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2.
Nat Genet ; 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570889

RESUMO

Hypopigmentation along Blaschko's lines is a hallmark of a poorly defined group of mosaic syndromes whose genetic causes are unknown. Here we show that postzygotic inactivating mutations of RHOA cause a neuroectodermal syndrome combining linear hypopigmentation, alopecia, apparently asymptomatic leukoencephalopathy, and facial, ocular, dental and acral anomalies. Our findings pave the way toward elucidating the etiology of pigmentary mosaicism and highlight the role of RHOA in human development and disease.

3.
Brain ; 142(11): 3367-3374, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608932

RESUMO

Polymicrogyria is a heterogeneous malformation of cortical development microscopically defined by an excessive folding of the cortical mantle resulting in small gyri with a fused surface. Polymicrogyria is responsible for a wide range of neurological symptoms (e.g. epilepsy, intellectual disability, motor dysfunction). Most cases have a supposed environmental clastic vascular or infectious origin but progress in genomics has revealed new monogenic entities. We report four cases from two independent families sharing a common recognizable lethal syndromic polymicrogyria of autosomal recessive inheritance. Beyond diffuse polymicrogyria detected prenatally, pathological examination revealed a common pattern associating meningeal arterial calcifications, necrotic and calcified areas in basal ganglia, dentato-olivary dysplasia and severe hypoplasia/agenesis of the pyramidal tracts. In all affected cases, exome sequencing showed a pathogenic homozygous nonsense ATP1A2 variant. This resulted in absence of immunodetectable ATP1A2 protein in two brains analysed. ATP1A2 encodes the alpha-2 isoform of the Na+/K+-ATPase, which is highly expressed in brain tissues and has previously been related to familial hemiplegic migraine (MIM#602481) and alternating hemiplegia of childhood (MIM#104290). Through the description of this genetic entity, we emphasize the possibility of dual mode of transmission for disease-causing genes and provide the key neuropathological features that should prompt geneticists to test for mutations in the ATP1A2 gene.

4.
Eur J Med Genet ; 62(10): 103726, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319223

RESUMO

GRM1 gene, that is located on 6q24.3, encodes the metabotropic glutamate receptor type 1 (mGluR1), a transmembrane protein highly expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells. Pathogenic variants in GRM1 have been reported only three times in humans, causing autosomal-recessive cerebellar ataxia with early-onset and intellectual disability or dominant forms of cerebellar ataxia with less severe phenotype in adults. We report a six-year-old boy, born to inbred parents, with an early-onset cerebellar syndrome due to a homozygous autosomal-recessive GRM1 pathogenic variant. In addition to cerebellar ataxia, axial hypotonia and oculomotor signs, he showed a severe and global developmental delay with lack of walking and speech and slight facial dysmorphic features. Brain MRI, performed at 1 year and at 5 years, showed a slowly progressive cerebellar atrophy. A novel homozygous truncating variant in the second exon of GRM1 gene (c.889C>T, p.(Arg297*)), inherited from the heterozygous healthy parents, was found by exome sequencing. Our observation not only emphasizes the central role of mGluR1-mediated signaling in cerebellar function and neurodevelopment but also provides valuable insights into the early clinical signs of recessive ataxia due to GRM1 pathogenic variants that were not reported previously. The difficulties of clinical differential diagnosis between this disease and other forms of congenital ataxia and the unspecific cerebellar atrophy on MRI highlight the importance of large-scale genetic investigations.

6.
Prenat Diagn ; 39(7): 536-543, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31017299

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the outcome of pregnancy with fetal transverse cerebellar diameter (TCD) below the fifth percentile based on routine second- or third-trimester ultrasonography. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of 12 344 women according to TCD Z scores based on systematic second- or third-trimester ultrasound examination between 2007 and 2015. Information on major malformations, chromosomal anomalies, intrauterine or neonatal demise, and other abnormal findings were collected. RESULTS: In total, 408 fetuses with small prenatal TCD underwent clinical investigation; 160 major malformations were noted, consisting mainly of neurological or cardiac anomalies (39,2%%). Chromosomal anomalies were reported in 39 (9.5%) and intrauterine or neonatal demise in 41 cases (10%). Major malformations and chromosomal anomalies were found in 46.4% and 10% of fetuses with extremely small TCD (Z score < -2.5), respectively, 31.3% and 12.7% of fetuses with small TCD (Z score between -2.0 and -1.645), and 39.6 % and 7.7% of fetuses with subnormal TCD (Z score between -2.0 and -1.645). Intrauterine or neonatal demise was noted in 22%, 8.8%, and 4.8% of fetuses with extremely small, small, and subnormal TCD, respectively (P < .05). Among intrauterine growth-restricted fetuses, fetal demise or neonatal adverse outcome was reported in 75%, 81.8%, and 18.5%, respectively. Of all the fetuses, 2.2% were lost to follow-up. CONCLUSION: A small cerebellar diameter below the fifth percentile is a relevant marker to detect associated anomalies during routine ultrasound examination in the second or third trimester. This is related to a high rate of fetal malformations, chromosomal anomalies, and genetic disorders, regardless of the severity of the cerebellar small size. Small TCD seems to be a prognostic factor for fetal growth restriction. Therefore, when facing a TCD below the fifth percentile, patients should be referred for further sonography and fetal karyotyping.

7.
World Neurosurg ; 2019 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639481

RESUMO

Misoprostol is often used for termination of pregnancy in France and others countries. However, some pregnancies are continued after taking the drug and congenital malformations are known to be the consequence of fetal exposure to misoprostol, among then hydrocephalus. The type of hydrocephalus in case of misoprostol exposure is not known. We report the first case in the literature of an obstructive hydrocephalus due to an aqueduct of Sylvius stenosis diagnosed during the pregnancy after misoprostol intake. The possible physiopathological implications of the drug are discussed regarding the genesis of this malformation.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30465890

RESUMO

We report prenatal imaging features of four cases of neonatal hemochromatosis due to an alloimmune disease. All cases exhibited intra uterine growth restriction (IUGR) without arguments for a vascular etiology, associated with oligohydramnios. Placental hydrops was present in 75% of cases. Splenomegaly was identified in one case. Other causes of NH have been ruled out during diagnostic workup including karyotype, detection of IGFBP-1 to evaluate a premature rupture of membranes, maternal serologic tests. MRI was performed in two cases and showed an atrophic liver associated with a low signal intensity on T2-sequence in one case. Prenatal NH was suspected in this later case and the fetus was successfully treated with two IVIG (intravenous immunoglobulins) perfusions performed during pregnancy followed by exchange transfusion and IVIG after birth. The child is doing well with normal liver function tests after 17 months of follow up. Our aim was to highlight the importance of suggesting NH-GALD when facing IUGR with oligohydramnios, ascites, placental hydrops, splenomegaly on prenatal ultrasound with negative work up for placental vascular pathologies and infectious fetopathies. MRI might be of a good help, showing an atrophic liver but enhancing iron overload in hepatic and extrahepatic tissue is helpful but not constant.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30257814

RESUMO

Chickenpox is a human infection that occurs mainly during childhood. Infection during pregnancy is therefore rare but may cause a congenital infection with malformation in less than 1% of cases. A specific management should be proposed at diagnosis in order to reduce materno-fetal transmission and morbimortality. Three cases were herein presented focusing on the main at-risk situations for pregnant women, whom immunological status against varicella was unknown. The first case focused on a varicella eruption during early pregnancy that leads to a lethal outcome. The second one described the management of varicella contact during early pregnancy. This woman was treated by specific immunoglobulins, leading to a positive outcome. The third case focused on another varicella contact, at the end of pregnancy. The woman was treated by acyclovir, before and after delivery, to limit materno-fetal consequences. In conclusion, after a suspicious contact, a serology assay has to be performed to know the immune status of the pregnant woman against varicella. In case of seronegativity, prevention against varicella infection should be carried out using specific immunoglobulins or valacyclovir. Clinical varicella does not require virology confirmation but requires immediate treatment with valacyclovir especially when it occurs during the first trimester.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30209013

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe a unique posterior fossa neuroimaging characteristic of prenatal PHACES syndrome (PS): unilateral cerebellar hypoplasia (UCH) and ipsilateral posterior fossa (PF) cyst communicating with an asymmetrically distended 4th ventricle. METHODS: The registries of seven prenatal diagnosis centers were searched for cases with PF findings and a postnatal diagnosis of PS. All records were evaluated for ultrasound and MRI findings and the postnatal outcome. PS was diagnosed after birth according to the consensus statement on diagnostic criteria for PS from 2009. The imaging findings of the PS fetuses were compared to a group of consecutive cases with fetal UCH, whose postnatal diagnosis was not PS. RESULTS: The PS group included 10 fetuses. All were referred due to UCH accompanied by an ipsilateral retrocerebellar cyst. All pregnancies resulted in livebirths, all newborns had a large segmental facial hemangioma. In all PS fetuses the affected cerebellar hemisphere was upwardly displaced by an ipsilateral PF cyst communicating with an asymmetrically distended 4th ventricle. An upwardly rotated and deviated vermis merged with the contralateral cerebellar peduncles forming an elongated oblique connection between the cerebellar hemispheres, resulting in a unique cerebellar shape, "a tilted telephone receiver sign" (TTRS), on the coronal plane through the upper vermis.The non-PS group included 11 fetuses with UCH: clastic cerebellar lesions (8) and a unilateral PF arachnoid cyst (3). The TTRS was not depicted in any of them (p < 0.0005). CONCLUSIONS: The cerebellar TTRS is a specific fetal imaging feature of PHACES syndrome enabling its prenatal diagnosis.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30174220

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the different prenatal imaging patterns related to primary aqueduct obstruction throughout pregnancy and their impact on prenatal counseling. METHOD: Retrospective review of consecutive prenatal cases of isolated aqueduct obstruction diagnosed over a seven-year period (2010-2016). Prenatal imaging findings, postnatal imaging, pathological data and postnatal outcome, were analyzed. RESULTS: Twelve cases were included. In four cases, termination of pregnancy was performed, due to early severe ventriculomegaly in three cases suggestive of complete aqueduct obstruction. In eight cases in which pregnancy was continued, three different evolving imaging patterns were demonstrated. In three cases the ventriculomegaly evolved rapidly during third trimester and were subsequently associated with abnormal white matter changes on fetal MRI. Theses cases led to premature delivery in two cases and early surgical care in all, with focal cystic parenchymal damage shown on follow-up MRI in two cases. Slowly evolving ventriculomegaly in three cases diagnosed in the second and the third trimester which required delayed surgery during the first year of life. Stable ventriculomegaly in two cases which did not require any surgical procedure. CONCLUSION: The diagnosis of primary aqueduct obstruction may be based on different prenatal imaging patterns that include either severe early ventriculomegaly, stable, slowly or rapidly evolving ventriculomegaly.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30143392

RESUMO

With advances in fetal imaging, prenatal diagnosis of posterior fossa anomalies has been greatly improved. Based on the anatomical approach proposed by Guibaud and Desportes in 2006, the main anomalies depicted according to the algorithm includes: (1) increased "fluid-filled" space of the posterior fossa, (2) abnormal biometry of the cerebellum, and (3) abnormal cerebellar anatomy. In this review, the spectrum of PF anomalies is covered in an attempt to update this approach in the light of both our experience, more than a decade since this algorithm was published, and the latest data in the literature.

14.
Nature ; 558(7711): 540-546, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29899452

RESUMO

CLOVES syndrome (congenital lipomatous overgrowth, vascular malformations, epidermal naevi, scoliosis/skeletal and spinal syndrome) is a genetic disorder that results from somatic, mosaic gain-of-function mutations of the PIK3CA gene, and belongs to the spectrum of PIK3CA-related overgrowth syndromes (PROS). This rare condition has no specific treatment and a poor survival rate. Here, we describe a postnatal mouse model of PROS/CLOVES that partially recapitulates the human disease, and demonstrate the efficacy of BYL719, an inhibitor of PIK3CA, in preventing and improving organ dysfunction. On the basis of these results, we used BYL719 to treat nineteen patients with PROS. The drug improved the disease symptoms in all patients. Previously intractable vascular tumours became smaller, congestive heart failure was improved, hemihypertrophy was reduced, and scoliosis was attenuated. The treatment was not associated with any substantial side effects. In conclusion, this study provides the first direct evidence supporting PIK3CA inhibition as a promising therapeutic strategy in patients with PROS.

15.
Trials ; 19(1): 340, 2018 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29945674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Slow-flow superficial vascular malformations (VMs) are rare congenital anomalies that can be responsible for pain and functional impairment. Currently, we have no guidelines for their management, which can involve physical bandages, sclerotherapy, surgery, anti-inflammatory or anti-coagulation drugs or no treatment. The natural history is progressive and worsening. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine kinase that acts as a master switch in cell proliferation, apoptosis, metabolism and angio/lymphangiogenesis. Sirolimus directly inhibits the mTOR pathway, thereby inhibiting cell proliferation and angio/lymphangiogenesis. Case reports and series have reported successful use of sirolimus in children with different types of vascular anomalies, with heterogeneous outcomes. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this trial is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of sirolimus in children with complicated superficial slow-flow VMs. METHODS/DESIGN: This French multicenter randomized observational-phase, phase 2 trial aims to include 50 pediatric patients 6 to 18 years old who have slow-flow (lymphatic, venous or lymphatico-venous) voluminous complicated superficial VM. Patients will be followed up for 12 months. All patients will start with an observational period (no treatment). Then at a time randomly selected between month 4 and month 8, they will switch to the experimental period (switch time), when they will receive sirolimus until month 12. Each child will undergo MRI 3 times: at baseline, at the switch time, and at month 12. For both periods (observational and treatment), we will calculate the relative change in volume of the VM divided by the study period duration. This relative change weighted by the study period duration will constitute the primary endpoint. VM will be measured by MRI images, which will be centralized and interpreted by the same radiologist who will be blinded to the study period. Hence, each patient will be his/her own control. Secondary outcomes will include assessment of safety and efficacy by viewing standardized digital photographs and according to the physician, the patient or proxy; impact on quality of life; and evolution of biological makers (coagulation factors, vascular endothelial growth factor, tissue factor). DISCUSSION: The main benefit of the study will be to resolve uncertainty concerning the efficacy of sirolimus in reducing the volume of VMs and limiting related complications and the safety of the drug in children with slow-flow VMs. This trial design is interesting in these rare conditions because all included patients will have the opportunity to receive the drug and the physician can maintain it after the end of the protocol if is found efficient (which would not be the case in a classical cross-over study). TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02509468 , first received: 28 July 2015. EU Clinical Trials Register EudraCT Number: 2015-001096-43.

16.
Pharmacol Res Perspect ; 6(3): e00399, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29736244

RESUMO

Propranolol has become the first choice therapy for complicated Infantile Hemangiomas (IH). The pharmacokinetics of propranolol were evaluated after repeated oral administration of a new pediatric solution of propranolol at 3 mg kg-1 day-1 given twice daily (BID) in infants (77-243 days) with IH. A population model was built to describe the pharmacokinetics of propranolol in infants and to simulate different dosing regimens. One hundred and sixty-seven plasma concentrations from 22 infants were used in the population analysis. Weight effect was tested on apparent clearance and volume of distribution. Monte-Carlo simulations were performed for 4 dosing regimens: BID dosing with irregular or strict 12-hour intervals and 2 different 3 time daily dosing (TID) regimens. The best model was a one-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination rates. The weight affected the clearance but not the volume. Typical oral clearance was estimated at 3.06 L hour-1 kg-1 (95% CI: 1.14-8.61 L hour-1 kg-1), close to adult clearance data. When regular BID dosing was compared to TID or irregular BID regimens, simulated median Cmin and Cmax were <20% different. To conclude, a model using a weight allometric function on clearance was established and confirmed that the dose in mg/kg should be used without adaptation by range of age in treatment of complicated IH. The simulations support the use of a BID dosing preferably to a TID dosing thanks to close Cmin and Cmax at steady state between both regimen and showed the possibility of irregular BID dosing, allowing early administration in the evening when needed.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29786163

RESUMO

We report a case of misinterpretation of decreased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) on diffusion-weighted fetal MR, interpreted as a vascular clastic lesion of the posterior fossa, which turned to be caused by an embryonic hypercellular tumour. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

18.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(5): 995-1007, 2018 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29656858

RESUMO

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEEs) represent a large clinical and genetic heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental diseases. The identification of pathogenic genetic variants in DEEs remains crucial for deciphering this complex group and for accurately caring for affected individuals (clinical diagnosis, genetic counseling, impacting medical, precision therapy, clinical trials, etc.). Whole-exome sequencing and intensive data sharing identified a recurrent de novo PACS2 heterozygous missense variant in 14 unrelated individuals. Their phenotype was characterized by epilepsy, global developmental delay with or without autism, common cerebellar dysgenesis, and facial dysmorphism. Mixed focal and generalized epilepsy occurred in the neonatal period, controlled with difficulty in the first year, but many improved in early childhood. PACS2 is an important PACS1 paralog and encodes a multifunctional sorting protein involved in nuclear gene expression and pathway traffic regulation. Both proteins harbor cargo(furin)-binding regions (FBRs) that bind cargo proteins, sorting adaptors, and cellular kinase. Compared to the defined PACS1 recurrent variant series, individuals with PACS2 variant have more consistently neonatal/early-infantile-onset epilepsy that can be challenging to control. Cerebellar abnormalities may be similar but PACS2 individuals exhibit a pattern of clear dysgenesis ranging from mild to severe. Functional studies demonstrated that the PACS2 recurrent variant reduces the ability of the predicted autoregulatory domain to modulate the interaction between the PACS2 FBR and client proteins, which may disturb cellular function. These findings support the causality of this recurrent de novo PACS2 heterozygous missense in DEEs with facial dysmorphim and cerebellar dysgenesis.

19.
J Med Genet ; 55(6): 359-371, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29618507

RESUMO

The Xq28 duplication involving the MECP2 gene (MECP2 duplication) has been mainly described in male patients with severe developmental delay (DD) associated with spasticity, stereotypic movements and recurrent infections. Nevertheless, only a few series have been published. We aimed to better describe the phenotype of this condition, with a focus on morphological and neurological features. Through a national collaborative study, we report a large French series of 59 affected males with interstitial MECP2 duplication. Most of the patients (93%) shared similar facial features, which evolved with age (midface hypoplasia, narrow and prominent nasal bridge, thick lower lip, large prominent ears), thick hair, livedo of the limbs, tapered fingers, small feet and vasomotor troubles. Early hypotonia and global DD were constant, with 21% of patients unable to walk. In patients able to stand, lower limbs weakness and spasticity led to a singular standing habitus: flexion of the knees, broad-based stance with pseudo-ataxic gait. Scoliosis was frequent (53%), such as divergent strabismus (76%) and hypermetropia (54%), stereotypic movements (89%), without obvious social withdrawal and decreased pain sensitivity (78%). Most of the patients did not develop expressive language, 35% saying few words. Epilepsy was frequent (59%), with a mean onset around 7.4 years of age, and often (62%) drug-resistant. Other medical issues were frequent: constipation (78%), and recurrent infections (89%), mainly lung. We delineate the clinical phenotype of MECP2 duplication syndrome in a large series of 59 males. Pulmonary hypertension appeared as a cause of early death in these patients, advocating its screening early in life.

20.
Eur J Pediatr ; 177(9): 1395-1398, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29520504

RESUMO

Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome (BRBNS) is a rare congenital vascular disease associated with important morbidity and non-insignificant risk of mortality in cases of severe gastrointestinal or neurological involvement. Early diagnosis in the neonatal period can be difficult as very often skin lesions appear progressively during childhood having no correlation with gastrointestinal lesion development. The appearance of one large venous malformation (VM) in the neonatal period has suggested a characteristic finding of this syndrome. The objective of the study was to identify a specific clinical sign in the congenital venous malformations (VMs) of the BRBNS to distinguish them from the conventional VMs. Clinical histories of all patients diagnosed with BRBNS were reviewed, including those who presented a large VM at birth. Clinical characteristics of congenital VM associated with BRBNS were recorded. Five patients with BRBNS were found to have a large VM since birth. All of them presented a fern-shaped patch over the surface of the VM. CONCLUSION: The finding of this macroscopic sign in the evaluation of the newborn with a VM could be considered as a guiding syndromic herald which should raise suspicion for BRBNS and allow for more accurate evaluation and surveillance for complications. What is Known: • BRBNS is a rare vascular disease associated with important morbidity and non-insignificant risk of mortality in cases of severe gastrointestinal or neurological involvement. • Early diagnosis in the neonatal period can be difficult as very often skin lesions appear progressively during childhood having no correlation with gastrointestinal lesion development. What is New: • Recognition of a fern-shaped patch in neonates with a VM should raise suspicion for BRBNS and allow for more accurate evaluation and surveillance for complications.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/diagnóstico , Hemangioma/diagnóstico , Nevo Azul/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Hemangioma/complicações , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino
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