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2.
Semin Immunol ; 46: 101346, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734128

RESUMO

Airway remodeling is accepted to be a determining component within the natural history of asthma. It is a phenomenon characterized by changes in the airways structures that marches in parallel with and can be influenced by airway inflammation, floating at the interface between both natural and adaptive immunity and physical and mechanical cells behavior. In this review we aimed to highlight the comprehensive, yet not exhaustive, evidences of how immune cells induce, regulate and adapt to the recognized markers of airway remodeling. Mucous cell hyperplasia, epithelial dysfunction and mesenchymal transition, extracellular matrix protein synthesis and restructuration, fibroblast to myofibroblast transition, airway smooth muscle proliferation, bioactive and contractile properties, and vascular remodeling encompass complex physiopathological mechanisms that can be induced, suppressed or regulated by different cellular and molecular pathways. Growth factors, cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules expressed or derived either from the immune network of cells infiltrating the asthmatic airways and involving T helper lymphocytes, immune lymphoid cells, dendritic cells, eosinophils, neutrophils, mast cells or by the structural components such as epithelial cells, fibroblasts, myocytes, airway smooth muscle cells concur with protein cellular matrix component and metalloproteases in modifying the airway structure in a detrimental way. The consequences in lung function decline, fixed airway obstruction and clinical severity of the disease suggest the possibility of identify among the immune molecular pathway of remodeling some biological parameters or signal pathway to be either a good tracer for monitoring the disease evolution or a target for hypothetical phenotypes and endotypes. In the era of personalized medicine, a biomarker of remodeling might predict a response to small-molecule inhibitors or biologicals potentially targeting a fundamental aspect of asthma pathogenesis that impacts on the low responsiveness to airway inflammation directed treatments.

3.
Pulm Pharmacol Ther ; 58: 101836, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473366

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe asthma is a disease with a heavy socio-economic burden and a relevant impact on the life of patients. Mepolizumab (MEP) was recently introduced in practice. The previous data were favourable as efficacy and safety are concerned. Nowadays, we can report the clinical data after more than one year of use of MEP in the real-life setting. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of MEP in a real life framework, mainly concerning asthma exacerbations, steroid dependence, effects on respiratory function and adverse events. METHODS: This retrospective analysis was performed on 138 patients, treated with MEP for at least 12 months, and referred to eleven severe asthma clinics in Italy. All patients met the criteria for severe uncontrolled asthma according to ATS/ERS guidelines and prescribing MEP conditions according to the Italian Drug Agency (AIFA). RESULTS: We could observe 138 patients (78 female, age 58 ±â€¯10 years). The average age of onset of asthma was 34 ±â€¯16 years. The blood eosinophil count decreased from 822 ±â€¯491/µL at baseline to 117 ±â€¯96/µL (p < .0001) after 12 months of therapy. Exacerbations decreased from 3.8/year to 0.7/year (-81%; p < .0001). Steroid-dependent patients before MEP (80%) with a daily dose of 10.1 ±â€¯9.4 mg prednisone decrease at 28% after 12 months with a mean of 2.0 ±â€¯4.2 mg/day (p < .0001). The occurrence of adverse events was overall low. CONCLUSIONS & CLINICAL RELEVANCE: In this real-life setting, MEP confirmed its efficacy and safety profile, already shown in clinical trials. This was apparent concerning exacerbation rate, systemic steroids intake and safety.

4.
ACS Omega ; 4(6): 11103-11111, 2019 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31460208

RESUMO

The long-term interaction between Cu-based alloys and environmental species gives rise to the formation of different and sometimes unusual compounds (i.e., the patina) with distinctive chemical and structural features as a function of the peculiar characteristics of the context. In this paper, we describe some representative case studies concerning degraded bronze Roman valuable or common use objects, and we show that an attentive study at a microscale level, as for forensic analysis, allows one to understand the chemical processes that underlie the formation of the surface alteration products. The achieved information describe fragments of chemical life and disclose the complex chemical changes suffered by the artifacts, allowing one to write their chemical biography. This challenging approach expands the panorama of available information and demonstrates that it is possible to reconstruct the different modes through which the bronze surfaces and interfaces have interacted with environmental species, organic matter, and microorganisms, opening up a new possibility to describe complex environmental chemical stories, in certain cases interrelated.

6.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 167(2): 234-243, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30159883

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We conducted a systematic macroscopic and microscopic examination of occlusal and para-occlusal wear in a large dental sample (n = 3,014) from 217 individuals dated to the Early Bronze age site of Gricignano d'Aversa, Italy. We used macroscopic and microscopic techniques to document nondietary occlusal and para-occlusal wear and to analyze calculus inclusions in some of the teeth. In combining an analysis of the wear with the calculus inclusions we linked the specific wear to the likely fiber that was involved in producing it. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Teeth and their high resolution epoxy casts were analyzed through SEM and reflected light microscopes. Nineteen individuals (fifteen with activity induced dental modifications and four as a control sample) were examined for the presence of calculus inclusions. RESULTS: Activity induced dental modifications (AIDMs), notches, grooves and micro-striations, were found in the 62.2% of the adult females, in 21.2% of the adults of unknown sex and in a single male. We found the full spectrum of dental manipulations from very minor nonocclusal wear in some young individuals to severe attrition at the other extreme. The width of the striations and grooves, mostly on the upper incisors, suggests a craft activity involving fibers and thread production and manipulation. From the dental calculus of two females with grooves and striations, we extracted three fragments of fibers, identified as hemp (Cannabis, sp.). Previously from Gricignano woven hemp fibers were found on both surfaces of a metal blade associated with a male burial. DISCUSSION: This study found the co-occurrence of tooth AIDMs and the actual fibers preserved in the dental calculus. As more work is done analyzing dental calculus in a variety of humans, it is apparent that this biological material holds rich resources documenting non-dietary habits.


Assuntos
Cálculos Dentários , Desgaste dos Dentes , Adolescente , Adulto , Antropologia Física , Cannabis , Cemitérios , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cálculos Dentários/etnologia , Cálculos Dentários/história , Cálculos Dentários/patologia , Feminino , História Antiga , Humanos , Itália/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Têxteis/história , Dente/patologia , Desgaste dos Dentes/etnologia , Desgaste dos Dentes/história , Desgaste dos Dentes/patologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab ; 41(7): 735-40, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27218140

RESUMO

Exercise-induced dyspnea is common among adolescents and young adults and often originates from exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). Sometimes, dyspnea corresponds to exercise-induced laryngospasm (EILO), which is a paradoxical decrease in supraglottic/glottic area. Vitamin D deficiency, which occurs frequently at northern latitudes, might favor laryngospasm by impairing calcium transport and slowing striate muscle relaxation. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether vitamin D status has an influence on bronchial and laryngeal responses to exercise in young, healthy athletes. EIB and EILO were investigated during winter in 37 healthy competitive rowers (24 males; age range 13-25 years), using the eucapnic voluntary hyperventilation test (EVH). EIB was diagnosed when forced expiratory volume in the first second decreased by 10%, EILO when maximum mid-inspiratory flow (MIF50) decreased by 20%. Most athletes (86.5%) had vitamin D deficiency (below 30 ng/mL), 29 mild-moderate (78.4%) and 3 severe (8.1%). EVH showed EIB in 10 subjects (27%), EILO in 16 (43.2%), and combined EIB and EILO in 6 (16.2%). Athletes with EILO had lower vitamin D (19.1 ng/mL vs. 27.0 ng/mL, p < 0.001) and higher parathyroid hormone (30.5 pg/mL vs. 19.2 pg/mL, p = 0.006) levels. The degree of laryngoconstriction (post-EVH MIF50 as a percentage of pre-EVH MIF50) was related directly with vitamin D levels (r = 0.51; p = 0.001) and inversely with parathyroid hormone levels (r = -0.53; p = 0.001). We conclude that vitamin D deficiency is common during winter in young athletes living above the 40th parallel north and favors laryngospasm during exercise, probably by disturbing calcium homeostasis. This effect may negatively influence athletic performance.


Assuntos
Exercício , Laringismo/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Atletas , Desempenho Atlético , Broncopatias/sangue , Broncopatias/etiologia , Cálcio/sangue , Constrição Patológica/sangue , Constrição Patológica/etiologia , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Homeostase , Humanos , Hiperventilação/sangue , Laringismo/etiologia , Masculino , Hormônio Paratireóideo/sangue , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Asthma ; 52(9): 931-4, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26291138

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Increasing asthma incidence may be due to an overall increase in asthma awareness by physicians, potentially resulting in overdiagnosis. One of the unique features of asthma is bronchial hyperresponsiveness, which can be assessed by methacholine bronchial challenge (MBC). Overdiagnosis may result in over- or mistreatment. The aims of this study were to describe the prevalence of the over-/misdiagnosis of asthma and the use of anti-asthmatic drugs in patients with asthma-like symptoms who had not yet undergone a respiratory function assessment to confirm the diagnosis of asthma. METHODS: This was a retrospective study analyzing all MBCs performed by our Outpatient Allergy Clinic in a two-year period to confirm/exclude the diagnosis of asthma in patients referred by general practitioners and complaining of asthma-like symptoms. Anti-asthmatic medications used by the patients until the MBC date were recorded. RESULTS: 43.8% of the reviewed MBCs were positive and 37.4% of the patients with a positive MBC were previously taking anti-asthmatic drugs (568.8 ± 76.4 mcg mean beclomethasone equivalents), compared to 51.2% of those patients with a negative MBC (464.8 ± 57.8 mcg). No differences were found in the daily doses of inhaled corticosteroids or other anti-asthmatic drugs, or in the duration of treatment before the assessment of bronchial hyperresponsiveness. CONCLUSIONS: A sizeable percentage of subjects who reported physician-diagnosed asthma had a negative MBC. Nevertheless, a greater proportion of negative MBC patients were taking anti-asthmatic drugs compared to those with a confirmed diagnosis of asthma, illustrating that the overdiagnosis of asthma may lead to over- and mistreatment of respiratory symptoms.


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico , Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Erros de Diagnóstico/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Antiasmáticos/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Testes de Função Respiratória , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Chem Cent J ; 9: 15, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25866557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One of the main concerns for archaeo-metallurgists and archaeologists is to determine to what extent ancient craftsmen understood the effect of metal alloy composition and were able to control it in order to produce objects with the most suitable features. This problem can be investigated by combining compositional analyses of a high number of ancient artefacts with correlation analyses of the objects' age, production site, destination of usage etc. - and thus chemometric data treatment is carried out. In this study, multivariate analyses were performed on a matrix composed of elemental compositional data from 134 archaeological bronze objects, obtained by XRF analyses. Analysed objects have been dated back from the Eneolithic Period to the end of the Bronze Age including the early Iron Age and were excavated in Central Italy (mainly Abruzzo Region). RESULTS: Chemometric analysis was performed attempting to visualise clouds of objects through PCA. In parallel and independently, object grouping was attempted using several different approaches, based on object characteristics (e.g. shape, weight, type of use - cutting or hitting and age) following indications given by archaeologists (or derived from the archaeological context). Furthermore, case-tailored data pretreatment (logratio-centred scaling) was used, but no homogeneous groups could be identified. CONCLUSIONS: By using chemometric data analysis, homogeneous groups of objects could not be detected, meaning that compositional data of alloys is not correlated with the considered objects' characteristics. This favours the conclusion that - without discussing the ascertained ability of ancient foundry-men - they had also already discovered the convenience of recycling broken objects thus producing a more or less similar bronze alloy each time, depending on materials' availability; necessary mechanical characteristics could then be obtained by post processing. Graphical AbstractScores PCA plot in 3D space with 3 different bronze objects.

11.
Clin Immunol ; 152(1-2): 152-63, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24632064

RESUMO

In eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) clonally expanded T cells might concur in granuloma formation and vascular injury. The TCR ß-variable (BV) chain repertoire and third complementarity determining region (CDR3) of peripheral CD4+ and CD8+ cells in EGPA patients and age-matched controls and the expression of cytokines and chemokine receptors were investigated. The CD8+ lymphocytes of EGPA patients showed an increased frequency of BV expansions with a skewed profile of BV CDR3 lengths, increased CCR5 and CXCR3 expression and increased INFγ and TNFα production. In two patients, the TCR CDR3 cDNA sequences of the expanded BV family were identified. The CD4+ lymphocytes of EGPA patients revealed a higher expression of CRTH2 and increased production of IL-5. In conclusion, CD4+ T cells display a Th2 profile and CD8+ T cells are clonally expanded in EGPA and have a proinflammatory phenotype, suggesting their pathogenic role in vasculitic damage.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Síndrome de Churg-Strauss/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores , Células Cultivadas , Síndrome de Churg-Strauss/sangue , Regiões Determinantes de Complementaridade , Feminino , Granuloma/imunologia , Humanos , Switching de Imunoglobulina/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Interferon gama/biossíntese , Interleucina-5/biossíntese , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/genética , Receptores CCR5/biossíntese , Receptores CXCR3/biossíntese , Receptores Imunológicos/biossíntese , Receptores de Prostaglandina/biossíntese , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/biossíntese
12.
Acc Chem Res ; 46(11): 2365-75, 2013 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23829823

RESUMO

Fire gilding and silvering are age-old mercury-based processes used to coat thesurface of less precious substrates with thin layers of gold or silver. In ancient times, these methods were used to produce and decorate different types of artefacts, such as jewels, statues, amulets, and commonly-used objects. Gilders performed these processes not only to decorate objects but also to simulate the appearance of gold or silver, sometimes fraudulently. From a technological point of view, the aim of these workmen over 2000 years ago was to make the precious metal coatings as thin and adherent as possible. This was in order to save expensive metals and to improve the resistance to the wear caused by continued use and circulation. Without knowledge about the chemical-physical processes, the ancient crafts-men systematically manipulated these metals to create functional and decorative artistic objects. The mercury-based methods were also fraudulently used in ancient times to produce objects such as jewels and coins that looked like they were made of silver or gold but actually had a less precious core. These coins were minted by counterfeiters but also by the official issuing authorities. The latter was probably because of a lack of precious metals, reflecting periods of severe economic conditions. In this Account, we discuss some representative cases of gold- and silver-coatedobjects, focusing on unique and valuable Roman and Dark Ages period works of art, such as the St. Ambrogio's altar (825 AD), and commonly used objects. We carried out the investigations using surface analytical methods, such as selected area X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy combined with energy-dispersive spectroscopy. We used these methods to investigate the surface and subsurface chemical features of these important examples of art and technology, interpreting some aspects of the manufacturing methods and of disclosing degradation agents and mechanisms. These findings may contribute to cultural heritage preservation, thus extending the applicability of the surface analytical techniques.

13.
J Breath Res ; 7(2): 026009, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23665726

RESUMO

Asthma control, evaluated by symptoms, exacerbations rate and lung function may be greatly influenced by comorbidities, particularly chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Measurement of nasal nitric oxide (nNO) is a simple way to assess the severity of CRS. We aimed to analyze the relationship between asthma control and nasal NO. All patients with moderate-to-severe asthma on regular follow-up at our Outpatients' Clinic between November 2009 and April 2010 were included into the study. All patients were evaluated for asthma control by asthma control questionnaire (ACQ) and comorbidities (rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis with (CRSwNP) or without nasal polyps, obesity). Exhaled nitric oxide and nNO were obtained in all patients. Eighty-two patients were enrolled (mean age: 48 years, range: 21-80; 42 females). According to ACQ, 53 patients (64.6%) reported controlled asthma. Patients with uncontrolled asthma had lower nNO and higher prevalence of CRSwNP, with a significant correlation between nNO and ACQ. nNO is a biomarker negatively related to asthma control. As low nNO values were associated to CRSwNP, our results indicate that asthma control is highly influenced by this comorbidity.


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico , Asma/diagnóstico , Cavidade Nasal/química , Óxido Nítrico/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/fisiopatologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Testes Respiratórios/métodos , Expiração , Feminino , Seguimentos , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 33(5): 411-5, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22762741

RESUMO

Functional imbalance in Th1/Th2 cell response toward allergens is a recognized hallmark of allergic patients and a major role of dendritic cells (DCs) in redirecting T-cell phenotypes after specific immunotherapy has been suggested. This study investigates the proliferative and cytokine responses of T cells cocultured with monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs) after allergen stimulation in birch-allergic patients compared with controls and investigates whether sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) could change the DC-driven immune response. T cells were stimulated with the major birch pollen allergen (nBet v1) and MoDCs from eight birch-allergic patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis and eight nonallergic controls. Proliferation and cytokine production were measured before and after one course of SLIT with birch allergoid. Significantly lower levels of proinflammatory (IL-1beta, p = 0.027; IL-6, p = 0.030; TNF-alpha, p = 0.019) and Th1 (interferon gamma, p = 0.032; IL-12, p = 0.05) cytokines were measured in supernatants of T cells and MoDCs cultures from allergic patients compared with nonallergic controls. After SLIT, significant increase in IL-12 (p = 0.039), IL-1beta (p = 0.040), IL-6 (p = 0.041), TNF-α (p = 0.048), and IL-10 (p = 0.048) and significant decrease in IL-13 (p = 0.001) were observed. MoDCs/T-cell cocultures, pulsed with the specific allergen, produced lower quantities of proinflammatory and Th1 cytokines in allergic patients compared with healthy subjects, suggesting an allergen-specific impairment of natural immunity and Th1 immune response. A single course of SLIT was able to enhance allergen-specific innate immunity and to modify lymphocyte response, promoting Th1 and T-cell regulatory activity.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/imunologia , Betula/imunologia , Dessensibilização Imunológica/métodos , Imunidade Inata , Linfócitos/imunologia , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/imunologia , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/terapia , Administração Sublingual , Adulto , Alérgenos/administração & dosagem , Antígenos de Plantas/imunologia , Técnicas de Cocultura , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/citologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/citologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/etiologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 30(1 Suppl 70): S57-61, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22640649

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) is a necrotising vasculitis of small vessels in which oligoclonally expanded TCR Vß CD8+ effector memory T cells populations (TEM) may be involved in vasculitic damage. The aim of this study was to assess the functional role of CD8+ T cells in CSS patients by flow cytometry analysis of membrane expression of cytotoxic markers NKG2D and CD107a. METHODS: Immunostaining of peripheral T cells and effector memory lymphocytes (TEM) from CSS patients and controls was performed by gating CD28 and CD45RA in the CD8+NKG2D+ and CD4+NKG2D+ populations. CD107a expression was evaluated in both whole CD8+ and CD4+ and the TEM cells by gating CD62 and CD45RA following polyclonal stimulation. RESULTS: NKG2D expression was shifted toward the CD8+CD28- fraction of T cells in CSS patients compared to healthy controls (56.1±25.8% versus 17.2±7.3%, respectively, p=0.002). CD8+Vß+ expanded T cells showed a significantly increased expression of NKG2D compared to the whole CD8+ T cell population (91.4±1.9% versus 79.7±3.8%, respectively, p=0.015). Moreover the CD8+ population from CSS upregulates CD107a on its surface upon polyclonal stimulation in a significantly higher proportion than healthy subjects (26.2±10.8% versus 8.2±2.9%, p=0.0031) and the majority CD8+ CD107+ cells from CSS patients showed a TEM phenotype compared to controls (64.8±4.9% vs. 19.8±2.9, respectively, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In CSS, CD8+ TEM lymphocytes show markers of cytotoxic activity, which suggests a role for these cells in vasculitic damage.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Síndrome de Churg-Strauss/imunologia , Memória Imunológica , Glicoproteínas de Membrana Associadas ao Lisossomo/análise , Subfamília K de Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/análise , Antígenos CD28/análise , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Selectina E/análise , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem/métodos , Itália , Antígenos Comuns de Leucócito/análise , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paris , Fenótipo , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/análise
16.
Chem Cent J ; 6 Suppl 2: S9, 2012 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22594444

RESUMO

Although it is well known that any material degrades faster when exposed to an aggressive environment as well as that "aggressive" cannot be univocally defined as depending also on the chemical-physical characteristics of material, few researches on the identification of the most significant parameters influencing the corrosion of metallic object are available.A series of ancient coins, coming from the archaeological excavation of Palazzo Valentini (Rome) were collected together with soils, both near and far from them, and then analysed using different analytical techniques looking for a correlation between the corrosion products covering the coins and the chemical-physical soil characteristics. The content of soluble salts in the water-bearing stratum and surfacing in the archaeological site, was also measured.The obtained results stress the influence of alkaline soils on formation of patina. Cerussite, probably due to the circulation of water in layers rich in marble and plaster fragments, was the main corrosion product identified by X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Copper, lead and vanadium were found in soil surrounding coins. By measuring conductivity, pH and soluble salts content of the washing solutions from both coins and soils, we could easily separate coins coming from different stratigraphic units of the site.Data were treated by cluster and multivariate analysis, revealing a correlation between part of the coins and the nearby soil samples.

17.
J Breath Res ; 6(2): 027104, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22549131

RESUMO

Exhaled nitric oxide (F(E)NO) represents the only exhaled biomarker that has reached clinical practice even in primary care settings, due to the non-invasiveness of its assessment and ease of repeat measurements, even in patients with severe airflow obstruction. While F(E)NO has been suggested as a readily determined biomarker that can aid in the diagnosis and management of asthma, its potential role in pathophysiology of non-pulmonary diseases is less clear and therefore remains to be established. The purpose of the present review is to highlight the current literature investigating the use of F(E)NO in the diagnosis and management of non-pulmonary diseases.


Assuntos
Doença da Altitude/diagnóstico , Testes Respiratórios/métodos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Digestório/diagnóstico , Óxido Nítrico/análise , Escleroderma Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Doença da Altitude/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doenças do Sistema Digestório/metabolismo , Expiração , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Escleroderma Sistêmico/metabolismo , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/metabolismo
18.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 51(5): 805-12, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22237046

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: PTPN22 is involved in T-cell activation and its R620W single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) has been shown to predispose to different autoimmune diseases. The aims of this study were to investigate the role of the PTPN22 R620W SNP in conferring susceptibility to the ANCA-associated vasculitides (AAVs), and to explore potential associations between the PTPN22 genotype and the disease manifestations. METHODS: PTPN22 R620W SNP was genotyped in a cohort of 344 AAV patients [143 with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's) (GPA), 102 with microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) and 99 with Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS)] and in 945 healthy controls. RESULTS: The frequency of the minor allele (620W) was significantly higher in GPA patients than in controls [P = 0.005, χ(2 )= 7.858, odds ratio (OR) = 1.91], while no statistically significant association was found with MPA or CSS. Among GPA patients, the 620W allele was particularly enriched in ANCA-positive patients as compared with controls (P = 0.00012, χ(2 )= 14.73, OR = 2.31); a particularly marked association was also found with ENT involvement (P = 0.0071, χ(2 )= 7.258, OR = 1.98), lung involvement (P = 0.0060, χ(2 )= 7.541, OR = 2.07) and skin manifestations of all kinds (P = 0.000047, χ(2 )= 16.567, OR = 3.73). CONCLUSION: The PTPN22 620W allele confers susceptibility to the development of GPA (but not of MPA or CSS), and particularly of its ANCA-positive subset.


Assuntos
Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 22/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 23(2 Suppl): 8-9, 2011 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21970905

RESUMO

The development of Orthopedics and Traumatology in the last 50 years have been characterized by the concurrence of several milestone events, such as the disappearance of polio and osteoarticular tuberculosis, the progress of some disciplines such as Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Diagnostic Imaging and technology development. As for other common diseases, also for osteoporosis the evolution of knowledge about pathophysiology and treatment represents a "must" to know for the orthopaedic surgeons.


Assuntos
Medicina de Emergência/história , Ortopedia/história , Osteoporose/diagnóstico , Osteoporose/história , História do Século XX , História Antiga , Humanos , Sociedades Médicas
20.
Clin Respir J ; 5(4): 219-26, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21801324

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Upper airway inflammation and narrowing are characteristics of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Inflammatory markers have been found to be increased in exhaled breath and induced sputum of patients with OSA. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate if the measurement of exhaled nitric oxide (F(ENO) ), as marker of airway inflammation, together with the forced mid-expiratory/mid-inspiratory airflow ratio (FEF(50) /FIF(50) ), as marker of upper airway narrowing, may help to predict OSA. METHODS: Two hundred one consecutive outpatients with suspected OSA were prospectively studied between January 2004 and December 2005. All patients underwent clinical examination, spirometry with measurement of FEF(50) /FIF(50) , maximum inspiratory pressure, arterial blood gas analysis, exhaled nitric oxide (F(ENO) ) and overnight polysomnography. Linear regression models were used to evaluate the effect of measured variables on the apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI). Models were cross-validated by bootstrapping. RESULTS: Most of the patients were obese and had severe OSA. FEF(50) /FIF(50) , F(ENO) and an interaction term between smoking and F(ENO) contributed significantly to the predictive model for AHI, in addition to age, neck circumference, body mass index and carboxyhaemoglobin saturation. A nomogram to predict AHI was obtained, which converted the effect of each covariate in the model to a 0-100 scale. The nomogram showed a good predictive ability for AHI values between 25 and 64. CONCLUSIONS: The measurement of F(ENO) and of FEF(50) /FIF(50) improves the ability to predict OSA and may be used to identify patients who require a sleep study.


Assuntos
Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Testes Respiratórios , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óxido Nítrico/análise , Nomogramas , Obesidade/complicações , Polissonografia , Ventilação Pulmonar , Fatores de Risco , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia , Espirometria , Adulto Jovem
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