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1.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(3)2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801467

RESUMO

Prunus spinosa L. fruit (PSF) ethanol extract, showing a peculiar content of biologically active molecules (polyphenols), was investigated for its wound healing capacity, a typical feature that declines during aging and is negatively affected by the persistence of inflammation and oxidative stress. To this aim, first, PSF anti-inflammatory properties were tested on young and senescent LPS-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). As a result, PSF treatment increased miR-146a and decreased IRAK-1 and IL-6 expression levels. In addition, the PSF antioxidant effect was validated in vitro with DPPH assay and confirmed by in vivo treatments in C. elegans. Our findings showed beneficial effects on worms' lifespan and healthspan with positive outcomes on longevity markers (i.e., miR-124 upregulation and miR-39 downregulation) as well. The PSF effect on wound healing was tested using the same cells and experimental conditions employed to investigate PSF antioxidant and anti-inflammaging ability. PSF treatment resulted in a significant improvement of wound healing closure (ca. 70%), through cell migration, both in young and older cells, associated to a downregulation of inflammation markers. In conclusion, PSF extract antioxidant and anti-inflammaging abilities result in improved wound healing capacity, thus suggesting that PSF might be helpful to improve the quality of life for its beneficial health effects.

2.
Nanomedicine (Lond) ; 15(8): 739-753, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207374

RESUMO

Aim: Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is highly promising for biomedical applications, but optimal tracers for MPI, namely superparamagnetic iron oxide-based contrast agents, are still lacking. Materials & methods: The encapsulation of commercially available nanoparticles, specifically synomag®-D and perimag®, into human red blood cells (RBCs) was performed by a hypotonic dialysis and isotonic resealing procedure. The amounts of superparamagnetic iron oxide incorporated into RBCs were determined by Fe quantification using nuclear magnetic resonance and magnetic particle spectroscopy. Results: Perimag-COOH nanoparticles were identified as the best nanomaterial for encapsulation in RBCs. Perimag-COOH-loaded RBCs proved to be viable cells showing a good magnetic particle spectroscopy performance, while the magnetic signal of synomag-D-COOH-loaded RBCs dropped sharply. Conclusion: Perimag-COOH-loaded RBCs could be a potential tool for MPI diagnostic applications.

3.
PeerJ ; 7: e6789, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31024778

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to test and analyse the bioeffects of Prunus spinosa L. (Rosacaee) fruit ethanol extract on Trichoplax adhaerens Schulze, 1883 (Placozoa) laboratory cultures which-for the first time-were employed as in vivo biological model to assess the bioactivity of a natural extract. The ethanol extract of P. spinosa was administrated during a 46 day experimental period; ultrastructural (by optical, confocal, TEM and SEM microscopy) and morphometric analyses indicated that treated Trichoplax adhaerens showed significant differences in viability, reproductive modalities, body shape and colour with respect to the control group. Finally, P. spinosa bioactive compounds seem to exert profound protective effects on T. adhaerens reproduction and phenotype. Our results may support additional investigations related to other bioactive compounds properties useful for nutraceutical preparations to be used as food supplements.

4.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 190: 234-241, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30991093

RESUMO

Oxysterols, oxidized derivatives of cholesterol found in LDL and atherosclerotic plaques, trigger several biological responses involved in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Endothelial dysfunction, which occurs when vascular homeostasis is altered, plays a key role in the pathogenesis of several metabolic diseases. The contribution of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress to endothelial disfunction is a relatively recent area of investigation. There is a well-established link between LDL oxidation and ER stress but the role played by specific products of lipid oxidation into this interaction is still to be defined. The present study shows that secosterol-B (SEC-B), 3ß-hydroxy-5ß-hydroxy-B-norcholestane-6ßcarboxaldehyde, a cholesterol autoxidation product recently identified in the atherosclerotic plaque, is able to induce ER stress in HUVEC cells, as revealed by significant expansion and change of structure. At low doses, i.e. 1 and 5 µM, cells try to cope with this stress by activating autophagy and the ubiquitin proteasome system in the attempt to restore ER function. However, at higher doses, i.e. 20 µM, cell apoptosis occurs in a pathway that involves early phosphorylation of eIF2α and NF-kB activation, suggesting that the adaptive program fails and the cell activates the apoptotic program. These findings provide additional insight about the role of oxysterols in endothelial dysfunction and its potential involvement in atherosclerotic pathophysiology.


Assuntos
Colesterol/análogos & derivados , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Apoptose , Autofagia , Colesterol/metabolismo , Colesterol/farmacologia , Retículo Endoplasmático/ultraestrutura , Células Endoteliais/ultraestrutura , Fator de Iniciação 2 em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo
5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 2067, 2019 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30765851

RESUMO

The order Macrodasyida (Gastrotricha) includes over 350 marine species, and only 3 freshwater species (Marinellina flagellata, Redudasys fornerise, R. neotemperatus). Herein we describe a new freshwater species of Macrodasyida, Redudasys brasiliensis sp. nov., from Brazil through an integrative taxonomic approach. The external morphology and internal anatomy were investigated using differential interference contrast microscopy, confocal microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The systematization of the new taxon was inferred by nuclear (18S and 28S) and mitochondrial (COI) genes, and its intra-order relationships were assessed using data from most of available macrodasyids. Phylogenetic analyses yielded congruent trees, in which the new taxon is nested within the family Redudasyidae, but it was genetically distinct from the other species of the genus Redudasys. The new species shares the gross morphology and reproductive traits with other Redudasyidae and the presence of only 1 anterior adhesive tube per side with Redudasys neotemperatus, but it has a specific pattern of ventral ciliation and muscle organization. Results support the hypothesis that dispersion into fresh water habitats by Macrodasyida and Chaetonotida taxa occurred independently and that within Macrodasyida a single lineage invaded the freshwater environment only once. Furthermore, the Neotropical region seems to be peculiar for the evolution of the freshwater macrodasyid clade.


Assuntos
Helmintos/classificação , Helmintos/genética , Animais , Brasil , Ecossistema , Evolução Molecular , Água Doce , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão/métodos , Microscopia de Interferência/métodos , Mitocôndrias/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética
6.
Zootaxa ; 4258(4): 375-387, 2017 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28609913

RESUMO

Five species of suctorian ciliates belonging to four different genera attached to meiofaunal organisms of Maldivian archipelago (Suvadiva Atoll) were documented. Three rare species (Acineta sp., Thecacineta urceolata Liao & Dovgal, 2015 and Limnoricus ceter Jankowski, 1981) and one common suctorian ciliate Thecacineta calix (Schröder, 1907) are re-described from nematodes (Croconema cinctum Cobb, 1920, Desmodorella tenuispiculum Allgén, 1928 and Desmodora sp.) and harpacticoid copepod basibionts. In addition, Trophogemma colantonii n. sp. colonizing the abdomen and legs of the harpacticoid copepod Stenhelia sp. is described. The new species differs from the relative species for the less flattened cell body, the absence of both lateral bundles of tentacles and separate lateral tentacles as well as for the presence of longitudinal ribs along the cuticle. The data obtained in this survey give not only new important information on the taxonomy and distribution of Suctorea, but also new insights on their relationship with meiofaunal organisms in one of the most diverse and productive marine micro-habitat of carbonate sediments.


Assuntos
Cilióforos , Adenofórios , Animais , Copépodes , Ecossistema , Nematoides
7.
Biodivers Data J ; (3): e5800, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26379467

RESUMO

Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. Gastrotricha are a meiobenthic phylum composed of 813 species known so far (2 orders, 17 families) of free-living microinvertebrates commonly present and actively moving on and into sediments of aquatic ecosystems, 339 of which live in fresh and brackish waters. The Fauna Europaea database includes 214 species of Chaetonotida (4 families) plus a single species of Macrodasyida incertae sedis. This paper deals with the 224 European freshwater species known so far, 9 of which, all of Chaetonotida, have been described subsequently and will be included in the next database version. Basic information on their biology and ecology are summarized, and a list of selected, main references is given. As a general conclusion the gastrotrich fauna from Europe is the best known compared with that of other continents, but shows some important gaps of knowledge in Eastern and Southern regions.

8.
PLoS One ; 6(5): e19639, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21625556

RESUMO

Unraveling animal life cycles and embryonic development is basic to understanding animal biology and often sheds light on phylogenetic relationships. A key group for understanding the evolution of the Metazoa is the early branching phylum Placozoa, which has attracted rapidly increasing attention. Despite over a hundred years of placozoan research the life cycle of this enigmatic phylum remains unknown. Placozoa are a unique model system for which the nuclear genome was published before the basic biology (i.e. life cycle and development) has been unraveled. Four organismal studies have reported the development of oocytes and one genetic study has nourished the hypothesis of sexual reproduction in natural populations at least in the past. Here we report new observations on sexual reproduction and embryonic development in the Placozoa and support the hypothesis of current sexual reproduction. The regular observation of oocytes and expressed sperm markers provide support that placozoans reproduce sexually in the field. Using whole genome and EST sequences and additional cDNA cloning we identified five conserved sperm markers, characteristic for different stages in spermatogenesis. We also report details on the embryonic development up to a 128-cell stage and new ultrastructural features occurring during early development. These results suggest that sperm and oocyte generation and maturation occur in different placozoans and that clonal lineages reproduce bisexually in addition to the standard mode of vegetative reproduction. The sum of observations is best congruent with the hypothesis of a simple life cycle with an alternation of reproductive modes between bisexual and vegetative reproduction.


Assuntos
Linhagem da Célula , Embrião não Mamífero/citologia , Evolução Molecular , Oócitos/citologia , Placozoa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Placozoa/metabolismo , Reprodução/fisiologia , Animais , Placozoa/embriologia , Proteínas de Plasma Seminal/metabolismo , Espermatogênese
9.
J Morphol ; 272(3): 371-8, 2011 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21246596

RESUMO

The morphology and ultrastructure of 10 clonal placozoan lineages were studied. We scored several morphological characters at a cellular and intracellular level and identified a number of morphological differences among clones. Some differences appear clone specific and allow recognizing five distinct lineages based on morphological criteria only. These data will be crucial for a yet to be established placozoan systematics. Furthermore, we here describe three new diagnostic morphological characters for Placozoa: a new structure in the upper epithelium, called "concave disc," two distinct subpopulations of fiber cells, and especially small cells in the body margin. Besides the fiber cells appear to be arranged in several layers forming a complex, three-dimensional net not previously described. We also describe the marginal cells as the formerly suggested potential stem-cell type. The basic morphology is revised.


Assuntos
Placozoa/anatomia & histologia , Placozoa/ultraestrutura , Animais , Epitélio/anatomia & histologia , Epitélio/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Eletrônica , Placozoa/classificação
10.
Cerebellum ; 2(3): 178-83, 2003.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14509567

RESUMO

This review describes the variation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity in the main neurons of the molecular and granular layers as well as in the deep nuclei of the cerebellum as observed so far by optical and electron microscopy studies. Light microscopy and semiquantitative microphotometry of histochemical staining showed that the highest G6PD activity was expressed by Purkinje cells and neurons of the deep cerebellar nuclei; the elements of the molecular layer showed a diffuse G6PD staining, while the granular layer displayed only scattered G6PD activity. Electron microscopy analysis showed that the basket and stellate cells, as well as the Golgi cells, have a remarkable G6PD activity, while in the granule cells the enzyme was barely detectable. The results show that cerebellar G6PD activity changes with different neuron types as a function of its role in sustaining NADPH dependent pathways in these cells.


Assuntos
Cerebelo/metabolismo , Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/biossíntese , NADP/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Animais , Cerebelo/citologia , Cerebelo/enzimologia , Humanos , Microscopia/métodos , Neurônios/enzimologia
11.
Exp Toxicol Pathol ; 54(3): 211-6, 2002 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12484558

RESUMO

Thiocolchicine is a colchicine-derivative used in the therapy of some diseases and extensively studied in the field of oncological research as antimitotic agent. Here we studied the activity of thiocolchicine on the cytoskeleton of the peroneus nerve, performing a histological and ultrastructural analysis. We observed a decrease in mean myelinated fiber area in thiocolchicine-treated rats in comparison to controls; this was due to a decrease in mean axoplasm area, while myelin thickness was constant. In the ultrastructural analysis a decrease in microtubule density and an increase in neurofilaments were found; moreover, the myelinated fibers seemed to be more affected in comparison to the unmyelinated axons. These findings are in agreement with the capability of binding to microtubule skeleton shared by all the colchicinoids.


Assuntos
Axônios/ultraestrutura , Colchicina/análogos & derivados , Colchicina/farmacologia , Citoesqueleto/ultraestrutura , Nervo Fibular/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Masculino , Microtúbulos/ultraestrutura , Bainha de Mielina/ultraestrutura , Nervo Fibular/ultraestrutura , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
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