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1.
Vet Ital ; 54(2): 175-180, 2018 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30019334

RESUMO

The present case study concerns a case of predation of 4 individuals of captive pink flamingo in Emilia Romagna Region, Northeastern Italy. The pink flamingo (Phoenicopterus roseus) is a species included in the Red List of Threatened Species established by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) which lists species in danger of extinction. During the Winter of 2013, 4 flamingos (2 in the Comacchio area, and 2 from Argenta and Codigoro oases - Ferrara province) were found dead some of them headless, with their bodies severely bitten. At first, a fox (Vulpes vulpes) was suspected to be the predator responsible for the killing and the birds were taken to the laboratory for further investigations. The investigations included: field observations, study of the predator behaviour, necropsy examinations, assessment of the intercanine distance, and genetic analysis on the predator's traces. The intercanine distance indicated that the predator could not have been a fox. The analysis of salivary DNA samples enabled us to establish that the predator was in fact a dog. This case highlights the importance of co-operation among the various branches of forensic sciences and the great usefulness of the roles filled by other veterinary forensic experts involved in solving crime.


Assuntos
Aves/lesões , Mordeduras e Picadas/patologia , Cães , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Animais , Ciências Forenses , Itália , Comportamento Predatório , Medicina Veterinária
2.
Ann Ist Super Sanita ; 52(2): 277-80, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27364404

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Salmonella is a ubiquitous pathogen that can infect host species, like wild birds, rodents, and/or arthropods, which may transmit infection to domestic animals and human population. AIM: In order to assess the related risk, a cross-sectional study was performed on 1114 carcasses of wild animals from a north-eastern area of the Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During post mortem examination, intestine samples were cultured. A statistical analysis demonstrated that there is no correlation between the presence of sub-clinically infected animals and greater human population density. In contrast, a significant correlation between the number of carcasses positive for Salmonella spp. and greater spatial density of pig, poultry, and cattle farms was observed (p < 0.01). RESULTS: The results of the present study show that wild animals with omnivorous feeding habits are particularly exposed to Salmonella colonization and, consequently, to spreading the organism. Regarding drug resistance, this study confirms the resistance to antimicrobials is increasing in commensal and environmental isolates.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Salmonelose Animal/epidemiologia , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Salmonella , Animais , Animais Domésticos/microbiologia , Aves , Bovinos , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Mamíferos , Densidade Demográfica , Prevalência , Suínos
3.
Infez Med ; 23(4): 374-89, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26700092

RESUMO

The retrospective analysis undertaken by our working group in the sphere of infectious diseases, with particular emphasis on nineteenth-century epidemics, regards influenza, which according to the scholar W.I. Beveridge, was defined as "one of the greatest enemies of man". The work is divided into three parts: influenza, its historical names and the characteristics of the recurrent epidemics from the sixteenth to the nineteenth century among the world's population. This part is followed by treatment and remedial action in the nineteenth century. The third, deals with death attributed to influenza and its complications observed in the city of Ferrara in the years when outbreaks occurred, affecting the majority of the populations: 1830-1833, 1836-1837, 1847-1848, 1857-1858, 1873-1875, 1889-1892, the latter known as the great pandemic.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana/história , Pandemias/história , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , História Medieval , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A , Itália , Mortalidade
4.
Tumori ; 101(3): 339-46, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25908043

RESUMO

AIM: This study evaluated the knowledge and attitudes of Italian mothers - whose daughters had been vaccinated in 2012 - towards primary (anti-HPV vaccination) and secondary (Pap test screening) cervical cancer prevention, as well as sources of information and mother-daughter communication on health issues. METHODS: The survey - part of a multicenter study carried out in 4 Italian cities (Ferrara, Rome, Cassino and Palermo) - was conducted through self-administered questionnaires. The first univariate analysis evaluated differences between mothers of under-18s and over-18s relative to knowledge and attitudes on HPV vaccination and Pap test. The second univariate analysis evaluated differences between the 2 groups of mothers and possible geographical variations regarding the sources of information on HPV and Pap test. RESULTS: The sample proved knowledgeable about the correlation between HPV and cervical cancer (>85%) but less aware of other HPV-related diseases. HPV vaccination should be administered before first sexual intercourse according to mothers of over-18s, and to 14- to 17-year-olds according to mothers of under-18s. Up to 88% of mothers of under-18s and 80% of mothers of over-18s declared that the vaccine should be given free of charge. More mothers of under-18s consulted a general practitioner (GP) or gynecologist before deciding to vaccinate their daughters. Mothers of under-18s received information on HPV vaccination mainly from GPs and gynecologists, while mothers of over-18s were informed through TV and books/journals. Over 80% of the sample declared satisfaction with the information received from their gynecologist during the Pap test. CONCLUSIONS: The findings provide useful information for the development of effective public health interventions that may help improve acceptance of HPV vaccination among mothers.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Vacinação , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Julgamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Teste de Papanicolaou , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Vacinação/psicologia
5.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 7(13): 7273-81, 2015 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25756304

RESUMO

An industrially feasible process for the fast mass-production of molded polymeric micro-patterned substrates is here presented. Microstructured polystyrene (PS) surfaces were obtained through micro injection molding (µIM) technique on directly patterned stamps realized with a new zirconia-based hybrid spin-on system able to withstand 300 cycles at 90 °C. The use of directly patterned stamps entails a great advantage on the overall manufacturing process as it allows a fast, flexible, and simple one-step process with respect to the use of milling, laser machining, electroforming techniques, or conventional lithographic processes for stamp fabrication. Among the different obtainable geometries, we focused our attention on PS replicas reporting 2, 3, and 4 µm diameter pillars with 8, 9, 10 µm center-to-center distance, respectively. This enabled us to study the effect of the substrate topography on human mesenchymal stem cells behavior without any osteogenic growth factors. Our data show that microtopography affected cell behavior. In particular, calcium deposition and osteocalcin expression enhanced as diameter and interpillar distance size increases, and the 4-10 surface was the most effective to induce osteogenic differentiation.


Assuntos
Regeneração Óssea/fisiologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Impressão Molecular/métodos , Osteoblastos/citologia , Poliestirenos/química , Impressão Tridimensional , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/fisiologia , Osteoblastos/fisiologia , Osteogênese/fisiologia , Propriedades de Superfície , Engenharia Tecidual/instrumentação , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Tecidos Suporte
6.
Biomed Res Int ; 2014: 685426, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25136610

RESUMO

To overcome the issues connected to the use of autologous vascular grafts and artificial materials for reconstruction of small diameter (<6 mm) blood vessels, this study aimed to develop acellular matrix- (AM-) based vascular grafts. Rat iliac arteries were decellularized by a detergent-enzymatic treatment, whereas endothelial cells (ECs) were obtained through enzymatic digestion of rat skin followed by immunomagnetic separation of CD31-positive cells. Sixteen female Lewis rats (8 weeks old) received only AM or previously in vitro reendothelialized AM as abdominal aorta interposition grafts (about 1 cm). The detergent-enzymatic treatment completely removed the cellular part of vessels and both MHC class I and class II antigens. One month after surgery, the luminal surface of implanted AMs was partially covered by ECs and several platelets adhered in the areas lacking cell coverage. Intimal hyperplasia, already detected after 1 month, increased at 3 months. On the contrary, all grafts composed by AM and ECs were completely covered at 1 month and their structure was similar to that of native vessels at 3 months. Taken together, our findings show that prostheses composed of AM preseeded with ECs could be a promising approach for the replacement of blood vessels.


Assuntos
Aorta Abdominal/transplante , Prótese Vascular , Vasos Sanguíneos/transplante , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares , Animais , Aorta Abdominal/patologia , Vasos Sanguíneos/patologia , Sistema Cardiovascular/patologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Endotélio Vascular/transplante , Feminino , Humanos , Ratos , Túnica Íntima/patologia , Túnica Íntima/transplante
7.
Ann Ist Super Sanita ; 50(2): 171-7, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24968917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about human papilloma virus (HPV) seroprevalence in the healthy Italian population. The aim of the study was to assess seroprevalence of antibodies against HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18 among girls and young women in Italy. METHODS: Sera were tested with a commercially available ELISA assay detecting specific IgG. RESULTS: Seroprevalence was 54.1% in girls between 11 to 18 years old and 8.2% in over 18s. Overall seropositivity in birth cohorts invited for free immunization reached 72.8% and was significantly higher than in other age subgroups. The highest levels of antibodies were detected in girls of 12 years old that should have just completed the vaccination schedule. CONCLUSION: A standardized seroepidemiological survey on HPV represents a useful tool for identifying groups at risk in which immunization is recommended, monitoring of vaccinated women, assessing whether booster vaccination is required.


Assuntos
Papillomavirus Humano 11 , Papillomavirus Humano 16 , Papillomavirus Humano 18 , Papillomavirus Humano 6 , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/análise , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/análise , Lactente , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Infez Med ; 22(2): 156-77, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24955806

RESUMO

Some areas of Northern Italy, especially Ferrara during the nineteenth century, represent privileged observatories regard to malaria, a disease that affected the poor, but did not spare the rich and powerful people. The so called Delta of the River Po, as well as the Maremma and other lowland areas in Italy, was particularly noted for its marshland environment (mosquito breeding grounds). Spared from Malaria because of the better hygienic conditions of the city that restricted the proliferation of anopheles, Ferrara represented an important study centre due to the presence of renowned physicians and scientists who exchanged knowledge and findings in the medical academies. Among these, Antonio Campana was very attentive to the latest scientific findings, and wrote about antimalarial remedies in his famous Ferrarese Pharmacopoeia. This paper analyses the main remedies listed in the various editions of Campana Pharmacopoeia since 1798 and particularly that of 1841, in the reports from the Accademia Medico Chirurgica di Ferrara and of Argenta physicians of the mid nineteenth century and in the Reports (1871 and 1876) from Alessandro Bennati, director of Arcispedale Santa Anna and concerned with hospital practice. Other printed documents referring to the town of Argenta are discussed.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/história , Arquivos/história , Malária/história , Animais , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Itália , Malária Vivax/história , Pinturas/história , Farmacopeias como Assunto/história , Plasmodium vivax
9.
Infez Med ; 21(3): 235-48, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24008859

RESUMO

Health interventions against smallpox during the two epidemics in the second half of the 19th century are outlined. The 1871 hospital health report and the medical report on smallpox patients treated at the hospital and poorhouse of Ferrara between January 1891 and January 1892, drawn up by Alessandro Bennati, provide both interesting data and insights into the treatments and remedies of the time. The treatment of this illness was - and indeed could be - nothing other than symptomatic, there being no real means to halt the spread of the disease. Rather, other remedies were found by alleviating pain and regaining energy during the various stages of the disease. A close relationship between vaccination and the incidence and gravity of the illness is underlined. When the practice of vaccination started to be widely employed at the end of the century, there were almost no cases of death due to smallpox. The pharmacopoeias of the time, Antonio Campana's Farmacopea ferrarese in particular, proved an essential guide in the analysis of each document.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/história , Vacina Antivariólica/história , Varíola/história , Vacinação/história , Livros/história , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , História do Século XIX , Hospitais/história , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Farmacopeias como Assunto/história , Saúde Pública/história , Varíola/mortalidade , Varíola/terapia
10.
Pharm Hist (Lond) ; 42(2): 26-32, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23045791

RESUMO

The therapeutic approaches used against scrofula in the 19th Century in Ferrara are discussed. In the manuscripts and treatises of the time treasured in the town's libraries, hygienic and dietetic rules and treatment of this illness were described. In particular, baths and mineral water spas (sulphurous, ferruginous and other mineral waters, such as a bromo-iodine-salt water) and the sea-bathing establishment were recommended. The remedies reported in Campana's Pharmacopoeia ferrarese and the efficacious treatments employed in St Anna Hospital are discussed. The Committee and its President, Marquis Giovanni Manfredini, decided to cure the scrofulous in bathing establishments.


Assuntos
Balneologia/história , Doença de Rei/história , Águas Minerais/história , Farmacopeias como Assunto/história , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Itália , Águas Minerais/uso terapêutico , Saúde Pública/história
11.
Infez Med ; 20(4): 300-12, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23299074

RESUMO

The authors carried out an observational study for the years 1867-1874 on the morbidity of children from Ferrara suffering from scrofula, sent to marine hospices for sea bathing treatment. A total of 490 cases (250 F, 240 M) were studied in relation to the following variables: age, sex, forms of scrofula, years and outcome. In particular, the present work describes the preliminary organizational steps planned to allow the seaside stay, the clinical features and the outcomes. Dissemination of information to the public and to benefactors had the specific aim to strengthen these benefits for those children affected by the sad and serious consequences of scrofula.


Assuntos
Hospitais para Doentes Terminais/história , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/história , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Itália , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/terapia
12.
Pharm Hist (Lond) ; 40(1): 2-9, 2010 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20503658

RESUMO

The authors have taken the Italian city of Ferrara as an example of the remedies against syphilis, commonly used worldwide in the 1800s. After having identified the terminologies used to diagnose syphilis, they evidence the legislative behaviours of the government authorities in 19th century in Italy and, in particular, the social and sanitary measures taken in Ferrara to limit the spread of the syphilis epidemic. Historical sources permitted description of the remedies employed in Ferrara from the beginning to the end of that century, not only to treat conditions linked directly to the malady itself, but also its complications and secondary pathologies. The pharmacopoeia written for the apothecaries of Ferrara by Antonio Campana, a famous Professor of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Botany, won a great reputation and distribution in the international medical world not only of the first half of the 1800s. His authoritative work was much appreciated in Italy and abroad.


Assuntos
Farmacopeias como Assunto/história , Sífilis/história , Regulamentação Governamental/história , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Itália , Saúde Pública/história , Trabalho Sexual/história , Trabalho Sexual/legislação & jurisprudência , Sífilis/tratamento farmacológico , Sífilis/prevenção & controle
13.
Pharm Hist (Lond) ; 40(4): 62-8, 2010 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21879568

RESUMO

The present work is a review of the remedies in use in Ferrara against tuberculosis in the 1800s. The work started from the discovery of accounts describing methods and remedies. These remedies were also in use world wide. Of particular interest is the work by Antonio Campana, a famous professor of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Botany in Ferrara, who wrote a pharmacopoeia which had several editions between 1797 and 1841. The Farmacopea Ferrarese was addressed to the apothecaries of Ferrara. Nevertheless, due to its great reputation it had an international distribution. It provided us with an exhaustive view about the medical field in Ferrara in the early 1800s. The remedies adopted in the city in the second half of the century were in line with those present abroad. The work was also supported by the discovery of statistical accounts of the Sant'Anna hospital from 1871. The manuscript written by Alessandro Bennati enabled elucidation of the methods used to treat tuberculosis in the second half of the century. Bennati's work is an historical document completed by the work of the physician Cesare Minerbi.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/história , Tuberculina/história , Tuberculose/história , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Itália , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Tuberculose/terapia
14.
Infez Med ; 17(2): 117-25, 2009 Jun.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19602927

RESUMO

In this article the authors highlight the behaviour of government authorities in the nineteenth century in Italy and especially in Ferrara to implement those measures deemed necessary to stem the spread of syphilis in epidemic form through the control of prostitution. Albeit discontinuously and until 1865, corrupted and infected women in Ferrara were assisted and treated by charitable institutions (Congregation of Charity, the Congregation of the Ladies of St. Vincent and the Sisters of Charity at the complex St. Mary of Consolation) since the Ferrara public hospital (Arcispedale S. Anna) could not accept or treat infected prostitutes for economic reasons and lack of beds. Subsequently, the hospital only treated prostitutes free of charge if they bore a certificate of poverty. The other infected prostitutes were sent to the sifilicomio in Modena. The authors also study mortality from syphilis in Ferrara from 1813 to 1899 in order to detect any significant differences according to age, sex and professional status and attempt to identify the stage of the disease (primary, secondary and tertiary), according to the terminology used by the doctors of that time.


Assuntos
Sífilis/história , Adolescente , Adulto , Instituições de Caridade/história , Feminino , História do Século XVI , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Saúde Pública/história , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Trabalho Sexual/história , Trabalho Sexual/legislação & jurisprudência , Problemas Sociais/história , Sífilis/classificação , Sífilis/mortalidade , Sífilis/prevenção & controle , Sífilis Congênita/epidemiologia , Sífilis Congênita/história , Terminologia como Assunto , Saúde da População Urbana/história
15.
Infez Med ; 15(1): 66-80, 2007 Mar.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17515679

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to analyse the mortality for smallpox and the methods used during the nineteenth-century to control epidemics. Most of the historical material was found in the Historical Archives of the Ferrara City Council. Over the whole period in question, there were 710 deaths in Ferrara (366 males and 344 females). The highest number was found in the years 1816, 1829, 1834, 1842, 1849, 1871 and 1891. Data analysis shows that most deaths occurred during the first half of the century. Subsequently, the phenomenon declined to almost zero. Males were more affected and nearly 70% of the deaths occurred under 5 years of age, 50%of which during the first year of life. At that time, the "guidelines" adopted were analogous to those currently followed when a new vaccination programme is started. The inspiring principles were the active and free supply of vaccine, universal vaccination, the informed consent of the population, the involvement of educators and also monetary rewards to the most industrious doctors in the practice of vaccination. In Ferrara vaccination began in 1801, but was only consistently implemented in 1812. By the end of the 19th century the number of persons vaccinated had increased from 3% to 7%. Vaccination initiatives assumed great importance among the population of Ferrara, in spite of initial resistance and suspicion of a practice which most people found incomprehensible.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/história , Varíola/história , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/história , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Administração em Saúde Pública/história , Reembolso de Incentivo/história , Varíola/mortalidade , Vacina Antivariólica/história , Vacinação/história , Vacinação/psicologia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 18(7): 617-21, 2003.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12952134

RESUMO

The historical report on the cholera epidemic of 1855, conserved in Ferrara City's archives allowed us to verify the probable relation between the environment and epidemic in a broad sense, using log-linear analysis and multiple logistic regression. Two thousand and thirty-three cases were analyzed and the quantitative/qualitative variables available from the report were analyzed in relationship with mortality and morbidity rates, considered as response variables. From the analysis of the quantitative variables, it emerges that the variables having a significant influence on the morbidity/mortality rates are the number of individuals and the average number of inhabitants per house. From the analysis of the qualitative variables, it emerges that all the descriptive variables of the state of the streets and houses express a strong association with mortality and morbidity. With the present analysis, data available--a detailed 'street by street' morbidity and mortality recording from cholera in 1855 in Ferrara--were analyzed with modern means and the overall picture that emerge is that in the better kept houses in the better parts of the town had less cholera morbidity and especially mortality.


Assuntos
Cólera/história , Surtos de Doenças/história , Saúde da População Urbana/história , Cólera/epidemiologia , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Métodos Epidemiológicos , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Densidade Demográfica , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Análise de Regressão , Características de Residência , Saneamento/história , Condições Sociais/história , Fatores Socioeconômicos
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