (83%) patients. Complete excision was achieved in 67% of cases. In 33% patients, small capsular remnants could not be removed completely because of their adherence to vessels, brainstem and cranial nerves. Compared with their preoperative clinical status, 74% improved and 20% had persistent cranial nerve deficits in the first year of follow up. CONCLUSIONS: Epidermoid cysts are challenging entities in current neurosurgery practice due to tumor adhesions to neurovascular structures. Meticulous surgical technique with the aid of neurophysiological monitoring is crucial to achieve safe and effective total or subtotal removal of these lesions. A conservative approach is indicated for patients in whom the fragments of capsule is adhered closely to blood vessels, nerves, or the brainstem, in order to avoid risk of serious neurological deficits related to an inadvertent damage of these structures. Use of angled views by endoscope at the conclusion of the surgery may assure the surgeon of total removal of the tumor.

6.
J Orthop Case Rep ; 10(2): 80-83, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32953663

RESUMO

Introduction: Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a benign intramedullary pathologic condition that is characterized by the replacement of bone with fibrous tissue. FD may be monostotic or polyostotic with the craniofacial bones, and the proximal femur is most commonly involved. Case Report: A 39-year-old lady presented to our hospital, a tertiary care center with asymmetric swelling of her arms, for over 20 years. Radiographs revealed gross enlargement with marrow expansion of the right humerus, scapula with ground-glass matrix, along with a multiseptated cystic appearance. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography screening for the activity of these lesions incidentally demonstrated a few lung nodules, which on biopsy was found to be atypical adenomatous hyperplasia. The lady also had endocrine dysfunction in the form of diabetes mellitus, for which she was on treatment. Conclusion: In this article, we briefly review the available literature to decipher if any of the associated syndromes with polyostotic FD (being the dominant clinical feature) are known to have associations which explain the above findings. There is a need to recognize the underlying pattern so that appropriate genetic counseling, if any, can be provided to such patients.

7.
Br J Radiol ; 93(1106): 20190496, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682155

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The recent increase in publications on radiomic analysis as means to produce diagnostic and predictive biomarkers in head and neck cancers (HNCC) reveal complicated and often conflicting results. The objective of this paper is to systematically review the published data, and evaluate the current level of evidence accumulated that would determine clinical application. METHODS: Data sources: Articles in the English language available on the Ovid-MEDLINE and Embase databases were used for the literature search. Study selection:Studies which evaluated the role of radiomics as a predictive or prognostic tool for response assessment in HNCC were included in this review.Study appraisal and synthesis methods: The authors set-out to perform a meta-analysis, however given the small number of studies retrieved that presented adequate data, combined with excessive methodological heterogeneity, we could only perform a structured descriptive systematic review summarizing the key findings. Independent extraction of articles was performed by two authors using predefined data fields and any disagreement was resolved by consensus. RESULTS: Though most papers concluded that radiomics is an effective predictive and prognostic biomarker in the management of HNCC, significant heterogeneity exists in the study methodology and statistical modelling; thus precluding accurate mathematical comparison or the ability to make clear recommendations going forwards. Moreover, most studies have not been validated and the reproducibility of their results will be a challenge. CONCLUSION: Until robust external validation studies on the reproducibility and accuracy of radiomic analysis methods on HNCC are carried out, the current level of evidence remains low, with the authors advising caution against hasty implementation of these tools in the multidisciplinary clinic. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: This review is the first attempt to critically analyze the merits and demerits of currently published literature on tumour heterogeneity studies in HNCC, and identifies specific loop holes that need to be addressed by research groups, for a meaningful clinical translation of this potential biomarker.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Prognóstico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
8.
Asian J Neurosurg ; 14(3): 718-724, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31497091

RESUMO

Background: Encephalocele is defined as herniation of cranial contents beyond the normal confines of the skull through a defect in the calvarium either along the midline or at the base of skull. These anomalies should be repaired in the first few months of life to prevent neurological deficits and facial disfigurement. The aim of the surgery is water tight dural closure at the level of internal defect, closure of skull defect, and reconstruction of external bony deformity. Materials and Methods: Fifty-four cases of encephalocoeles were studied in our hospital over a 6-year period from 2010 to 2016. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain were performed to delineate the bony defect and associated anomalies. Reconstruction of the bony defect was done using autologous calvarial bone graft, Osteopore polycaprolactone (PCL) bone scaffold filler and titanium mesh. Results: In our study, 54 patients (34 boys and 20 girls) whose age varied between 2 months and 14 years were evaluated. Frontoethmoidal (44.5%) and occipital encephaloceles (25.9%) were the most frequently seen varieties. Repair of the dural defect either primarily or using pericranium was done in all cases. Closure of the bony defect was done using autologous calvarial bone graft in 12 (22.22%) patients. Titanium mesh was used in eight and Osteopore PCL bone scaffold filler in four children. Cranioplasty was not done in remaining thirty children because of the small bone defect. Overall, 80% had no postoperative problem and were discharged between 7 and 10 days of surgery. Cerebrospinal fluid leak was the most frequent postoperative complication, noted in five patients. Re-exploration with repair was done in one and remaining four were managed conservatively. Overall, cosmetic results were acceptably good, with parents judging the cosmetic outcome as good to excellent in 70%, satisfactory in 18%, and poor in 3% at the last follow-up. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that encephaloceles are associated with complex deformities and pose a technical challenge to the neurosurgeon. A multidisciplinary approach is necessary to manage these cases. MRI brain and three dimensional CT aids in evaluating the deformity better and surgical correction should be performed as soon as possible to prevent a further neurological deficit. Repair of dural defect and reconstruction of the skull defect results in a good long-term outcome. We present our experience on 54 cases of cranial encephaloceles managed surgically over a period of only 6 years which is one of the largest series reported from Asia.

9.
Asian J Neurosurg ; 14(1): 227-230, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30937040

RESUMO

Growing skull fracture (GSF), also known as leptomeningeal cyst, is a rare but significant complication of pediatric head injury. It is mainly seen in infancy and childhood. GSFs of the posterior fossa are uncommon, and intradiploic location in the posterior fossa is extremely rare. Only a few cases of pediatric GSF of the posterior fossa and intradiploic location have been reported in the literature. We report a case of a 15-year-old boy who had large intradiploic GSF of the posterior fossa, associated with cervical syringomyelia. The lesion developed progressively over a period of 5 years following a documented occipital linear fracture. This case of a GSF developing from a known occipital linear fracture demonstrates that a GSF may reach a considerable size, and although uncommon, intradiploic development and occipital localization of a GSF are possible. Syringomyelia associated with posterior fossa GSF is very unusual which makes this case even more unique.

10.
Asian J Neurosurg ; 13(4): 1005-1007, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30459857

RESUMO

Background: Lesions of the pituitary gland and the juxtasellar region are quite frequently encountered in daily practise of a neurologist/neurosurgeon. While the differentials of sellar masses are quite large and form an extensive list and the management protocol varies in each case, the onus of properly categorizing and diagnosing the pituitary mass often falls on the reporting radiologist. We hereby present two such unusual masses in the sellar-suprasellar region which were masquerading as pituitary macro adenomas. Materials and Methods: Two cases of sellar-suprasellar masses which were preoperatively diagnosed as pituitary macro-adenomas on radiological imaging proved out to be pituitary natural killer cell lymphoma and lepromatous abscess. Results: The first one is a rare case of pituitary abscess seen in a lepromatous patient which is not yet reported in the literature. The second case is of primary pituitary natural killer cell lymphoma which is almost entirely unknown, with only two such cases being reported worldwide till date. Conclusion: It is important to realize that all enhancing pituitary lesions are not macro adenomas and it is necessary to have a high index of suspicion in such cases. The clinical implications of such an error and steps that can be taken to prevent misinterpretations of unusual sellar masses camouflaging as pituitary macro adenomas have been briefly outlined.

12.
J Radiol Case Rep ; 5(11): 26-34, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22470771

RESUMO

Pseudoaneurysms are common vascular abnormalities due to disruption of the vessel wall. Pseudoaneurysm with arteriovenous fistula is a rare presentation. Complications associated with them develop unpredictably and carry a high mortality rate. Traditionally pseudoaneurysms have been treated surgically. However, with the advent of new interventional techniques, management using endovascular approach have gained popularity in treating pseudoaneurysms. Here, we present two cases of large pseudoaneurysms with arteriovenous fistula treated by percutaneous stent graft. Present studies on pseudoaneurysms are all either iatrogenic or secondary to nephrologic dialysis treatment and only few present studies exist describing such large post-traumatic femoral pseudoaneurysms with arteriovenous fistulas were treated successfully by stent grafting through femoral approach, with good patency at 6 months follow up.


Assuntos
Falso Aneurisma/complicações , Falso Aneurisma/cirurgia , Fístula Arteriovenosa/complicações , Fístula Arteriovenosa/cirurgia , Artéria Femoral/cirurgia , Stents , Adulto , Falso Aneurisma/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ferimentos Perfurantes/complicações
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